Peter Friedman is an American stage and television actor. Born in New York City, Friedman graduated from Hofstra University before making his Broadway debut in The Great God Brown in 1972. Friedman is Jewish. Friedman has appeared in thirteen Broadway productions, starting in 1972 with a revival of The Great God Brown, he appeared in a Broadway revival of The Visit as the Carpenter. He appeared in Piaf in 1981 on Broadway, A Soldier's Play Off-Broadway in 1981, he played the role of Humphrey Taylor in the Off-Broadway production of The Common Pursuit, from October 1986 to August 1987,receiving a nomination for the Drama Desk Award, Outstanding Featured Actor in a Play. In his review for The New York Times, Frank Rich commented "The always impressive Mr. Friedman, as the embittered Wagnerian...allow us to empathize with characters who might otherwise be obnoxious or colorless."He appeared in both the Off-Broadway and Broadway productions of The Heidi Chronicles in 1988 and 1989 in the role of Scoop Rosenbaum.
He received a nomination for the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Play for The Heidi Chronicles. He appeared Off-Broadway in the Manhattan Theatre Club production of the Donald Margulies play The Loman Family Picnic, from October 1993 to January 1994; the Best Plays of 1993-1994 commented "... Friedman inverting his usual dynamism to play the beleaguered father..."He played the role of Jewish immigrant "Tateh" in the musical Ragtime in the pre-Broadway tryout and on Broadway. He was nominated for the 1998 Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical and the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Musical for his role in Ragtime, he appeared on Broadway in the Roundabout Theatre Company production of Twelve Angry Men from October 2004 to March 2005. For his role as "Frank" in Body Awareness, which ran Off-Broadway in 2008, Friedman received a nomination for the Drama Desk Award, Outstanding Featured Actor in a Play; the talkinbroadway.com reviewer noted that "...
Friedman milks Frank’s own self-imposed, question-mark callousness for all it’s worth." He appeared in the Williamstown Theatre Festival production of Amy Herzog's After the Revolution in July and August 2010 as "Ben", reprised his role in the Off-Broadway production at Playwrights Horizons from October to November 2010. The New York Times reviewer wrote: "Mr. Friedman burrows into Ben’s anguish at being cut off by the daughter he raised to carry on the family tradition, the wound smarting all the more because he knows his own mistakes have caused the fissure."He played the role of "Doug" in the Off-Broadway play The Great God Pan from December 2012 to January 2013, received a nomination for the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Featured Actor in a Play. The New York Times reviewer commented: "The recollections of his parents, small roles incisively portrayed by the reliable Becky Ann Baker and Peter Friedman..." From August 2013 to September 2013 he played the role of "Meckel" in the Off-Broadway production of Lauren Yee's The Hatmaker's Wife.
Ben Brantley, in his review for The New York Times wrote: "Mr. Friedman brings unblushing good will and vivacity to assignments that include walking around with a clothespin on his nose..." On television, Friedman starred as George Silver in Brooklyn Bridge (1991-1993, has made numerous guest appearances in such series as Miami Vice, NYPD Blue, Without a Trace, Ghost Whisperer, The Affair and Damages, the miniseries Perfect Murder, Perfect Town: JonBenét and the City of Boulder. He appeared in a Law & Order episode titled "Attorney Client" as defense lawyer Harold Jensen, broadcast on May 8, 2002. Early in his career he performed in several episodes of The Muppet Show in its first and third seasons, spent a brief time on Sesame Street, he appears in the HBO series Succession. Friedman's many feature film credits include Prince of the City, The Seventh Sign, Single White Female, Blink, I'm Not Rappaport, I Shot Andy Warhol,Paycheck, The Savages, I'm Not There and Breaking Upwards. Of his role in Safe, the All Movie Guide reviewer wrote: Avid filmgoers and adherents to the indie film movement that swept through America in the early to mid-'90s will invariably remember Peter Friedman as the sneaky, New Age-espousing "self-help guru" who attempts to offer ailing Julianne Moore a hand up -- but only succeeds in draining her wallet -- in Todd Haynes' harrowing drama'Safe'.
