Edamalayar or Idamalayar is one of the major tributaries of the Periyar River, the longest river in Kerala state south India. Idamalayar Dam is situated in this river. Periyar River - Main river Muthirapuzha River Mullayar Cheruthoni Perinjankutti
Iruvazhanjippuzha, or Iruvanjipuzha, is a major tributary of River Chaliyar and joining to Chaliyar at Koolimadu near Cheruvadi. Its major tributary is Chalippuzha. Other tributaries are Muthappanpuzha and Karamoola river; the famous Thusharagiri waterfall is in the Chalippuzha river. The villages of Anakkampoyil, Mukkam, Kodiyathur and Cheruvadi are on the banks of this river. Naadan Premam, a major romantic novel written by legendary writer S. K. Pottekkatt, is set in the backdrops of Iruvanjippuzha
Panathur is a major town in Vellarikundu Taluk of Kasaragod district, state of Kerala. It belongs to Kanhangad legislative constituency, its population is about 12,000. It lies 1 km away from Kerala - Karnataka border, 42 km away from the nearest municipality, Kanhangad and 70 km away from the district head quarters, Kasaragod, it is surrounded from 3 sides by forest reserves and cashew plantations. Kudumbur river flows adjacent to the town. Panathur Town is Surrounded of hills and forest reserves; the Talakaveri is Located 37km eastwards from Panathur. It is the most wonderful Hill Station in the district of Coorg. Ranipuram Hill station is near to Panathur Town. Ranipuram is full of Forests. Panathur has a number of educational institutions. In Panathur there are six schools. One among these is a government school and others are private. One school is under a church in Panathur and one is under a masjid in Panathur, and there are so many tuition centres in Panathur. Sree Dharmasastha temple is a Hindu temple situated in Panathur.
This temple has many old stories. Many people from different places come to worship here. Panathur Juma Masjid is a place of worship for Muslims, was built in hijra* 123. There are two masjids situated in Panathur. One is Town Masjid situated in Panathur town and another is Juma Masjid, situated in Pallikkal, Panathur. In Juma Masjid there is a Makham having four shuhada; every year there is a big "ഉറൂസ്" festival done here. There is a school under this masjid; the Christian church named Saint Mary is located in Panathur and is a centre of worship for Christians. There is a kindergarten managed by the church. Panathur is able to connect with Karnataka state by 2 major roads, Kanhangad -panathur -madikeri highway and Panathur- sullia interstate road. KSRTC and private buses provide routes to Kanhangad, Mangalore, Bangalore and Kottayam; the Nearest Railway Station is Kanhangad on Mangalore-Palakkad Line. The Nearest Airport is Mangalore International Airport in North and Kannur International Airport in South
Cheruthoni is a town on the Cheruthoni River, a major tributary of the Periyar River, the second longest river in Kerala state, South India. The area is known by Cheruthoni Dam, a part of Idukki reservoir, which provide hydroelectric power to the region; the town is adjacent to the Cheruthoni dam. These dams, along with the Kulamavu Dam, form the Idukki Reservoir. Cheruthoni is part of Vazhathope Panchayat, in the Idukki District. Other villages adjacent to Cheruthoni include Vazhathope, Karimban, Maniyarankudi, Peppara and Painavu. Following a famine in the 1940s, the government allowed farmers to migrate to unoccupied arable lands in the mountains, where they cleared the land for agriculture; the region was identified as an ideal spot for a hydroelectric project. The Hindustan Construction Company was contracted to build the dams on behalf of the Kerala State Electricity Board. At this point, Cheruthoni began to grow. During the 1960s, a majority of the people living in Cheruthoni were not Keralites, but Sikhs from Punjab and manual laborers from neighbouring Tamil Nadu
Kallayi is one of the rivers in Kerala, India. It is 40 km long, it is linked to the Chaliyar by a man-made canal on the south side of the small timber village of Kallayi lying on its banks. The Kallayi was known for its timber businesses, its basin is located in the Kozhikode district
In animal anatomy, the mouth known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds. It is the cavity lying at the upper end of the alimentary canal, bounded on the outside by the lips and inside by the pharynx and containing in higher vertebrates the tongue and teeth; this cavity is known as the buccal cavity, from the Latin bucca. Some animal phyla, including vertebrates, have a complete digestive system, with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. Which end forms first in ontogeny is a criterion used to classify animals into protostomes and deuterostomes. In the first multicellular animals, there was no mouth or gut and food particles were engulfed by the cells on the exterior surface by a process known as endocytosis; the particles became enclosed in vacuoles into which enzymes were secreted and digestion took place intracellularly. The digestive products were diffused into other cells; this form of digestion is used nowadays by simple organisms such as Amoeba and Paramecium and by sponges which, despite their large size, have no mouth or gut and capture their food by endocytosis.
The vast majority of other multicellular organisms have a mouth and a gut, the lining of, continuous with the epithelial cells on the surface of the body. A few animals which live parasitically had guts but have secondarily lost these structures; the original gut of multicellular organisms consisted of a simple sac with a single opening, the mouth. Many modern invertebrates have such a system, food being ingested through the mouth broken down by enzymes secreted in the gut, the resulting particles engulfed by the other cells in the gut lining. Indigestible waste is ejected through the mouth. In animals at least as complex as an earthworm, the embryo forms a dent on one side, the blastopore, which deepens to become the archenteron, the first phase in the formation of the gut. In deuterostomes, the blastopore becomes the anus while the gut tunnels through to make another opening, which forms the mouth. In the protostomes, it used to be thought that the blastopore formed the mouth while the anus formed as an opening made by the other end of the gut.
