Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier, known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology". Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. Cuvier's work is considered the foundation of vertebrate paleontology, he expanded Linnaean taxonomy by grouping classes into phyla and incorporating both fossils and living species into the classification. Cuvier is known for establishing extinction as a fact—at the time, extinction was considered by many of Cuvier's contemporaries to be controversial speculation. In his Essay on the Theory of the Earth Cuvier proposed that now-extinct species had been wiped out by periodic catastrophic flooding events. In this way, Cuvier became the most influential proponent of catastrophism in geology in the early 19th century.
His study of the strata of the Paris basin with Alexandre Brongniart established the basic principles of biostratigraphy. Among his other accomplishments, Cuvier established that elephant-like bones found in the USA belonged to an extinct animal he would name as a mastodon, that a large skeleton dug up in Paraguay was of Megatherium, a giant, prehistoric ground sloth, he named the pterosaur Pterodactylus, described the aquatic reptile Mosasaurus, was one of the first people to suggest the earth had been dominated by reptiles, rather than mammals, in prehistoric times. Cuvier is remembered for opposing theories of evolution, which at the time were proposed by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Cuvier believed there was no evidence for evolution, but rather evidence for cyclical creations and destructions of life forms by global extinction events such as deluges. In 1830, Cuvier and Geoffroy engaged in a famous debate, said to exemplify the two major deviations in biological thinking at the time – whether animal structure was due to function or morphology.
Cuvier rejected Lamarck's thinking. His most famous work is Le Règne Animal. In 1819, he was created a peer for life in honor of his scientific contributions. Thereafter, he was known as Baron Cuvier, he died in Paris during an epidemic of cholera. Some of Cuvier's most influential followers were Louis Agassiz on the continent and in the United States, Richard Owen in Britain, his name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. Cuvier was born in Montbéliard, where his Protestant ancestors had lived since the time of the Reformation, his mother was Anne Clémence Chatel. At the time, the town, annexed to France on 10 October 1793, belonged to the Duchy of Württemberg, his mother, much younger than his father, tutored him diligently throughout his early years, so he surpassed the other children at school. During his gymnasium years, he had little trouble acquiring Latin and Greek, was always at the head of his class in mathematics and geography. According to Lee, "The history of mankind was, from the earliest period of his life, a subject of the most indefatigable application.
At the age of 10, soon after entering the gymnasium, he encountered a copy of Conrad Gessner's Historiae Animalium, the work that first sparked his interest in natural history. He began frequent visits to the home of a relative, where he could borrow volumes of the Comte de Buffon's massive Histoire Naturelle. All of these he read and reread, retaining so much of the information, that by the age of 12, "he was as familiar with quadrupeds and birds as a first-rate naturalist." He remained at the gymnasium for four years. Cuvier spent an additional four years at the Caroline Academy in Stuttgart, where he excelled in all of his coursework. Although he knew no German on his arrival, after only nine months of study, he managed to win the school prize for that language. Cuvier's German education exposed him to the work of the geologist Abraham Gottlob Werner, whose Neptunism and emphasis on the importance of rigorous, direct observation of three-dimensional, structural relationships of rock formations to geological understanding provided models for Cuvier's scientific theories and methods.