In truth, that role represented just one of many memorable cinematic contributions for the prolific versatile character actor, whose resumé reads like a best-of list of both independent film and Hollywood product. In 1990, Friedman married Joan Allen. Though they divorced in 2002, they chose to live close to one another in order to share time with their daughter, Sadie. Peter Friedman at the Internet Broadway Database Peter Friedman at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Peter Friedman on IMDb
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.
Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.
Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.
The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City from the thirty-five-stor
Action film is a film genre in which the protagonist or protagonists are thrust into a series of challenges that include violence, extended fighting, physical feats, frantic chases. Action films tend to feature a resourceful hero struggling against incredible odds, which include life-threatening situations, a villain, or a pursuit which concludes in victory for the hero. Advancements in CGI have made it cheaper and easier to create action sequences and other visual effects that required the efforts of professional stunt crews in the past. However, reactions to action films containing significant amounts of CGI have been mixed, as films that use computer animations to create unrealistic unbelievable events are met with criticism. While action has long been a recurring component in films, the "action film" genre began to develop in the 1970s along with the increase of stunts and special effects. Common action scenes in films are but not limited to, car chases and gunplay or shootouts; this genre is associated with the thriller and adventure genres, they may contain elements of spy fiction.
Some historians consider The Great Train Robbery to be the first action film. During the 1920s and 1930s, action-based films were "swashbuckling" adventure films in which actors, such as Douglas Fairbanks, wielded swords in period pieces or Westerns. Indian action films in this era were known as stunt films; the 1940s and 1950s saw "action" in a new form through cowboy movies. Alfred Hitchcock ushered in the spy-adventure genre while establishing the use of action-oriented "set pieces" like the famous crop-duster scene and the Mount Rushmore finale in North by Northwest; the film, along with a war-adventure called The Guns of Navarone, inspired producers Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman to invest in their own spy-adventure, based on the novels of Ian Fleming; the long-running success of the James Bond films or series introduced a staple of the modern-day action film: the resourceful hero. Such larger-than-life characters were a veritable "one-man army"; such heroes are ready with one-liners and dry quips.
The Bond films used fast cutting, car chases, fist fights, a variety of weapons and gadgets, elaborate action sequences. Producer-Director John Sturges' 1963 film The Great Escape, featuring Allied prisoners of war attempting to escape a German POW camp during World War II, featuring future icons of the action genre including Steve McQueen and Charles Bronson, is an example of an action film prototype. During the 1970s, gritty detective stories and urban crime dramas began to evolve and fuse themselves with the new "action" style, leading to a string of maverick police officer films, such as Bullitt, The French Connection and The Seven-Ups. Dirty Harry lifted its star, Clint Eastwood, out of his cowboy typecasting, framed him as the archetypal hero of the urban action film. In many countries, restrictions on language, adult content, violence had loosened up, these elements became more widespread. In the 1970s, martial-arts films from Hong Kong became popular with Western audiences and inspired big budget films such as Bruce Lee's Enter the Dragon.
Chuck Norris blended martial arts with'cops and robbers' in films such as Good Guys Wear Black and A Force of One. From Japan, Sonny Chiba starred in his first martial arts movie in 1973 called the Karate Kiba, his breakthrough international hit was The Street Fighter series, which established him as the reigning Japanese martial arts actor in international cinema. He played the role of Mas Oyama in Champion of Death, Karate Bearfighter, Karate for Life. Chiba's action films were not only bounded by martial arts, but action thriller and science fiction. In the 1980s, Hollywood produced many big budget action blockbusters with actors such as Sylvester Stallone, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lorenzo Lamas, Michael Dudikoff, Charles Bronson and Bruce Willis. Steven Spielberg and George Lucas paid their homage to the Bond-inspired style with Raiders of the Lost Ark. In 1982, veteran actor Nick Nolte and rising comedian Eddie Murphy broke box office records with the action-comedy 48 Hrs. credited as the first "buddy-cop" movie.
