An outcrop or rocky outcrop is a visible exposure of bedrock or ancient superficial deposits on the surface of the Earth. Outcrops do not cover the majority of the Earth's land surface because in most places the bedrock or superficial deposits are covered by a mantle of soil and vegetation and cannot be seen or examined closely. However, in places where the overlying cover is removed through erosion or tectonic uplift, the rock may be exposed, or crop out; such exposure will happen most in areas where erosion is rapid and exceeds the weathering rate such as on steep hillsides, mountain ridges and tops, river banks, tectonically active areas. In Finland, glacial erosion during the last glacial maximum, followed by scouring by sea waves, followed by isostatic uplift has produced a large number of smooth coastal and littoral outcrops. Bedrock and superficial deposits may be exposed at the Earth's surface due to human excavations such as quarrying and building of transport routes. Outcrops allow direct observation and sampling of the bedrock in situ for geologic analysis and creating geologic maps.
In situ measurements are critical for proper analysis of geological history and outcrops are therefore important for understanding the geologic time scale of earth history. Some of the types of information that cannot be obtained except from bedrock outcrops or by precise drilling and coring operations, are structural geology features orientations, depositional features orientations, paleomagnetic orientations. Outcrops are very important for understanding fossil assemblages, paleo-environment, evolution as they provide a record of relative changes within geologic strata. Accurate description and sampling for laboratory analysis of outcrops made possible all of the geologic sciences and the development of fundamental geologic laws such as the law of superposition, the principle of original horizontality, principle of lateral continuity, the principle of faunal succession. On Ordnance Survey maps in Great Britain, cliffs are distinguished from outcrops: cliffs have a continuous line along the top edge with lines protruding down.
An outcrop example in California is the Vasquez Rocks, familiar from location shooting use in many films, composed of uplifted sandstone. Yana is another example of outcrops, located in Uttara Kannada district in India. Digital outcrop model List of rock formations Geological formation Geologic time scale Media related to Outcrops at Wikimedia Commons
Hells Canyon National Recreation Area
Hells Canyon National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located on the borders of the U. S. states of Idaho. The recreation area, managed by the United States Forest Service as part of the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, was established by U. S. Congress and signed by President Gerald Ford in 1975 to protect the historic and archaeological values of the Hells Canyon area and the area of the Snake River between Hells Canyon Dam and the Oregon-Washington border. 215,000 acres of the recreation area are designated the Hells Canyon Wilderness. There are nearly 900 miles of hiking trails in the recreation area; the largest portion of the area lies in eastern Wallowa Oregon. Smaller portions lie in southwestern Idaho County, northwestern Adams County and northeastern Baker County, Oregon. All or included in the HCNRA is the Hells Canyon Archeological District, a 12,000-acre historic district, listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places; the district includes 536 contributing sites, 23 contributing buildings, 58 other contributing structures.
The Snake River National Recreation Trail #102 lies within the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area and along the Idaho side of the Snake River, from near Lamont Springs, downstream, to Pittsburg Landing. The SRNRT was designated in 1980 under the National Trails System Act, it was constructed during the period of the late 1800s to about the 1930s. Access to the SRNRT can be gained via road to the trailhead at Pittsburg Landing on the north end of the trail, or, by boat access near Hells Canyon Dam on the south end of the trail. Access can be gained via trails leading from Seven Devils Wilderness Area trail head at Windy Saddle via either the Granite Creek trails or Sheep Creek trails. Ewert, Sara E. Dant. "Evolution of an Environmentalist: Senator Frank Church and the Hells Canyon Controversy." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 51: 36-51. Hells Canyon National Recreation Area
Wallowa–Whitman National Forest
The Wallowa–Whitman National Forest is a United States National Forest in the U. S. states of Idaho. Formed upon the merger of the Wallowa and Whitman national forests in 1954, it is located in the northeastern corner of the state, in Wallowa, Union and Umatilla counties in Oregon, includes small areas in Nez Perce and Idaho counties in Idaho; the forest is named for the Wallowa band of the Nez Perce people, who lived in the area, Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, Presbyterian missionaries who settled just to the north in 1836. Forest headquarters are located in Baker City, Oregon with ranger districts in La Grande and Baker City; the national forest may be divided into several distinct sections, which together cover 2,300,000 acres of land, including 600,000 acres of designated wilderness. A large section of the forest is located in the rugged Wallowa Mountains, south of Joseph, Oregon, in the upper reaches of the Wallowa and Imnaha drainage basins; the alpine area in the heart of the mountain range is designated as the Eagle Cap Wilderness.