Upon graduation, he had no money on. So in July 1788, he took a job at Fiquainville chateau in Normandy as tutor to the only son of the Comte d'Héricy, a Protestant noble. There, during the early 1790s, he began his comparisons of fossils with extant forms. Cuvier attended meetings held at the nearby town of Valmont for the discussion of agricultural topics. There, he became acquainted with Henri Alexandre Tessier, he had been a physician and well-known agronomist, who had fled the Terror in Paris. After hearing Tessier speak on agricultural matters, Cuvier recognized him as the author of certain articles on agriculture in the Encyclopédie Méthodique and addressed him as M. Tessier. Tessier replied in dismay, "I am known and lost."—"Lost!" Replied M. Cuvier, "no, they soon became intimate and Tessier introduced Cuvier to his colleagues in Paris—"I have just found a pearl in the dungh
Hydrolycus is a genus of large dogtooth characins from tropical South America, where found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, as well as rivers of the Guianas. The genus includes the largest dogtooth characins, they have long, pointed teeth used for spearing their prey smaller fish. In a study of the stomachs of 45 individuals, most were empty, but among the remaining the prey fish were 15–50% of the length Hydrolycus itself. In 1999 two species were described, the first in this genus in 158 years. There are four described species. Hydrolycus armatus Hydrolycus scomberoides Hydrolycus tatauaia Toledo-Piza, Menezes & dos Santos, 1999 Hydrolycus wallacei Toledo-Piza, Menezes & dos Santos, 1999
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes. The ray-finned fishes are so called because their fins are webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines, as opposed to the fleshy, lobed fins that characterize the class Sarcopterygii; these actinopterygian fin rays attach directly to the proximal or basal skeletal elements, the radials, which represent the link or connection between these fins and the internal skeleton. Numerically, actinopterygians are the dominant class of vertebrates, comprising nearly 99% of the over 30,000 species of fish, they are ubiquitous throughout freshwater and marine environments from the deep sea to the highest mountain streams. Extant species can range in size from Paedocypris, at 8 mm, to the massive ocean sunfish, at 2,300 kg, the long-bodied oarfish, at 11 m. Ray-finned fishes occur in many variant forms; the main features of a typical ray-finned fish are shown in the adjacent diagram. In nearly all ray-finned fish, the sexes are separate, in most species the females spawn eggs that are fertilized externally with the male inseminating the eggs after they are laid.
Development proceeds with a free-swimming larval stage. However other patterns of ontogeny exist, with one of the commonest being sequential hermaphroditism. In most cases this involves protogyny, fish starting life as females and converting to males at some stage, triggered by some internal or external factor. Protandry, where a fish converts from male to female, is much less common than protogyny. Most families use external rather than internal fertilization. Of the oviparous teleosts, most do not provide parental care. Viviparity, ovoviviparity, or some form of parental care for eggs, whether by the male, the female, or both parents is seen in a significant fraction of the 422 teleost families. Viviparity is rare and is found in about 6% of teleost species. Male territoriality "preadapts" a species for evolving male parental care. There are a few examples of fish; the mangrove rivulus is an amphibious, simultaneous hermaphrodite, producing both eggs and spawn and having internal fertilisation.
This mode of reproduction may be related to the fish's habit of spending long periods out of water in the mangrove forests it inhabits. Males are produced at temperatures below 19 °C and can fertilise eggs that are spawned by the female; this maintains genetic variability in a species, otherwise inbred. The earliest known fossil actinopterygiian is Andreolepis hedei. Remains have been found in Russia and Estonia. Actinopterygians are divided into the subclasses Neopterygii; the Neopterygii, in turn, are divided into the infraclasses Teleostei. During the Mesozoic and Cenozoic the teleosts in particular diversified and as a result, 96% of all known fish species are teleosts; the cladogram shows the major groups of actinopterygians and their relationship to the terrestrial vertebrates that evolved from a related group of fish. Approximate dates are from al.. 2012. The polypterids are the sister lineage of all other actinopterygians, the Acipenseriformes are the sister lineage of Neopterygii, Holostei are the sister lineage of teleosts.
