A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord
Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord is a major fjord system in the NE Greenland National Park area, East Greenland. The Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord has its mouth in the Foster Bay of the Greenland Sea, between Cape Mackenzie at the eastern end of Geographical Society Island and Cape Franklin, the southern end of the mainland's Gauss Peninsula, it extends westwards for about 100 km at Eleonore Bay in an NNE/SSW direction for about 32 km, bending again westwards at Cape Mohn, the western end of Ymer Island, branching again with the Isfjord extending northwestwards for over 60 km. Two tributary fjords, the wide Nordfjord —with the large Waltershausen Glacier at its head—and the narrower Geologfjord —with the Nunatak Glacier, branch from the northern side of the fjord, about 70 km from the entrance; the Devil's Castle is a prominent mountain of reddish rock with a lighter stripe extending diagonally across its face that stands close to the southern side of Cape Petersens, the NW extremity of Ymer Island. The fjord is bounded by the Suess Land Peninsula and Ymer Island to the South, by Frænkel Land, Andrée Land and the Gauss Peninsula to the North.
This fjord was first surveyed and explored by the Second German North Polar Expedition 1869–70 and named Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord for Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria-Hungary, who had made substantial donations to the expedition. List of fjords of Greenland Media related to Franz Josef Fjord at Wikimedia Commons
Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell
Peary Land is a peninsula in northern Greenland, extending into the Arctic Ocean. It reaches from Victoria Fjord in the west to Independence Fjord in the south and southeast, to the Arctic Ocean in the north, with Cape Morris Jesup, the northernmost point of Greenland's mainland, Cape Bridgman in the northeast. Peary Land is bounded by the Lincoln Wandel Sea of the Arctic Ocean in the north. Oodaaq island, the northernmost point of land of the world, lies off the north coast. Frederick E. Hyde Fjord, which cuts into Peary Land from the east 150 km deep, divides it into Northern Peary Land and Southern Peary Land; the coastline is indented by smaller fjords, such as G. B. Schley Fjord and Hellefisk Fjord in the east, J. P. Koch Fjord, De Long Fjord and Weyprecht Fjord in the west. Peary Land is part of the Northeast Greenland National Park; the size of the region is about 375 km east-west and 200 km north-south, with an estimated area of 57 000 km2. It is only a bit more than 700 km south of the North Pole.
It is free of Greenland's inland ice cap. Being north of the 82°N parallel, it contains the most northerly ice-free region of the world in Southern Peary Land. Precipitation levels are so low, it was not covered by glaciers during the most recent ice age. However, in its western part, there is the Hans Tausen Ice Cap with ice at least 344 m thick. Peary Land is mountainous, according to certain sources 1,737 m high Wistar Bjerg is the highest peak of Peary Land. However, there are unnamed elevations reaching up to 1,950 m in the glaciated Roosevelt Range and comparable heights in the little-explored H. H. Benedict Range. Peary Land was believed to be an island, separated from the main island by the Peary Channel, an assumed connection between Victoria Fjord and Independence Fjord. Ludvig Mylius-Erichsen, the ill-fated leader of the Denmark expedition, searched in vain for the Peary Channel in 1907 and was misled to his death by existing maps. Knud Rasmussen's First Thule Expedition confirmed in 1912.
There are more than 200 kilometers of dry land up to 1500 meters high between Victoria Fjord and Independence Fjord. Caribou, musk oxen, Peary Land collared lemmings are supported by the sparse vegetation, which covers only about 5% of the surface in the area around Jørgen Brønlund Fjord; the flora includes 33 species of flowering plants. Other fauna includes Arctic fox, polar wolf, polar bear, Arctic hare. One to two million years ago, when climates were warmer, trees such as larch, black spruce, birch and thuja grew in the northernmost Peary Land. Peary Land was inhabited by three separate cultures, during which times the climate was milder than presently: Independence I culture, Paleo-Eskimo Independence II culture, Paleo-Eskimo Thule culture The area is named after Robert E. Peary, who first explored it during his expedition of 1891 to 1892. There are two Arctic research stations on Brønlundhus and Kap Harald Moltke. Both stations were built on initiative of Eigil Knuth, have been the basis for many scientific expeditions.
