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Payola, in the music industry, is the illegal practice of payment or other inducement by record companies for the broadcast of recordings on commercial radio in which the song is presented as being part of the normal day's broadcast, without announcing that there has been consideration paid in cash or in kind for its airplay adjacent to the recording's broadcast. Under US law, a radio station can play a specific song in exchange for money, but this must be disclosed on the air as being sponsored airtime; the term has come to refer to any undisclosed payment made to cast a product in a favorable light. Some radio stations report spins of the newest and most popular songs to industry publications; the number of times the songs are played can influence the perceived popularity of a song. The term payola is a combination of "pay" and "ola", a common suffix of product names in the early 20th century, such as Pianola, Amberola, Rock-Ola, Shinola, or brands such as the radio equipment manufacturer Motorola.

Payola has come to mean the payment of a bribe in commerce and in law to say or do a certain thing against the rules of law, but more a commercial bribe. The FCC defines "payola" as a violation of the sponsorship identification rule. In earlier eras, there was not much public; the ad agencies which had sponsored NBC's radio/TV show Your Hit Parade for 20 years refused to reveal the specific methods that were used to determine top hits, only stating that they were based on "readings of radio requests, sheet music sales, dance hall favorites and jukebox tabulations". Attempts to create a code to stop payola were met with lukewarm silence by publishers. Prosecution for payola in the 1950s was in part a reaction of the traditional music establishment against newcomers. Hit radio was a threat to the wages of song-pluggers. Radio hits threatened old revenue streams. Still, in the 1950s, independent record companies or music publishers used payola to promote rock and roll on American radio. Alan Freed, a disc jockey and early supporter of rock and roll, had his career and reputation harmed by a payola scandal.

Dick Clark's early career was nearly derailed by a payola scandal, but he avoided trouble by selling his stake in a record company and cooperating with authorities. Attempts were made to link all payola with roll music. In 1976, inner-city urban soul DJ Frankie Crocker was indicted in a payola scandal, causing him to leave NY radio, where his influence was greatest; the charges were dropped and he returned to NY, hosting MTV's video jukebox. The amount of money involved is unpublished; the issue was featured in a 1978 episode of WKRP in Cincinnati, where Johnny Fever's morning show replacement was caught taking cocaine as a bribe to play certain records from a label with which he was associated. The Congressional Payola Investigations occurred in 1959, after the United States Senate began investigating the payola scandal. Among those thought to have been involved were DJ Alan Freed and television personality Dick Clark; the term Congressional Payola Investigations refers to investigations by the House Subcommittee on Legislative Oversight into payola, the practice of record promoters paying DJs or radio programmers to play their labels' songs.

Payola can refer to monetary rewards or other types of reimbursement, is a tool record labels use to promote certain artists. Other forms of payola include making arrangements to purchase certain amounts of advertising in exchange for staying on a station's playlist, forcing bands to play station-sponsored concerts for little or no money in order to stay in a station's good graces, paying for stations to hold "meet the band" contests, in exchange for air time for one of the label's newer, lesser-known bands; the first major payola investigation occurred in the early 1960s. DJ Alan Freed, uncooperative in committee hearings, was fired as a result. Dick Clark testified before the committee, but survived due to the fact that he had divested himself of ownership interest in all of his music-industry holdings. After the initial investigation, radio DJs were stripped of the authority to make programming decisions, payola became a misdemeanor offense. Programming decisions became the responsibility of station program directors.

As a result, the process of persuading stations to play certain songs was simplified. Instead of reaching numerous DJs, record labels only had to connect with one station program director. Labels turned to independent promoters to circumvent allegations of payola; this practice grew more and more widespread until a 1986 NBC News investigation called "The New Payola" instigated another round of Congressional investigations. With the creation of Napster and other now illegal music sharing websites, the power of the independent promoters began to decline. Labels once more began dealing with stations directly. In 2002, investigations by the office of then-New York District Attorney Eliot Spitzer uncovered evidence that executives at Sony BMG music labels had made deals with several large commercial radio chains. In July 2005, the company acknowledged their improper promotional practices and agreed to pay a $10 million fine. A different form of payola has been used by the record industr