Bordering the national forest on the north, Wallowa Lake State Park is located on the shore of Wallowa Lake. A smaller section of the forest is located north of Enterprise, along Joseph Canyon; this section is joined to the first by the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area, which protects the stretch of the Snake River known as Hells Canyon, the deepest gorge in North America. The recreation area includes portions of the Nez Perce and Wallowa–Whitman national forests, but is managed by the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest, it contains the Hells Canyon Wilderness, jointly managed by the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management. The Hells Canyon Scenic Byway passes through the national forest on Forest Service Road 39. Another large section of the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest is located west of La Grande and Baker City, Oregon, in the Elkhorn Mountains, a sub-range of the Blue Mountains, it borders the Malheur National Forest on the southwest and the Umatilla National Forest on the northwest.
This area includes the upper reaches of the John Grande Ronde rivers. The North Fork John Day and Monument Rock wildernesses are jointly managed by the adjacent national forests; the historic gold mining city of Sumpter is surrounded by the Wallowa–Whitman on all sides. The Wallowa–Whitman National Forest is home to 36 fish species, 236 bird species, over 90 mammal species, 26 reptile-amphibian species, 1,500 plant species. Wildlife habitat is affected by logging and grazing, but significant stands of old-growth forest have survived. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. Large mammal species include Shiras moose, Rocky Mountain elk, Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep, mountain goat, white-tailed deer, mule deer, black bear, timber wolf and bobcat. Several sightings of wolverines, rare within the United States, have been recorded since the 1990s. Smaller mammals include the pika, badger, beaver, river otter, marmot. Bird species include the peregrine falcon, bald eagle, golden eagle, ferruginous hawk, gray-crowned rosy finch, chukar partridge, pileated woodpecker, American dipper, great gray owl.
Rivers and creeks support steelhead and trout. Plant communities range from ponderosa pine forest to alpine meadows. Engelmann spruce, mountain hemlock, subalpine fir and whitebark pine can be found in the higher elevations, with Douglas-fir, white fir, western larch, lodgepole pine elsewhere. Wildflowers include clarkia, Indian paintbrush, sego lily, larkspur, shooting star, bluebell. Rocky bluffs in the Hells Canyon area support prickly pear poison ivy; the Forest Service uses controlled burns before the wildfire season to reduce the natural fuel on the forest floor as part of its management of the forest. The land, now the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest was first occupied by the Nez Perce people around 1400 CE; the area was the summer home of the Joseph Band of the Nez Perce tribe. The Cayuse and Bannock tribes arrived in the area some time later; the native people hunted deer and bighorn sheep in the Wallowa Valley and surrounding mountains. The first European settlers arrived in the Wallowa Valley in 1860.
In 1887, a gang of horse thieves murdered 34 Chinese miners in Chinese Massacre Cove along the Snake River. In 1905, the Wallowa Forest Reserve and Chesnimnus Reserve were established by President Theodore Roosevelt; the two reserves were merged to create the Imnaha National Forest on March 1, 1907. On July 1, 1908, the name was changed to Wallowa National Forest, in 1954 the Wallowa was administratively combined with the Whitman National Forest to create the Wallowa–Whitman; the Whitman had been established on July 1908, from part of the Blue Mountains National Forest. On June 20, 1920, part of Minam National Forest was added; the Eagle Cap primitive area was established in 1930. The area was designated as a wilderness in 1940; the Wilderness Act in 1964 placed the Eagle Cap Wilderness in the National Wilderness Preservation System. The Eagle Cap was enlarged by 73,410 acres in 1972 and by an additional 67,711 acres in 1984, its area now totals 350,461 acres. The Wallowa Mountains Visitor Center and district office for the national forest, a 20,500-square-foot log building in Enterprise, burned to the ground on July 11, 2010.