Kap Harald Moltke station was built in connection with use of the natural runway east of Jørgen Brønlund Fjord mouth. The stations located 10 km from each other on either side of the fjord, with Brønlundhus on the western side, communication between them in summer is by boat, depending on ice conditions. Since the death of Eigil Knuth, the stations are administered by Peary Land Foundation. Today, Brønlundhus can be characterised as a museum, with a collection of artefacts from polar explorations. Exploration of Northern Greenland
Julius von Payer
Julius Johannes Ludovicus Payer, ennobled Ritter von Payer in 1876, was an officer of the Austro-Hungarian Army, arctic explorer, cartographer and professor at the Theresian Military Academy. He is chiefly known for the Austro-Hungarian North Pole expedition in 1872–74 and the discovery of Franz Josef Land. Born in Schönau, his father Franz Anton Rudolf Payer was a retired officer of the Austrian Uhlans who died when Julius was only fourteen, his mother was Bladine, née John. Payer attended the k.k. cadet school in Łobzów near Galicia. Between 1857 and 1859 he studied at the Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt. From 1859, Payer served as a sub-lieutenant with the Austrian 36th infantry regiment in Verona, Venetia, he participated in the disastrous Battle of Solferino on 24 June 1859 and was honoured for his service. After promotion to the rank of lieutenant first class, he was posted to the garrison of Chioggia, Venetia in 1864. On 24 June 1866 he served the Battle of Custoza, seizing two guns, for which he was decorated and elevated to the rank of senior lieutenant.
Since 1863 Payer was assigned as a history and geography teacher to the cadet school in Eisenstadt, Hungary and to the Theresian Military Academy. In 1868 the Austro-Hungarian Minister of War appointed him a general staff officer at the k.k. Military Geographic Institute in Vienna, where he worked with August von Fligely. In 1862 Payer had started exploratory tours of the Tyrolean Alps and the High Tauern range in his free time. After 1864 he explored the Adamello-Presanella Group and the Ortler Alps, making more than 60 first ascents. In 1864 he was, with his guide Giovanni Caturani, the first to climb Adamello and missed making the first ascent of the Presanella by just three weeks. All his explorations in the Ortler massif were guided by de:Johann Pinggera from Sulden. Together accompanied by a porter, they ascended all significant unclimbed summits, including the Hoher Angelus, Palon de la Mare, Monte Zebru, Monte Cevedale, their new approach to the Ortler became the normal route of ascent since.
His tours resulted in creating a detailed topographical map at a scale 1:56,000. Due to his achievements, Payer was transferred to the Austrian Military Geographic Institute; when in 1875, the first Alpine club hut above 3000 m was built on the normal route to the Ortler, it was named de:Payerhütte in his honor. In 1868 he was invited by the German geographer August Petermann to participate in the 2nd German North Polar Expedition as a topographer. Travelling to the coast of East Greenland on the Germania under Captain Carl Koldewey in 1869-1870, they reached as far north as Shannon Island. In 1871 he participated in the preliminary Austro-Hungarian expedition to Novaya Zemlya, with Karl Weyprecht. From 1872-1874 Payer led the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition with Karl Weyprecht, Commander at sea, while Payer was Commander at shore. During this voyage he made the discovery of Franz Joseph Land, however upon his return to Vienna many critics voiced doubts about its existence and about the experiences of other participants in the expedition.
Payer could have proven his statements using testimonies and sketches, however his efforts were thwarted, including his promotion to Captain. In 1874 he resigned from the army because of political maneuvers against him and his brother officers' doubts about his discovery and his sledge journeys, he was awarded 44 Austro-Hungarian gulden on 1 October 1874 for the discovery of Franz Joseph Land. He was awarded the 1975 Royal Geographical Societys Patron's Gold Medal. However, on 24 October 1876 he was elevated to the Austrian nobility which entitled him and his descendants to the style of Ritter von in the case of male and von in the case of female offspring. In 1877 Ritter von Payer married the ex-wife of a banker from Frankfurt am Main, they had two children and Alice. From 1877-1879 he studied painting at the Städelsches Institut in Frankfurt / Main. From 1880-1882 he continued his study of art at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in München. From 1884-1890 he worked as a painter in Paris. In 1890 he returned to Vienna and founded a painting school for ladies.