Francis Bull

Francis Bull was a Norwegian literary historian, professor at the University of Oslo for more than thirty years and speaker, magazine editor. Bull was born in Kristiania, as a son of medical doctor Edvard Isak Hambro Bull and Ida Marie Sofie Paludan, he was a brother of theatre director Johan Peter Bull and politician Edvard Bull and genealogist Theodor Bull. Through Edvard Bull he was the uncle of historian Edvard Bull, he was a nephew of military officer Karl Sigwald Johannes Bull, grandnephew of Anders Sandøe Ørsted Bull, great-grandson of Georg Jacob Bull and great-great-grandson of Chief Justice Johan Randulf Bull. In June 1924 he married Ingrid Berntsen. Bull finished his secondary education, enrolled at the University of Oslo being tutored by Gerhard Gran; as a student Bull wrote the monographies Bjørnson og Sverige. The last work earned him the cand.philol. Degree, his doctoral dissertation of 1916 was titled Fra Holberg til Nordahl Brun. Bull was appointed professor in Nordic literature at the University of Oslo in 1920, succeeding the aging Gerhard Gran.

In addition to lecturing he co-edited the literary history Norsk litteraturhistorie. He worked on Norsk litteraturhistorie for many years, as a byproduct of this endeavor he wrote hundreds of entries in the biographical dictionary Norsk biografisk leksikon, of which Gerhard Gran and Edvard Bull were two of the editors-in-chief. Bull was editor-in-chief of the journal Edda from 1925 to 1960, he was chairman of the board of Gyldendal Norsk Forlag from 1925 to 1968, a board member of the National Theatre from 1922 to 1956, with the exception of the years 1941 to 1945. Norway was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany in 1940, because the National Theatre board did not abide by the directions from the Nazi government, along with board members publisher Harald Grieg and banker Johannes Sejersted Bødtker, was arrested in 1941. Bull spent three years in Grini; as he had an excellent memory, he was able to continue his lecturing in prison, by holding secret lectures for co-prisoners. Due to this, Grini was nicknamed "the People's University" by some.

A collection of these lectures were published as Tretten taler på Grini in 1945. Bull won recognition for this, was a popular public speaker and lecturer after the war. Bull was a praeces in the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters several times between 1941 and 1957, again except for 1941–1945, he held an honorary degree at Aarhus University from 1946, was decorated as a Commander with Star of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav in 1957, he retired as a professor in 1957, died in July 1974 in Hørsholm, Denmark. Family genealogy


NanoCharM is a cooperation of eight European organisations and is an EU-Project founded in the 7th framework program. The goal of this European collaboration is to establish and enhance ellipsometry and polarimetry as a measurement tool. Ellipsometry and polarimetry are methods to characterize samples according to their optical properties and composition; the measurements do not influence or destroy the samples and are calculated in real-time experiments. Therefore, these methods are suitable for characterizing samples in-situ and to further monitor the growth process; the NanoCharM project aims to strengthen the collaboration of users and their needs with the manufacturers of ellipsometers. For this reason, the NanoCharM consortium is organising annual summer and winter schools during the three years of the project. Additionally, a website has been established to act as a platform for all users; the website provides news, a collection of literature, databases, a virtual lab and a forum for discussion.

Https:// Nanocharm at CORDIS database

PC Bruno

PC Bruno was a Polish/French signals intelligence station near Paris during World War II, from October 1939 until June 1940. Its function was decryption of cipher messages, most notably German messages enciphered on the Enigma machine. PC Bruno worked in close cooperation with Britain's decryption center at Bletchley Park. In the early 1930s, French military intelligence acquired operation manuals and sample messages for the German Enigma cipher machine. French intelligence officer Captain Gustave Bertrand supplied this material to Poland's Biuro Szyfrów, which used it as part of their successful effort to break Enigma. In July 1939 the Biuro Szyfrów gave British intelligence all their results. Both countries were expanding their decryption efforts in anticipation of war, this continued after the war started in September 1939; when Poland was overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union, the key staff of the Biuro Szyfrów were evacuated to Romania, from there reached France. In October 1939 the Poles hosted by French intelligence at PC Bruno.