The forest works with the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation on cultural and natural resources issues. The Wallowa–Whitman National Forest is used for hiking, fishing and other recreational
National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
Endangered Species Act of 1973
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation", the ESA was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973; the law requires federal agencies to consult with the Fish and Wildlife Service &/or the NOAA Fisheries Service to ensure their actions are not to jeopardize the continued existence of any listed species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of designated critical habitat of such species. The U. S. Supreme Court found that "the plain intent of Congress in enacting" the ESA "was to halt and reverse the trend toward species extinction, whatever the cost." The Act is administered by two federal agencies, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service.
Listing status and its abbreviations used in Federal Register and by federal agencies like the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service: E = endangered – any species, in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range other than a species of the Class Insecta determined by the Secretary to constitute a pest. T = threatened – any species, to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its rangeOther categories:C = candidate – a species under consideration for official listing E, T = endangered or threatened due to similarity of appearance – a species not endangered or threatened, but so resembles in appearance a species, listed as endangered or threatened, that enforcement personnel would have substantial difficulty in attempting to differentiate between the listed and unlisted species. XE, XN = experimental essential or non-essential population – any population of an endangered species or a threatened species released outside the current range under authorization of the Secretary.
Experimental, nonessential populations of endangered species are treated as threatened species on public land, for consultation purposes, as species proposed for listing on private land. The near-extinction of the bison and the disappearance of the passenger pigeon helped drive the call for wildlife conservation starting in the 1900s. Ornithologist George Bird Grinnell wrote articles on the subject in the magazine Forest and Stream, while Joel Asaph Allen, founder of the American Ornithologists' Union, hammered away in the popular press; the public was introduced to a new concept: extinction. Market hunting for the millinery trade and for the table was one aspect of the problem; the early naturalists killed birds and other wildlife for study, personal curio collections and museum pieces. While habitat losses continued as communities and farmland grew, the widespread use of pesticides and the introduction of non-native species affected wildlife. One species in particular received widespread attention—the whooping crane.
The species' historical range extended from central Canada south to Mexico, from Utah to the Atlantic coast. Unregulated hunting and habitat loss contributed to a steady decline in the whooping crane population until, by 1890, it had disappeared from its primary breeding range in the north central United States, it would be another eight years before the first national law regulating wildlife commerce was signed, another two years before the first version of the endangered species act was passed. The whooping crane population by 1941 was estimated at about only 16 birds still in the wild; the Lacey Act of 1900 was the first federal law. It prohibited interstate commerce of animals killed in violation of state game laws, covered all fish and wildlife and their parts or products, as well as plants. Other legislation followed, including the Migratory Bird Conservation Act of 1929, a 1937 treaty prohibiting the hunting of right and gray whales, the Bald Eagle Protection Act of 1940; these laws had a low cost to society–the species were rare–and little opposition was raised.
Whereas the Lacey Act dealt with game animal management and market commerce species, a major shift in focus occurred by 1963 to habitat preservation instead of take regulations. A provision was added by Congress in the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 that provided money for the "acquisition of land, waters...for the preservation of species of fish and wildlife that are threatened with extinction." The predecessor of the ESA was the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966. Passed by Congress, this act permitted the listing of native U. S. animal species as endangered and for limited protections upon those animals. It authorized the Secretary of the Interior to list endangered domestic fish and wildlife and allowed the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to spend up to $15 million per year to buy habitats for listed species, it directed federal land agencies to preserve habitat on their lands. The Act consolidated and expanded authority for the Secretary of the Interior to manage and administer the National Wildlife Refuge System.