In 1895 he planned a trip for painting to Kejser Franz Joseph Fjord in northeastern. In 1912 he planned an expedition in a submarine to the North Pole, he died in Veldes, in historic Upper Carniola, today part of Slovenia, in 1915. Besides the Payerhütte mentioned above and several streets in Vienna, the main island of Franz Josef Land, the Payer Mountains in Antarctica and Payer Land in eastern Greenland have been named after Julius von Payer; the southern satellite camp for the PolAres MARS2013 analog mission by the OeWF 80 km south of the base camp near Erfoud, was named Station Payer during February 2013, after the main base camp had been called Camp Weyprecht during the landing ceremony in the morning of February 11, 2013. The Austro-Hungarian polar expedition led by Julius von Payer was selected as main motif for the Austrian Admiral Tegetthoff Ship and The Polar Expedition commemorative coin minted on 8 June 2005; the reverse side of the coin shows two explorers in Arctic gear with the frozen ship "Admiral Tegetthoff" behind them.
Payer Island Julius von Payer, "Die Österreich-Ungarische Nordpol Expedition in den Jahren 1869-1874" Andreas Pöschek: Geheimnis Nordpol. Die
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers. Every month in a polar climate has an average temperature of less than 10 °C. Regions with polar climate cover more than 20% of the Earth. Most of these regions are far from the equator, in this case, winter days are short and summer days are long. A polar climate consists of cool summers and cold winters, which results in treeless tundra, glaciers, or a permanent or semi-permanent layer of ice. There are two types of polar climate: tundra climate. A tundra climate is characterized by having at least one month whose average temperature is above 0 °C, while an ice cap climate has no months above 0 °C. In a tundra climate, trees can not grow. In an ice cap climate, no plants can grow, ice accumulates until it flows elsewhere. Many high altitude locations on Earth have a climate where no month has an average temperature of 10 °C or higher, but as this is due to elevation, this climate is referred to as Alpine climate. Alpine climate can mimic either ice cap climate.
On Earth, the only continent where the ice cap polar climate is predominant is Antarctica. All but a few isolated coastal areas on the island of Greenland have the ice cap climate. Coastal regions of Greenland that do not have permanent ice sheets have the less extreme tundra climates; the northernmost part of the Eurasian land mass, from the extreme northeastern coast of Scandinavia and eastwards to the Bering Strait, large areas of northern Siberia and northern Iceland have tundra climate as well. Large areas in northern Canada and northern Alaska have tundra climate, changing to ice cap climate in the most northern parts of Canada. Southernmost South America and such subantarctic islands such as the South Shetland Islands and the Falkland Islands have tundra climates of slight thermal range in which no month is as warm as 10 °C; these subantarctic lowlands are found closer to the equator than the coastal tundras of the Arctic basin. Some parts of the Arctic are covered by ice year-round, nearly all parts of the Arctic experience long periods with some form of ice on the surface.
Average January temperatures range from about −40 to 0 °C, winter temperatures can drop below −50 °C over large parts of the Arctic. Average July temperatures range from about −10 to 10 °C, with some land areas exceeding 30 °C in summer; the Arctic consists of ocean, surrounded by land. As such, the climate of much of the Arctic is moderated by the ocean water, which can never have a temperature below −2 °C. In winter, this warm water though covered by the polar ice pack, keeps the North Pole from being the coldest place in the Northern Hemisphere, it is part of the reason that Antarctica is so much colder than the Arctic. In summer, the presence of the nearby water keeps coastal areas from warming as much as they might otherwise, just as it does in temperate regions with maritime climates; the climate of Antarctica is the coldest on Earth. Antarctica has the lowest occurring temperature recorded: −89.2 °C at Vostok Station. It is extremely dry, averaging 166 millimetres of precipitation per year, as weather fronts penetrate far into the continent.