That same year, Sylvester Stallone starred in First Blood, the first installment in the Rambo film series which made the character John Rambo a pop culture icon. 1984 saw the beginning of the Terminator franchise starring Linda Hamilton and Arnold Schwarzenegger. This story provides one of the grittiest roles for a woman in action and Hamilton was required to put in extensive effort to develop a strong physique.1987's Lethal Weapon starring Mel Gibson, Danny Glover, Darlene Love was another significant action film hit of the decade, another "buddy-cop" genre classic, launching a franchise that spawned 3 sequels. The 1988 film, Die Hard, was influential on the development of the action genre. In the film, Bruce Willis plays a New York police detective who inadvertently becomes embroiled in a terrorist take-over of a Los Angeles office building high-rise; the use of a maverick, resourceful lone hero has always been a common thread from James Bond to John Rambo, but John McClane in Die Hard is much more of an'everyday' person whom circumstance turns into a reluctant hero
A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior. A positive or negative prophecy held belief, or delusion—declared as truth when it is false—may sufficiently influence people so that their reactions fulfill the once-false prophecy. Self-fulfilling prophecy are effects in behavioral confirmation effect, in which behavior, influenced by expectations, causes those expectations to come true, it is complementary to the self-defeating prophecy. Examples of such prophecies can be found in literature as far back as ancient Greece and ancient India, it is 20th-century sociologist Robert K. Merton, credited with coining the expression "self-fulfilling prophecy" and formalizing its structure and consequences. In his 1948 article Self-Fulfilling Prophecy, Merton defines it in the following terms:The self-fulfilling prophecy is, in the beginning, a false definition of the situation evoking a new behavior which makes the original false conception come true.
This specious validity of the self-fulfilling prophecy perpetuates a reign of error. For the prophet will cite the actual course of events as proof that he was right from the beginning. Merton's concept of the self-fulfilling prophecy stems from the Thomas theorem, which states that "If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences". According to Thomas, people react not only to the situations they are in, but and primarily, to the way they perceive the situations and to the meaning they assign to their perceptions. Therefore, their behaviour is determined in part by their perception and the meaning they ascribe to the situations they are in, rather than by the situations themselves. Once people convince themselves that a situation has a certain meaning, regardless of whether it does, they will take real actions in consequence. Merton applied it to recent social phenomena. In his book Social Theory and Social Structure, he conceives of a bank run at the fictional Last National Bank, over which Cartwright Millingville presides.
It is a typical bank, Millingville has run it and quite properly. As a result, like all banks, it has some liquid assets, but most of its assets are invested in various ventures. One day, a large number of customers come to the bank at once—the exact reason is never made clear. Customers, seeing so many others at the bank, begin to worry. False rumours spread that something is wrong with the bank, more customers rush to the bank to try to get some of their money out while they still can; the number of customers at the bank increases, as does their annoyance and excitement, which in turn fuels the false rumours of the bank's insolvency and upcoming bankruptcy, causing more customers to come and try to withdraw their money. At the beginning of the day—the last one for Millingville's bank—the bank was not insolvent, but the rumour of insolvency caused a sudden demand of withdrawal of too many customers, which could not be answered, causing the bank to become insolvent and declare bankruptcy. Merton concludes this example with the following analysis: The parable tells us that public definitions of a situation become an integral part of the situation and thus affect subsequent developments.
This is peculiar to human affairs. It is not found in the world of nature, untouched by human hands. Predictions of the return of Halley's comet do not influence its orbit, but the rumoured insolvency of Millingville's bank did affect the actual outcome. The prophecy of collapse led to its own fulfilment. Merton concluded that the only way to break the cycle of self-fulfilling prophecy is by redefining the propositions on which its false assumptions are based. In economic "expectations models" of inflation, peoples' expectations of future inflation lead them to spend more today and demand higher nominal interest rates for any savings, since they expect that prices will be rising; this demand for higher nominal interest rates and increased spending in the present, in turn, create inflationary pressure and can cause inflation if the expectations of future inflation are unfounded. The expectations theory of inflation played a large role in Paul Volcker's actions during his tenure as the Chairman of the Federal Reserve in combating the "stagflation" of the 1970s.