Other public agencies were encouraged, but not required. The act did not address the commerce in endangered parts. In March, 1967 the first list of endangered species was issued under the act, it included 36 birds, 6 reptiles and amphibians and 22 fish. This first list is referred to as the "
Sawtooth National Forest
Sawtooth National Forest is a National Forest that covers 2,110,408 acres in the U. S. states of Utah. Managed by the U. S. Forest Service in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, it was named the Sawtooth Forest Reserve in a proclamation issued by President Theodore Roosevelt on May 29, 1905. On August 22, 1972 a portion of the forest was designated as the Sawtooth National Recreation Area, which includes the Sawtooth, Cecil D. Andrus–White Clouds, Hemingway–Boulders wilderness areas; the forest is managed as four units: the SNRA and the Fairfield and Minidoka Ranger Districts. Sawtooth National Forest is named for the Sawtooth Mountains, which traverse part of the SNRA; the forest contains the Albion, Black Pine, Boulder, Raft River, Soldier and White Cloud mountain ranges, as well as Hyndman Peak, the ninth-highest point in Idaho at 12,009 feet above sea level. Sawtooth National Forest contains land cover types which include sagebrush steppe, spruce-fir forests, alpine tundra, over 1,100 lakes and 3,500 miles of rivers and streams.
Plants and animals found only in the Sawtooth National Forest and adjacent lands include Christ's Indian paintbrush, Davis' springparsley, the South Hills crossbill, the Wood River sculpin. The area, now Sawtooth National Forest was first occupied by people as early as 8000 BC and by the Shoshone tribe after 1700 AD; the first European descendants migrating from the eastern United States arrived in the area around the 1820s. Sawtooth National Forest offers facilities for recreation, with four ski areas and flatwater boating, hunting, 81 campgrounds, over 1,000 mi of trails and roads for hiking, mountain biking, all-terrain vehicle use, including two National Recreation Trails; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 gave the President the authority to establish forest reserves in the U. S. Department of the Interior. After passage of the Transfer Act of 1905, forest reserves became part of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in the newly created U. S. Forest Service. Sawtooth National Forest was created as the Sawtooth Forest Reserve in the Department of Agriculture by proclamation of President Theodore Roosevelt on May 29, 1905.
The forest's initial area was 1,947,520 acres, it was named after the Sawtooth Mountains in the northwestern part of the forest. On November 6, 1906, President Roosevelt announced the addition of 1,392,640 acres to the Sawtooth Forest Reserve, which also constituted much of the present-day Salmon-Challis and Boise National Forests; these lands were split into separate National Forests by executive order on June 26 and July 1, 1908. The forest's area underwent a number of smaller changes in the early 20th century; the Fairfield Ranger District was established in 1906 and merged with the Shake Creek Ranger District in 1972 to form the present-day Fairfield District. The Cassia Forest Reserve was established on June 12, 1905 and the Raft River Forest Reserve on November 5, 1906; the names of the forest reserves were changed to national forests on March 4, 1907. Formed from the consolidation of Cassia and Raft River National Forests, the Minidoka National Forest was created on July 1, 1908, added to Sawtooth National Forest on July 1, 1953.
In 1936, Senator James Pope, a one-term Democrat from Idaho, introduced the first legislation to establish a national park in the Sawtooths. Under his proposal, the park would have been thirty miles in length and 8 to 15 mi wide; the rest of Idaho's congressional delegation did not support the proposal, which occurred at a time when the National Park Service was taking a more preservation-oriented stance, the bill died. On October 12, 1937, the Forest Service established the Sawtooth Primitive Area in the Sawtooth Mountains. Subsequently, Sawtooth National Forest began to extensively develop recreation opportunities, including new campgrounds and roads. In 1960, Democratic Senator Frank Church of Idaho introduced legislation for a feasibility study to survey the area for national park status. While Church allowed the 1960 feasibility study legislation to die, he introduced a bill in 1963 to create Sawtooth Wilderness National Park, which would encompass the existing Sawtooth Primitive Area. Although the 1963 bill was not voted on, Church admitted that it was not designed to pass but rather to encourage thorough feasibility studies by both the Forest Service and National Park Service.