The Elopomorpha appears to be the most basic teleosts. The listing below follows Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes with notes when this differs from Nelson, ITIS and FishBase and extinct groups from Van der Laan 2016. Order †? Asarotiformes Schaeffer 1968 Order †? Discordichthyiformes Minikh 1998 Order †? Paphosisciformes Grogan & Lund 2015 Order †? Scanilepiformes Selezneya 1985 Order †Cheirolepidiformes Kazantseva-Selezneva 1977 Order †Paramblypteriformes Heyler 1969 Order †Rhadinichthyiformes Order †Palaeonisciformes Hay 1902 Order †Tarrasiiformes sensu Lund & Poplin 2002 Order †Ptycholepiformes Andrews et al. 1967 Order †Redfieldiiformes Berg 1940 Order †Haplolepidiformes Westoll 1944 Order †Aeduelliformes Heyler 1969 Order †Platysomiformes Aldinger 1937 Order †Dorypteriformes Cope 1871 Order †Eurynotiformes Sallan & Coates 2013 Subclass Cladistii Pander 1860 Order †Guildayichthyiformes Lund 2000 Order Polypteriformes Bleeker 1859 Clade Actinopteri Cope 1972 s.s. Order †Elonichthyiformes Kazantseva-Selezneva 1977 Order †Phanerorhynchiformes Order †Saurichthyiformes Berg 1937 Subclass Chondrostei Order †Birgeriiformes Jin 2001 Order †Chondrosteiformes Order Acipenseriformes Berg 1940 Subclass Neopterygii Regan 1923 sensu Xu & Wu 2012 Order †Pholidopleuriformes Berg 1937 Order †Peltopleuriformes Lehman 1966 Order †Perleidiformes Berg 1937 Order †Luganoiiformes Lehman 1958 Order †Pycnodontiformes Berg 1937 Infraclass Holostei Muller 1844 Division Halecomorpha Cope 1872 sensu Grande & Bemis 1998 Order †Parasemionotiformes Lehman 1966 Order †Ionoscopiformes Grande & Bemis 1998 Order Amiiformes Huxley 1861 sensu Grande & Bemis 1998 Division Ginglymodi Cope 1871 Order †Dapediiformes Thies & Waschkewitz 2015 Order †Semionotiformes Arambourg & Bertin 1958 Order Lepisosteiformes Hay 1929 Clade Teleosteomorpha Arratia 2000 sensu Arratia 2013 Order †Prohaleciteiformes Arratia 2017 Division Aspidorhynchei Nelson, Grand & Wilson 2016 Order †Aspidorhynchiformes Bleeker 1859 Order †Pachycormiformes Berg 1937 Infraclass Teleostei Müller 1844 sensu Arratia 2013 Order †?
Araripichthyiformes Order †? Ligulelliiformes Taverne 2011 Order †? Tselfatiiformes Nelson 1994 Order †Pholidophori
The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 6,300,000 km2, or about 35.5 percent that of the South American continent. It is located in the countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest known as Amazonia. With a 5,500,000 km2 area of dense tropical forest, this is the largest rainforest in the world; the Amazon River begins in the Andes Mountains at the west of the basin with its main tributary the Marañón River in Peru. The highest point in the watershed of the Amazon is the peak of Yerupajá at 6,635 metres. With a length of about 6,400 km before it drains into the Atlantic Ocean, it is one of the two longest rivers in the world; the Amazon system transports the largest volume of water of any river system, accounting for about 20% of the total water carried to the oceans by rivers. Some of the Amazon rainforests are deforested because of the increasing of cattle ranches and soy beans field.
The Amazon basin flowed west to Pacific Ocean until the Andes formed, causing the basin to flow eastward towards the Atlantic Ocean. Politically the basin is divided into the Brazilian Amazônia Legal, the Peruvian Amazon, the Amazon region of Colombia and parts of Bolivia and the Venezuelan state of Amazonas. Plant growth is dense and its variety of animal inhabitants is comparatively high due to the heavy rainfall and the dense and extensive evergreen and coniferous forests. Little sunlight reaches the ground due to the dense roof canopy by plants; the ground remains dark and damp and only shade tolerant vegetation will grow here. Orchids and bromeliads exploit other plants to get closer to the sunlight, they grow hanging onto the branches or tree trunks with aerial roots, not as parasites but as epiphytes. Species of tropical trees native to the Amazon include rubber tree and Assai palm. More than 1,400 species of mammals are found in the Amazon, the majority of which are species of bats and rodents.
Its larger mammals include the jaguar, ocelot and South American tapir. About 1500 bird species inhabit the Amazon Basin; the biodiversity of the Amazon and the sheer number of diverse bird species is given by the number of different bird families that reside in these humid forests. An example of such would be the cotinga family. Birds such as toucans, hummingbirds are found here. Macaws are famous for gathering by the hundreds along the clay cliffs of the Amazon River. In the western Amazon hundreds of macaws and other parrots descend to exposed river banks to consume clay on an daily basis, the exception being rainy days; the green anaconda inhabits the shallow waters of the Amazon and the emerald tree boa and boa constrictor live in the Amazonian tree tops. Many reptiles species are illegally exported for the international pet trade. Live animals are the fourth largest commodity in the smuggling industry after drugs and weapons. More than 1,500 species of amphibians are found in the Amazon. Unlike temperate frogs which are limited to habitats near the water, tropical frogs are most abundant in the trees and few are found near bodies of water on the forest floor.