PC Bruno was located in the Château de Vignolles in Gretz-Armainvilliers, some 40 kilometres southeast of Paris. It was headed by now-Major Bertrand, its personnel included 15 Poles, 50 Frenchmen, 7 anti-fascist Spaniards who worked on Spanish and Italian ciphers. The Polish group was led by Lt. Col. Gwido Langer, included the mathematicians who been breaking Enigma for nearly seven years since December 1932, Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki, Henryk Zygalski; as late as 3–7 December 1939, when Lt. Col. Langer and French Air Force Capt. Henri Braquenié visited London and Bletchley Park, the British asked that the Polish cryptologists be made available to them in Britain. Langer, took the position that they must remain where the Polish army in exile was forming—on French soil. Bletchley Park and PC Bruno worked together against the German message traffic. In the interest of security, they themselves corresponded using the "unbreakable" Enigma cipher. In early 1940, the two centres read some old Enigma messages, in March they broke some German daily keys, read some messages "in real time".

During the next few months, the two centres decrypted several thousand Enigma messages, about half at each centre. Some of the messages gave notice of the German invasion of Denmark and Norway and of the German invasions on Belgium, the Netherlands, France. However, no effective Allied use was made of these warnings. By June 1940, advancing German forces were approaching PC Bruno. Just after midnight on 10 June, Bertrand evacuated the Bruno staff from Gretz-Armainvillers. France surrendered on 22 June. In September 1940, Bertrand secretly returned them to France, he established a new decryption center at Uzès on the Mediterranean Sea coast, in the unoccupied "Free Zone" of France. This center, codenamed Cadix, resumed breaking ciphers. Cadix operated until the German occupation of southern France, in November 1942. Cadix Biuro Szyfrów Władysław Kozaczuk, Enigma: How the German Machine Cipher Was Broken, How It Was Read by the Allies in World War Two and translated by Christopher Kasparek, Frederick, MD, University Publications of America, 1984, ISBN 0-89093-547-5.

Gustave Bertrand, Enigma ou la plus grande énigme de la guerre 1939–1945, Librairie Plon, 1973. Stephen Budiansky, Battle of Wits, a general account of World War II cryptology. F. H. Hinsley, ed. British Intelligence in the Second World War, 4 volumes, Her Majesty's Stationery Office. F. H. Hinsley and Alan Stripp, eds. Codebreakers: the Inside Story of Bletchley Park, Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-19-820327-6: a volume of recollections

You Say Party

You Say Party is a Canadian four-piece dance-punk new-wave band from Abbotsford, British Columbia. Their first album Hit the Floor! was released in September 2005, the band completed their second Canadian tour, an appearance at South by Southwest and a tour of the United States, before touring the United Kingdom and Germany. Their second album Lose All Time was released in Canada on March 20, 2007, in the United States on August 18, 2007, on Paper Bag Records, in the United Kingdom on June 18, 2007, on Fierce Panda Records and in Germany and Switzerland on August 17, 2007, on PIAS, their third album XXXX was released on September 29, 2009, in Canada, February 9, 2010, in the US and May 17, 2010, in the UK. The band's fourth album, You Say Party, was released on February 12, 2016. You Say Party! We Say Die! was conceived by Stephen O'Shea, Becky Ninkovic and Krista Loewen in November 2003. The band was birthed out of a bike gang known as The Smoking Spokes. December was too cold to ride bikes, so they started jamming in Ninkovic's parents' basement.

You Say Party! We Say Die! Played their first show in April 2004, gained some instant notoriety for their "willingness to play anything, anytime." Their first show was played in a church basement in Abbotsford opening for Fun 100. That year, they independently released their first EP, which is, according to different sources, a reference to the people who came to their shows, a name considered early on for the band, or the name of a more or less unrelated earlier band. In 2005, the band began receiving press as the five members toured Canada, opening for such notable acts such as The Blood Brothers and Pretty Girls Make Graves, they released a full-length album, entitled Hit the Floor!, in September, received some positive reviews, performed at Pop Montreal. In 2006, Edmonton-based record label Reluctant Recordings released Hit the Floor on vinyl, as You Say Party toured Canada for the second time; the group appeared at SXSW and was interviewed on MuchMusic, as they received funding for a video of "The Gap" from VideoFACT.

You Say Party toured the United Kingdom and Germany in May/June 2006 continental Europe with a focus on the UK in August 2006, released a single for "The Gap" on UK label Cheesedream, one for "You Did It!" on UK label Sink & Stove. In October 2006, You Say. Since band member Stephen O'Shea was banned from performing in the United States for five years, the band could not perform there until 2011 with O'Shea. In January 2007, after months of speculation, You Say Party signed an album deal with Toronto-based Paper Bag Records label; the label features such artists as Tokyo Police Club. The band released Lose All Time, on March 20, 2007 in Canada. Lose All Time has been released by Fierce Panda Records in the United Kingdom and PIAS in Germany and Switzerland. On August 26, 2008, You Say Party released Remik's Cube, a remixed version of their previous album Lose All Time; the digital-only release was put out on the online imprint of Paper Bag Records. After relentless touring, members began paying attention to their personal lives again, pursuing artistic endeavours and meaningful employment.