A 1965 joint report by the two agencies recommended either a national park administered by the National Park Service or a national recreation area managed by the Forest Service. In April 1966, Church introduced two bills, one to establish Sawtooth National Park and another to establish the Sawtooth National Recreation Area; the SNRA bill was cosponsored by Republican Senator Len Jordan, a former governor and sheep rancher, because it preserved the area while permitting traditional uses such as logging and grazing. The legislation was not supported by Idaho's two members of the House. In 1968, the American Smelting and Refining Company discovered a molybdenum deposit at the base of Castle Peak, the highest peak in the White Cloud Mountains. ASARCO filed paperwork with the Forest Service to construct roads and to allow for an open pit mine below Castle Peak to extract the ore; the proposed mine would have been 350 ft deep, 700 ft wide
Caribou-Targhee National Forest
Caribou-Targhee National Forest is located in the states of Idaho and Wyoming, with a small section in Utah in the United States. The forest extends over 2.63 million acres. To the east the forest borders Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton National Park and Bridger-Teton National Forest. Most of the forest is a part of the 20-million-acre Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Caribou and Targhee National Forests were combined from original forest lands created in 1891. Two designated wilderness areas are located in the easternmost sections of the forest, bordering on National Park lands; the 123,451-acre Jedediah Smith Wilderness is adjacent to Grand Teton National Park on the western slope of the Teton Range. Known for karst limestone formations, the wilderness has many caves and provides excellent views of the less seen west face of the Teton peaks; the smaller 10,715-acre Winegar Hole Wilderness borders Yellowstone National Park and the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway, was set aside to protect prime grizzly bear habitat.
While western sections of the forest have a mixture of sagebrush and grasses, the higher elevations in the east support lodgepole pine, numerous species of spruce and fir. In addition to grizzlies most of the major megafauna associated with Yellowstone National Park can be found in Caribou-Targhee National Forest. Mammalian species of black bear, elk, mule deer, bison and pronghorn have all been seen by visitors on forest lands. An active peregrine falcon recovery program was begun to return this bird species to some of their ancestral range. Cutthroat trout, brook trout and pike are found in the streams and lakes and the forest is considered one of the best fishing areas in the world for cutthroat trout. Dozens of campgrounds and 1,600 miles of trails allow access to much of the forest. There are two trails that access the high altitude Alaska Basin west of the main Teton Range peaks and allow access to trails in Grand Teton National Park. Caribou National Forest, the smaller and more southerly of the two, is located in southeastern Idaho, western Wyoming, northern Utah, has a total area of 987,221 acres.
There are local ranger district offices located in Malad City, Montpelier and Soda Springs in Idaho. The larger and more northerly Targhee National Forest is located in eastern Idaho and northwestern Wyoming, has an area of 1,643,501 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Ashton, Driggs and Island Park in Idaho. In Island Park is Big Springs, a first-magnitude spring, the source of the South Fork of Henrys Fork. Linkage of limited habitat, through ecological corridors, is the current, most favored, method of restoring native wildlife communities. Many such corridors have been identified; the montane nature of the Caribou National Forest and its juxtaposition make it a important and unique link between the northern and southern Rocky Mountains. If restoration of native species is to be achieved throughout the wildlands of the American West, the Caribou will play an important role; the combined Caribou-Targhee National Forest is managed by the Forest Service from offices in Idaho Falls, Idaho.
There are two designated wilderness areas within the Caribou-Targhee National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Both lie just south in the Targhee National Forest section. Jedediah Smith Wilderness Winegar Hole Wilderness Counties are listed in descending order of forestland area, by forest. Caribou County, Idaho Bonneville County, Idaho Bannock County, Idaho Bear Lake County, Idaho Oneida County, Idaho Franklin County, Idaho Lincoln County, Wyoming Power County, Idaho Box Elder County, Utah Cache County, Utah Fremont County, Idaho Clark County, Idaho Teton County, Wyoming Bonneville County, Idaho Teton County, Idaho Lemhi County, Idaho Lincoln County, Wyoming Butte County, Idaho Madison County, Idaho Jefferson County, Idaho "Caribou National Forest-Montpelier Ranger District-Montpelier Watershed Analysis" "Lumber, Stone & Concrete", Administrative Facilities of the Caribou-Targhee National Forests, 1891-1955 "Caribou-Targhee National Forest". U. S. Forest Service.