There have been several attempts at quantifying. Climatologist Wladimir Köppen demonstrated a relationship between the Arctic and Antarctic tree lines and the 10 °C summer isotherm. See Köppen climate classification for more information. Otto Nordenskjöld theorized that winter conditions play a role: His formula is W = 9 − 0.1 C, where W is the average temperature in the warmest month and C the average of the coldest month, both in degrees Celsius. For example, if a particular location had an average temperature of −20 °C in its coldest month, the warmest month would need to average 11 °C or higher for trees to be able to survive there as 9 − 0.1 = 11. Nordenskiöld's line tends to run to the north of Köppen's near the west coasts of the Northern Hemisphere continents, south of it in the interior sections, at about the same latitude along the east coasts of both Asia and North America. In the Southern Hemisphere, all of Tierra del Fuego lies outside the polar region in Nordenskiöld's system, but part of the island is reckoned as being within the Antarctic under Köppen's.
In 1947, Holdridge improved on these schemes, by defining biotemperature: the mean annual temperature, where all temperatures below 0 °C or 32 °F are treated as 0 °C. If the mean biotemperature is between 1.5 and 3 °C, Holdridge quantifies the climate as subpolar. Arctic oscillation Köppen climate classification NOAA State of the Arctic Report 2006
German North Polar Expedition
The German North Polar Expeditions were a short series of mid-19th century German expeditions to the Arctic. The aim was to explore the North Pole region and to brand the newly united, Prussian-led German Empire as a great power. In 1866, German geographer August Petermann wrote a pamphlet advocating German participation in the international quest for the North Pole, which stimulated a German expedition; the first expedition took place in the summer of 1868 and was led by Carl Koldewey on the vessel Grönland. The expedition explored some hitherto unknown coastal tracts of northeastern Spitsbergen, but did otherwise not lead to any new scientific knowledge. However, it served as preparation for the second expedition; the second expedition consisted of a two-vessel convoy: Germania – a schooner constructed for the expedition, with a crew of 15 men commanded by Carl Koldewey Hansa – a smaller escort schooner reinforced for the expedition, with a crew of 13 men commanded by Paul Friedrich August HegemannThe crew included two medical doctors, who were capable naturalists: Adolf Pansch on Germania and Reinhold Wilhelm Buchholz on Hansa.
The expedition headed north. After a month, dense pack ice was encountered at 75.5° N. The two ships got separated by mistake. Germania made it through the pack ice thanks to its auxiliary engine and, during late summer, explored the region around Sabine, Little Pendulum, Shannon Island. On 13 September 1869 it was anchored near the south coast of Sabine Island for wintering. During autumn and the following spring, sledge trips were made Clavering Island and Tyrolerfjord to the south-west and as far north as Store Koldewey Island and Germania Land. In late July 1870, Germania was able to raise anchor and continue north, only to find the way blocked by pack ice. After eight days, it was decided to head south instead, extensive exploration of the vast fjord systems of north-east Greenland, most notably the Kejser Franz Joseph Fjord, was undertaken. Germania managed to get through the pack ice, but the engine broke, returned to Bremerhaven, most of the way by sail, on 11 September 1870; as the supply ship, the Hansa followed the Germania until 19 July, when Hegemann misread a flag signal by Koldeway and went ahead.
The agreement was to meet in such a situation at Sabine Island. After unsuccessful attempts to get there, Hansa was inescapably stuck in the pack ice by mid-September 1869. During the next month, the ship was milled by the ice and sank on 22 October at a position 70° 32’N, 21° W 10 km from the East Greenland coast; the crew managed to survive the winter in a shelter built of coal dust briquettes, while drifting on the sea ice southward along the eastern coast of Greenland. In June 1870, the crew got to the coast by boat and reached the Moravian Herrnhut mission at Friedrichsthal near Cape Farewell, from where they got back to Germany on a Danish ship. Adolf Pansch made an extensive botanical collection during the second expedition. Collected vascular plants were treated by the botanists Franz Georg Philipp Buchenau and Wilhelm Olbers Focke, both from the University of Bremen. Murphy, D. T.. German Exploration of the Polar World: A History, 1870–1940