Philosopher Karl Popper called the self-fulfilling prophecy the Oedipus effect: One of the ideas I had discussed in The Poverty of Historicism was the influence of a prediction upon the event predicted. I had called this the "Oedipus effect", because the oracle played a most important role in the sequence of events which led to the fulfilment of its prophecy. … For a time I thought that the existence of the Oedipus effect distinguished the social from the natural sciences. But in biology, too—even in molecular biology—expectations play a role in bringing about what has been expected. An early precursor of the concept appears in Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: "During many ages, the prediction, as it is usual, contributed to its own accomplishment". Examples abound in studies of the related self-perception theory. In the United States, the concept was broadly and applied in the field of public education reform, following the "War on Poverty". Theodore Brameld noted: "In simplest terms, education projects and thereby reinforces whatever habits of personal and cultural life are considered to be acceptable and dominant."
The effects of teacher attitudes, beli
A Mexican standoff is a confrontation in which no strategy exists that allows any party to achieve victory. As a result, all participants need to maintain the strategic tension, which remains unresolved until some outside event makes it possible to resolve it; the term Mexican standoff was used in the context of using firearms and today still implies a situation in which the parties face some form of threat from the other parties. The Mexican standoff is a recurring trope in cinema, in which several armed characters hold each other at gunpoint; the expression came into use during the last decade of the 19th century. Other sources claim the reference is to the Mexican–American War or post-war Mexican bandits in the 19th century; the earliest print cite to the phrase was 19 March 1876 in a short story about Mexico, an American being held up by a Mexican bandit, the outcome: "Go-!" said he sternly then. "We will call it a stand-off, a Mexican stand-off, you lose your money, but you save your life!"
In popular use, the term Mexican standoff is sometimes used in reference to confrontations in which neither opponent appears to have a measurable advantage. Commentators have used the term to reference the Soviet Union – United States nuclear confrontation during the Cold War the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962; the key element that makes such situations Mexican standoffs is the equality of power exercised among the involved parties. The inability of any particular party to advance its position safely is a condition common among all standoffs. In financial circles, the Mexican standoff is used to denote a situation where one side wants something, a concession of some sort, is offering nothing of value; when the other side sees no value in agreeing to any changes, they refuse to negotiate. Although both sides may benefit from the change, neither side can agree to adequate compensation for agreeing to the change, nothing is accomplished. A Mexican standoff where each party is pointing a gun at another is now considered a movie cliché, stemming from its frequent use as a plot device in cinema.
A famous example of the trope is in Sergio Leone's 1966 Western The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, where the titular characters played by Clint Eastwood, Lee Van Cleef and Eli Wallach face each other at gunpoint. The videogame Red Dead Redemption features a notable example between gamblers in Mexico. One of the participants makes a humorous nod to the trope, realizing the situation and claiming “There must be a name for this” to which the Lee Van Cleef-inspired character Dutch Van Der Linde replies “An impasse, sir. An impasse.” Director John Woo, considered a major influence on the action genre, is known for his chaotic action sequences, Mexican standoffs, frequent use of slow motion. Director Quentin Tarantino has featured Mexican standoff scenes in his films like Pulp Fiction. A Mexican standoff features prominently in the mission The Wrap Up in Grand Theft Auto V, in which a meeting between protagonist Michael De Santa and the FIB devolves into an all out four-way battle among the FIB, IAA and Merryweather agents.
"Mexican standoff". TV Tropes
Gigli is a 2003 American romantic comedy film written and directed by Martin Brest and starring Ben Affleck, Jennifer Lopez, Justin Bartha, Al Pacino, Christopher Walken, Lainie Kazan. Popular media gave attention and interest to the film during production because Affleck and Lopez, the film's stars, were romantically involved at the time. After release, critical reaction was universally negative, in the years since its release Gigli has been considered one of the worst films of all time; the film was one of the most expensive box office bombs in history, grossing $7.2 million against a $75.6 million budget. As of 2019, it is the last film. Larry Gigli is a low-ranking Los Angeles mobster, not nearly as tough as he likes to act. Louis, a higher-ranking member of Gigli's organization, commands Gigli to kidnap the mentally challenged younger brother of a powerful federal prosecutor to use as a bargaining chip to save New York-based mob boss Starkman from prison. Gigli convinces the young man, Brian, to go off with him by promising to take him "to the Baywatch" a reference to the television show of that name, which seems to be Brian's singular obsession.