They provided supportive care for adults living with disabilities, aid to the poor in developing countries, services for the homeless in Vancouver's Downtown East Side and the message was put forth that "the loving is the everything."The rest of 2008 was spent creating the songs that grew to become their third album, XXXX. Collaborating with producer Howard Redekopp, XXXX was recorded between January and August 2009. XXXX was released to critical acclaim, reached No. 1 on Canadian campus radio charts in only its second week on the charts, remaining at No. 1 for six weeks straight. Additionally, XXXX's lead single, "Laura Palmer's Prom", reached No. 1 on CBC Radio 3's The R3-30 chart the week of November 28, 2009 and the band was asked to perform on CBC Radio One's morning show Q. You Say Party! We Say Die! Played two shows for the 2010 Winter Olympics held in Vancouver, BC. In November 2009, Aux brought Becky Ninkovic together with one of her idols, Martha Johnson of Martha and the Muffins, for a cross-generational interview.

On April 16, 2010, just after the band had finished touring the U. S. and Western Canada, drummer Devon Clifford collapsed on stage during the band's set at The Rickshaw Theatre in Vancouver. He died on April 18 as a result of complications from a sudden brain hemorrhage, they were slated to begin a European tour in the month in support of XXXX, starting in Germany in April and ending in Mallorca, Spain, in June. The band subsequently announced that they were dropping "We Say Die" from their name, "out of respect for and the evolution of life", it was announced that Krista Loewen had left the band, while Robert Andow and Bobby Siadat of Vancouver band Gang Violence had joined, taking over keyboards and drums, respectively. On July 29, the band performed an outdoor show at Jubilee Park in their hometown of Abbotsford, their first live show since Clifford's death. Siadat subsequently decided not to remain with the band, was replaced by Al Boyle of the band Hard Feelings. In July 2010 the band unveiled the track listing for their new remix album, titled REMIXXXX, released on September 21, 2010.

Concurrently, the band announced a rescheduled series of concert dates in the United Kingdom and Ireland for fall 2010. In September 2010, XXXX won a Western Canadian Music Award for Bes

Thom Christopher

Thom Christopher is an American actor. Christopher studied acting at the Neighborhood Playhouse, he is best known for his portrayal of Hawk, a half-man, half-bird warrior in the second season of Buck Rogers in the 25th Century in 1981. He played an upstate Pennsylvania mob boss Carlo Hesser and his meek twin Mortimer Bern on the ABC soap opera, One Life to Live. Christopher has had roles on soap operas such as Loving and Guiding Light, he created the role of Noel Douglas on the CBS soap opera The Edge of Night. Nola as Niles Sterling Deathstalker and the Warriors from Hell as Troxartas Wizards of the Lost Kingdom as Shurka Space Raiders as Flightplan S*H*E as Eddie Bronzi The Edge of Night as Noel Douglas #1 Cannon, episode "The Hero" The Eddie Capra Mysteries, episode "The Two-Million-Dollar Stowaway" Buck Rogers in the 25th Century as Hawk Murder, She Wrote - "Trouble in Eden" as Reverend Willard Manchester and "Appointment in Athens" as Dimitri Popadopalous One Life to Live as Carlo Hesser / Mortimer Bern T. J. Hooker - "Too Late for Love" as Harry Cort and "Death Strip" as Paul Gavin Law & Order- "Stiff" as Dr. Bertram Stokes and "Caviar Emptor" as Alferandi Dilmanian Loving as Dante Partou / Joe Young Guiding Light as Colonel Dax Theatre World Award for Noel Coward in Two Keys Daytime Emmy Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series for One Life to Live Daytime Emmy Awards Daytime Emmy Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series for Loving Daytime Emmy Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series for One Life to LiveSoap Opera Digest Awards Soap Opera Digest Award Outstanding Supporting Actor for One Life to Live Soap Opera Digest Award Outstanding Villain: Daytime for One Life to Live Thom Christopher on IMDb