More recent research, shows that in protostomes the edges of the slit-like blastopore close up in the middle, leaving openings at both ends that become the mouth and anus. Apart from sponges and placozoans all animals have an internal gut cavity, lined with gastrodermal cells. In less advanced invertebrates such as the sea anemone, the mouth acts as an anus. Circular muscles around the mouth are able to contract in order to open or close it. A fringe of tentacles thrusts food into the cavity and it can gape enough to accommodate large prey items. Food passes first into a pharynx and digestion occurs extracellularly in the gastrovascular cavity. Annelids have simple tube-like gets and the possession of an anus allows them to separate the digestion of their foodstuffs from the absorption of the nutrients. Many molluscs have a radula, used to scrape microscopic particles off surfaces. In invertebrates with hard exoskeletons, various mouthparts may be involved in feeding behaviour. Insects have a range of mouthparts suited to their mode of feeding.
These include mandibles and labium and can be modified into suitable appendages for chewing, piercing and sucking. Decapods have six pairs of mouth appendages, one pair of mandibles, two pairs of maxillae and three of maxillipeds. Sea urchins have a set of five sharp calcareous plates which are used as jaws and are known as Aristotle's lantern. In vertebrates, the first part of the digestive system is the buccal cavity known as the mouth; the buccal cavity of a fish is separated from the opercular cavity by the gills. Water flows in through passes over the gills and exits via the operculum or gill slits. Nearly all fish have jaws and may seize food with them but most feed by opening their jaws, expanding their pharynx and sucking in food items; the food may be held or chewed by teeth located in the jaws, on the roof of the mouth, on the pharynx or on the gill arches. Nearly all amphibians are carnivorous as adults. Many catch their prey by flicking out an elongated tongue with a sticky tip and drawing it back into the mouth where they hold the prey with their jaws.
They swallow their food whole without much chewing. They have many small hinged pedicellate teeth, the bases of which are attached to the jaws while the crowns break off at intervals and are replaced. Most amphibians have one or two rows of teeth in both jaws but some frogs lack teeth in the lower jaw. In many amphibians there are vomerine teeth attached to the bone in the roof of the mouth; the mouths of reptiles are similar to those of mammals. The crocodilians are the only reptiles to have teeth anchored in sockets in their jaws, they are able to replace each of their 80 teeth up to 50 times during their lives. Most reptiles are either carnivorous or insectivorous but turtles are herbivorous. Lacking teeth that are suitable for efficiently chewing of their food, turtles have gastroliths in their stomach to further grind the plant material. Snakes have a flexible lower jaw, the two halves of which are not rigidly attached, numerous other joints in their skull; these modifications allow them to open their mouths wide enough to swallow their prey whole if it is wider than they are.
Birds do not have teeth, macerating their food. Their beaks have a range of sizes and shapes according to their diet and are compose
The Kabini called Kapila, is one of the major tributaries of the river Cauvery in southern India. It originates in the Wayanad District of Kerala state by the confluence of the Panamaram River and the Mananthavady River, it flows eastward to join the Kaveri River at Tirumakudalu Narasipura in Karnataka. Close to the town of Sargur it forms the huge Kabini Reservoir; the backwaters of the Kabini reservoir are rich in wildlife in summer when the water level recedes to form rich grassy meadows. The Kabini dam is 2,284 ft in length with an original gross storage of 19.52 tmcft. The Kabini Dam is situated between villages Bichanahalli and Bidarahalli having distance of 17 km 6 km away from Sargur town in Heggadadevana kote taluk, Mysore district, Karnataka; the Kabini Forest Reserve is one of the most popular wildlife destinations of Karnataka because of its accessibility, lush green landscape surrounding a large lake, sightings of herds of elephants, tigers. It is 80 km away from Mysuru and 205 km from Bengaluru, comprises the south-eastern part of Nagarahole National Park.
Situated on the banks of the Kabini River, the reserve is spread over 55 acres of forestland, steep valleys, water bodies. Once a private hunting lodge of the Maharaja of Mysore, Kabini was a popular shikar hotspot for British Viceroys and Indian royalty. Now it is considered to be one of the best Wildlife National Parks in India, famous for its spectacular wildlife and bird life. There are around 120 tigers, 100+ leopards, Four types of deer, Sloth bear, Indian Gaurs and elephants in the Nagarahole National Park; the river originates in the Pakramthalam hills at Kuttiady-Mananthavady road. Makkiyad river and Periya river join it near Valad respectively. After flowing through Mananthavady town, Panamaram river joins Kabini near Payyampally. One branch of the Panamaram river starts from the Banasura Sagar reservoir near Padinjarethara and the other branch of the river start from Lakkidi hills. After traversing 2 kilometres from the confluence of Panamaram river Kabini forms an island called Kuruva Island, spreading over 520 acres with diverse flora and fauna.
Within 20 km it reaches the Kabini reservoir bordering Karnataka for some distance. Between Kabani reservoir and Kuruva island Kalindi river joins Kabini. Kalindi river originates from Brahmagiri hills which on reaching near Thirunelli Temple the rivulet Papanasini joins it. Taraka and Nugu are the two small rivers in Heggadadevana kote taluk; the Kabini dam is built on the River Kabini in the district of Mysore. The dam is 696 meters in length and was built in 1974; the exact location of the dam is in Taluk Heggadadevanakote. The catchment area of the dam is 2,141.90 km2. It caters to the needs of around 22 villages and 14 hamlets and a prominent source of drinking water to Bengaluru. Further significant amount of water is discharged to the Mettur reservoir in Tamilnadu to fulfill the state's needs; this dam provides water to the combined system of Sagaredoddakere and Upper Nugu Dams. There is an arrangement of lifting and transfer of 28.00 TMC of water during the monsoons months from the Kabini dam to the other two smaller dams.
The dam is spread over an area of 55 hectares covering forests, rivers and valleys