Louis does not trust Gigli to get the job done right, so he hires a woman calling herself Ricki to take charge. Gigli is attracted to Ricki, but he resents both Louis' lack of faith in him and having to take orders from a woman, he is frustrated by Brian's insistence on going to "the Baywatch" and by the fact that Ricki is a lesbian. A suspicious detective comes to the apartment to question Gigli in reference to Brian's disappearance. Gigli is further annoyed when his mother takes an immediate liking to Ricki and when the two women team up to needle him; the events take a darker turn when Gigli and Ricki receive orders to cut off Brian's thumb, something that neither wants to do. Worse, Ricki's ex-girlfriend, shows up at Gigli's apartment, accusing Ricki of changing sexual orientation and attempting suicide by slitting her wrists and is rushed to the hospital, where she thankfully survives. While there, Gigli sneaks into the morgue and cuts off a corpse's thumb, which he sends to the prosecutor as Brian's thumb.
Gigli and Ricki go back to Gigli's apartment, where Gigli confesses his love and the two sleep together. They are summoned to meet with the mob's boss. Starkman reveals that he did not approve of the plan to kidnap a federal prosecutor's brother or the order to cut off Brian's thumb, he rages at them because the thumb they sent didn't match Brian's fingerprint, therefore not only failed to increase pressure on the prosecutor but undermined the organization's credibility. Starkman kills Louis in retaliation for the kidnapping and associated scrutiny by law enforcement. Starkman is about to kill Ricki and Gigli as well, but Ricki talks him out of it by pointing out that only they know where Brian is and only they can silence Brian and prevent him from revealing the involvement of Starkman's organization in the kidnapping or accusing Starkman of having been involved, they leave Starkman's, decide to leave the mob, discuss taking Brian back to where they found him. On the way, they discover Baywatch shooting an episode on the beach.
Brian begs to be let off there and they consent. Gigli convinces Ricki to take his car to escape to parts unknown. Ben Affleck as Larry Gigli Jennifer Lopez as Ricki/Rochelle Justin Bartha as Brian Lainie Kazan as Mrs. Gigli Al Pacino as Starkman Lenny Venito as Louis Christopher Walken as Detective Stanley Jacobellis Missy Crider as Robin Terrence Camilleri as Man in dryer Halle Berry was invited as the female lead before dropping due to scheduling conflicts with X2, being replaced with Jennifer Lopez, who signed in late 2001 for a reported $12 million; the original ending featured Gigli being killed, but after negative response to a test screening, the ending was reshot and reedited. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 6% based on 185 reviews with an average rating of 2.77/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Bizarre and clumsily plotted, Gigli is a mess; as for its stars and Lopez lack chemistry." On Metacritic, the film has a score of 18 out of 100 based on 37 critics, indicating "overwhelming dislike".
Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "D–" on an A+ to F scale. On Ebert and Roeper, critics Roger Ebert and Richard Roeper both gave the film thumbs down, although Ebert showed some sympathy towards the film, stating it had "clever dialogue", but was "...too disorganized for me to recommend it". Roeper called the film "a disaster" and "one of the worst movies I've seen", he included Gigli on his 100 worst films of the decade at #7. Ebert and James Berardinelli were two of the few major critics to not write it off completely. Ebert gave the film two and a half stars out of four, saying, "They didn't quite get to where they wanted to be, but the film is worth seeing for some good scenes." Berardinelli gave it two stars, saying, "This isn't a good film, when set alongside the likes of Dumb and Dumberer and Legally Blonde 2, Jen & Ben offer less pain."Joel Siegel of Good Morning America awarded the film with a "D" rating and stated in his review "To qualify as a historic failure, a film needs a measure of pretension and all Gigli wanted to be was a romantic comedy.
What it is is a dreadful romantic comedy." Entertainment Weekly's Owen Gleiberman gave the film a
Benjamin Géza Affleck-Boldt is an American actor, director and screenwriter. His accolades include two Academy Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, two BAFTA Awards, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, he began his career as a child and starred in the PBS educational series The Voyage of the Mimi in 1984, before a second run in 1988. He appeared in the independent coming-of-age comedy Dazed and Confused and various Kevin Smith films, including Chasing Amy and Dogma. Affleck gained wider recognition when he and childhood friend Matt Damon won the Golden Globe and Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for writing Good Will Hunting, which they starred in, he established himself as a leading man in studio films, including the disaster drama Armageddon, the romantic comedy Forces of Nature, the war drama Pearl Harbor, the spy thriller The Sum of All Fears. After a career downturn, during which he appeared in Daredevil and Gigli, Affleck received a Golden Globe nomination for his performance in the noir biopic Hollywoodland.