The reason for this occurrence is quite simple: frogs must always keep their skin moist since half of their respiration is carried out through their skin. The high humidity of the rainforest and frequent rainstorms gives tropical frogs infinitely more freedom to move into the trees and escape the many predators of rainforest waters; the differences between temperate and tropical frogs extend beyond their habitat. About 2,500 fish species are known from the Amazon basin and it is estimated that more than 1,000 additional undescribed species exist; this is more than any other river basin on Earth, Amazonia is the center of diversity for Neotropical fishes. About 45% of the known Amazonian fish species are endemic to the basin; the remarkable species richness can in part be explained by the large differences between the various parts of the Amazon basin, resulting in many fish species that are endemic to small regions. For example, fauna in clearwater rivers differs from fauna in white and blackwater rivers, fauna in slow moving sections show distinct differences compared to that in rapids, fauna in small streams differ from that in major rivers, fauna in shallow sections show distinct differences compared to that in deep parts.
By far the most diverse orders in the Amazon are Characiformes and Siluriformes, but other groups with many species include Cichlidae and Gymnotiformes. In addition to major differences in behavior and ecology, Amazonian fish vary extensively in form and size; the largest, the arapaima and piraiba can reach 3 m or more in length and up to 200 kg in weight, making them some of the largest strict freshwater fish in the world. The bull shark and common sawfish, which have been recorded far up the Amazon, may reach greater sizes, but they are euryhaline and seen in marine waters. In contrast to the giants, there are Amazonian fish from several families that are less than 2 cm long; the smallest are the Leptophilypnion sleeper gobies, which do not surpass 1 cm and are among the smallest fish in the world. The Amazon supports large fisheries, including well-known species of large catfish (such as Brachyplatystoma, which perform l
The operculum is a series of bones found in bony fish that serves as a facial support structure and a protective covering for the gills. The opercular series contains four bone segments known as the preoperculum, suboperculum and operculum; the preoperculum is a crescent-shaped structure that has a series of ridges directed posterodorsally to the organisms canal pores. The preoperculum can be located through an exposed condyle, present under its ventral margin; the suboperculum is rectangular in shape in most bony fishy and is located ventral to the preoperculum and operculum components. It is located directly above the gills; the interoperculum is triangular shaped and borders the suboperculum posterodorsally and the preoperculum anterodorsally. This bone is known to be short on the dorsal and ventral surrounding borders. During development the opercular series is known to be one of the first bone structures to form. In the three-spined stickleback the opercular series is seen forming at around seven days after fertilization.
Within hours the formation of the shape is visible and the individual components are developed days later. The size and shape of the operculum bone is dependent on the organism's location. For example, fresh water threespine sticklebacks form a less dense and smaller opercular series in relation to marine threespine sticklebacks; the marine threespine stickleback exhibits a larger and thicker opercular series. This provides evidence; the thicker and more dense bone may have been favored due to selective pressures exerted from the threespine stickleback's environment. The development of the operculuar series has changed over time; the fossil record of the threespine stickleback provide the ancestral shapes of the operculum bone. Overall, the operculum bone became more triangular in thicker in size over time. Genes that are essential in the development of the opercular series is the Pitx1 genes; these genes are known to be a part of the loss of armor plates in gnathostomes. The Endothelin1 pathway is thought to be associated with the development of the operculum bone since it regulates dorsal-ventral patterning of the hyomandibular region.
Mutations in Edn1-pathway in zebrafish are known to lead to deformities of the opercular series shape and size. The opercular series is vital in obtaining oxygen, they open. Water flows towards the lower pressure across the fish's gill lamellae, allowing some oxygen to be absorbed from the water. In cartilaginous ratfishes, they present flexible opercular flaps. Sharks and relatives such as elasmobranch fishes lack the opercular series, they instead respire through a series of gill slits. Without the operculum bone, other methods of getting water to the gills are required, such as ventilation.. Hyomandibula
FishBase is a global species database of fish species. It is the most extensively accessed online database on adult finfish on the web. Over time it has "evolved into a dynamic and versatile ecological tool", cited in scholarly publications. FishBase provides comprehensive species data, including information on taxonomy, geographical distribution and morphology, behaviour and habitats and population dynamics as well as reproductive and genetic data. There is access to tools such as trophic pyramids, identification keys, biogeographical modelling and fishery statistics and there are direct species level links to information in other databases such as LarvalBase, GenBank, the IUCN Red List and the Catalog of Fishes; as of November 2018, FishBase included descriptions of 34,000 species and subspecies, 323,200 common names in 300 languages, 58,900 pictures, references to 55,300 works in the scientific literature. The site has about 700,000 unique visitors per month; the origins of FishBase go back to the 1970s, when the fisheries scientist Daniel Pauly found himself struggling to test a hypothesis on how the growing ability of fish was affected by the size of their gills.