His directorial debut, Gone Baby Gone, which he co-wrote, was well received. He directed, co-wrote, starred in the crime drama The Town. For the political thriller Argo, which he directed, co-produced, starred in, Affleck won the Golden Globe and BAFTA Award for Best Director, the Golden Globe, BAFTA, Academy Award for Best Picture, he starred in the psychological thriller Gone Girl in 2014. In 2016, Affleck began playing Batman in the DC Extended Universe, starred in the action thriller The Accountant, directed and acted in the gangster drama Live by Night. Affleck is the co-founder of the Eastern Congo Initiative, a grantmaking and advocacy-based nonprofit organization, he is a stalwart member of the Democratic Party. Affleck and Damon are co-owners of the production company Pearl Street Films, his younger brother is actor Casey Affleck, with whom he has worked on several films, including Good Will Hunting and Gone Baby Gone. Benjamin Géza Affleck-Boldt was born on August 1972, in Berkeley, California.
His family moved to Massachusetts when he was three, living in Falmouth, where his brother Casey was born, before settling in Cambridge. His mother, Christopher Anne "Chris", was a Harvard-educated elementary school teacher, his father, Timothy Byers "Tim" Affleck, was an aspiring playwright who made a living as a carpenter, auto mechanic, electrician and janitor at Harvard. In the mid-1960s, he had been an stage manager with the Theater Company of Boston. During Affleck's childhood, his father had a self-described "severe, chronic problem with alcoholism", Affleck has recalled him drinking "all day... every day". He and his younger brother attended Al-Anon support meetings from a young age, his parents divorced when he was 12, he and Casey lived with their mother. His father continued to drink, spent two years homeless; when Affleck was 16, his father moved to Indio, California, to enter a rehabilitation facility and, after gaining sobriety, he lived at the facility for many years while working as an addiction counselor.
Affleck was raised in a politically active, liberal household. He and his brother were surrounded by people who worked in the arts attended theater performances with their mother, were encouraged to make their own home movies; the brothers auditioned for roles in local commercials and film productions because of their mother's friendship with a Cambridge-area casting director, Affleck first acted professionally at the age of seven. His mother saved his wages in a college trust fund, hoped her son would become a teacher, worrying that acting was an insecure and "frivolous" profession. David Wheeler, a family friend, was Affleck's acting coach and described him as a "very bright and intensely curious" child; when Affleck was 13, he filmed a children's television program in Mexico and learned to speak Spanish during a year spent traveling around the country with his mother and brother. As a Cambridge Rindge and Latin high school student, Affleck acted in theater productions and was inspired by drama teacher Gerry Speca.
During this time he became close friends with Matt Damon. Although Damon was two years older, the two had "identical interests", traveled to New York together for acting auditions, they saved their acting earnings in a joint bank account to buy airline tickets. While Affleck had high SAT scores, he was an unfocused student with poor attendance, he spent a few months studying Spanish at the University of Vermont, chosen because of its proximity to his then-girlfriend, but left after fracturing his hip while playing basketball. At 18, Affleck moved to Los Angeles, studying Middle Eastern affairs at Occidental College for a year and a half. Affleck acted professionally throughout his childhood but, in his own words, "not in the sense that I had a mom that wanted to take me to Hollywood or a family that wanted to make money from me... I kind of chanced into something." He first appeared, at the age of seven, in a local independent film called Dark Side of the Street, directed by a family friend. His biggest success as a child actor was as the star of the PBS children's series The Voyage of the Mimi and The Second Voyage of the Mimi, produced for sixth-grade science classes.
Affleck worked "sporadically" on Mimi from the age of eight to fifteen in both Massachusetts and Mexico. As a teenager, he appeared in the ABC after school special Wanted: A Perfect Man, the television film Hands of a Stranger, a 1989 Burger King commercial. After high school, Affleck moved briefly