Hypotheses, such as this one, could be tested only if large amounts of empirical data were available. At the time, fisheries management used analytical models which required estimates for fish growth and mortality, it can be difficult for fishery scientists and managers to get the information they need on the species that concern them, because the relevant facts can be scattered across and buried in numerous journal articles, reports and other sources. It can be difficult for people in developing countries who need such information. Pauly believed that the only practical way fisheries managers could access the volume of data they needed was to assemble and consolidate all the data available in the published literature into some central and accessed repository; such a database would be useful if the data has been standardised and validated. This would mean that when scientists or managers need to test a new hypothesis, the available data will be there in a validated and accessible form, there will be no need to create a new dataset and have to validate it.
Pauly recruited Rainer Froese, the beginnings of a software database along these lines was encoded in 1988. This database confined to tropical fish, became the prototype for FishBase. FishBase was subsequently extended to cover all finfish, was launched on the Web in August 1996, it is now the most accessed online database for fish in the world. In 1995 the first CD-ROM was released as "FishBase 100". Subsequent CDs have been released annually; the software runs on Microsoft Access. FishBase does not detail the early and juvenile stages of fish. In 1999 a complimentary database, called LarvalBase, went online under the supervision of Bernd Ueberschär, it covers ichthyoplankton and the juvenile stage of fishes, with detailed data on fish eggs and larvae, fish identification, as well as data relevant to the rearing of young fish in aquaculture. Given FishBase's success, there was a demand for a database covering forms of aquatic life other than finfish; this resulted, in the birth of SeaLifeBase. The long-term goal of SeaLifeBase is to develop an information system modelled on FishBase, but including all forms of aquatic life, both marine and freshwater, apart from the finfish which FishBase specialises in.
Altogether, there are about 300,000 known species in this category. As awareness of FishBase has grown among fish specialists, it has attracted over 2,310 contributors and collaborators. Since 2000 FishBase has been supervised by a consortium of nine international institutions. To date, the FishBase consortium has grown to twelve members; the GEOMAR - Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research for Ocean Research Kiel in Germany, functions as the coordinating body. Catalog of Fishes List of online encyclopedias Bailly N Why there may be discrepancies in the assessment of scientific names between the Catalog of Fishes and FishBase Version 2, 6 May 2010. Bailly N, Reyes Jr R, Atanacio R and Froese R "Simple Identification Tools in FishBase" In: Nimis PL and Vignes Lebbe R. Tools for Identifying Biodiversity: Progress and Problems, pages 31–36. ISBN 978-88-8303-295-0. Christensen V, CJ Walters, R Ahrens, J Alder, J Buszowski, LB Christensen, WWL Cheung, J Dunne, R Froese, V Karpouzi, K Kaschner, K Kearney, S Lai, V Lam, MLD Palomares, A Peters-Mason, C Piroddia, JL Sarmiento, J Steenbeek, R Sumaila, R Watson, D Zeller and D Pauly Database-driven models of the world's Large Marine Ecosystems Ecological Modelling, 220: 1984–1996.
Froese R "The science in Fishbase" In: Villy Christensen and Jay Maclean Ecosystem Approaches to Fisheries: A Global Perspective, Cambridge University Press, pages 47–54. ISBN 978-0-521-13022-6. Froese R and Pauly D FishBase 2000: concepts and data sources ICLARM, Philippines. Froese R and Pauly D "Fishbase as a tool for comparing the life history patterns of flatfish" Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 32: 235–239. Nauen CE A public electronic archive on the world’s fishes in support of sustainable fisheries CTA/Commonwealth Secretariat Seminar, Expert Meeting on ACP-EU Fisheries Relations, Brussels. Palomares, M. L. D. N. Bailly and D. Pauly FishBase, SeaLifeBase and database-driven ecosystem modeling p. 156-158. In: M. L. D. Palomares, L. Morissette, A. Cisnero-Montemayor, D. Varkey, M. Coll and C. Piroddi Ecopath 25 Years Conference Proceedings: Extended Abstracts. UBC Fisheries Centre Resear