The red deer is one of the largest deer species. The red deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Asia Minor, parts of western Asia and it inhabits the Atlas Mountains region between Morocco and Tunisia in northwestern Africa, being the only species of deer to inhabit Africa. Red deer have been introduced to areas, including Australia, New Zealand, United States, Peru, Chile. In many parts of the world, the meat from red deer is used as a food source, Red deer are ruminants, characterized by a four-chambered stomach. Genetic evidence indicates the red deer as traditionally defined is a group, rather than a single species. It is probable that the ancestor of all red deer, including wapiti, originated in central Asia, although at one time red deer were rare in parts of Europe, they were never close to extinction. The red deer is the fourth-largest deer species behind moose, elk and it is a ruminant, eating its food in two stages and having an even number of toes on each hoof, like camels and cattle.
European red deer have a long tail compared to their Asian. The deer of Central and Western Europe vary greatly in size, large red deer stags, like the Caspian red deer or those of the Carpathian Mountains, may rival the wapiti in size. Female red deer are smaller than their male counterparts. The male red deer is typically 175 to 250 cm long and weighs 160 to 240 kg, the tail adds another 12 to 19 cm and shoulder height is about 95 to 130 cm. In Scotland, stags average 201 cm in length and 122 cm high at the shoulder. Size varies in different subspecies with the largest, the huge but small-antlered deer of the Carpathian Mountains, weighing up to 500 kg. At the other end of the scale, the Corsican red deer weighs about 80 to 100 kg, European red deer tend to be reddish-brown in their summer coats. The males of many subspecies grow a short neck mane during the autumn, the male deer of the British Isles and Norway tend to have the thickest and most noticeable manes. Male Caspian red deer and Spanish red deer do not carry neck manes, male deer of all subspecies, tend to have stronger and thicker neck muscles than female deer, which may give them an appearance of having neck manes.
Red deer hinds do not have neck manes, the European red deer is adapted to a woodland environment. Only the stags have antlers, which growing in the spring and are shed each year
In an ecosystem, predation is a biological interaction where a predator feeds on its prey. Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on it, but the act of predation often results in the death of the prey, thus predation is often, though not always, carnivory. Other categories of consumption are herbivory and detritivory, all of these are consumer-resource systems. It can often be difficult to separate various types of feeding behaviors. For example, some parasites prey on their host and lay their eggs on it, for their offspring to feed on it while it continues to live, the key characteristic of predation is the predators direct impact on the prey population. Selective pressures imposed on one another leads to an evolutionary arms race between prey and predator, resulting in various antipredator adaptations. Ways of classifying predation include grouping by trophic level or diet, by specialization, Predators can be classified by their interactions with their prey. Two factors are considered here, how close the predator and prey are, and whether the prey is killed by the predator.
A true predator is one that kills and eats another living thing, Predators may hunt actively for prey in pursuit predation, or sit and wait for prey to approach within striking distance, as in ambush predators. Some predation entails venom that subdues a prey before the predator ingests it, as in the box jellyfish, or disables it, in some cases, the venom contributes to the digestion of the prey, as in rattlesnakes and some spiders. In contrast, baleen whales eat millions of microscopic plankton at once and egg predation are true predation, as seeds and eggs are potential organisms. Predators need not eat prey entirely, for example, some predators cannot digest bones, some may eat only part of an organism, but still consistently cause its death. Grazing organisms do not often kill their prey, while some herbivores like zooplankton live on unicellular phytoplankton and therefore, by the individualized nature of the organism, kill their prey, many others only eat a small part of the plant. Grazing livestock may pull some grass out at the roots, but most is simply grazed upon, kelp is frequently grazed in subtidal kelp forests, but regrows at the base of the blade continuously to cope with browsing pressure.
Animals may be grazed upon, female mosquitos land on hosts briefly to gain sufficient proteins for the development of their offspring, starfish may be grazed on, being capable of regenerating lost arms. Parasites can at times be difficult to distinguish from grazers and their feeding behavior is similar in many ways, however they are noted for their close association with their host species. This close living arrangement may be described by the symbiosis, living together. Parasitic organisms range from the mistletoe, a parasitic plant
Neanderthals, or more rarely Neandertals, were a species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo that became extinct about 40,000 years ago. Neanderthals and modern humans share 99. 7% of their DNA and are closely related. Neanderthals left bones and stone tools in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central, from the 1950s to the early 1980s, Neanderthals were widely considered a subspecies of Homo sapiens and a minority of scholars still hold this view. Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe, the earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 160,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorhams Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar, male Neanderthals had cranial capacities averaging 1600 cm3, females 1300 cm3, extending to 1736 cm3 in Amud 1. This is notably larger than the 1250–1400 cm3 typical of modern humans, males stood 164–168 cm and females 152–156 cm tall. Recent studies show that a few Neanderthals began mating with ancestors of modern humans long before the out of Africa migration of present day non-Africans.
Claims that Neanderthals deliberately buried their dead, and if they did, the debate on deliberate Neanderthal burials has been active since the 1908 discovery of the well-preserved Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 skeleton in a small hole in a cave in southwestern France. In 2013, scientists sequenced the genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the bone of a 50. In 2016, elaborate constructions of rings of broken stalagmites made by early Neanderthals around 176,000 years ago were discovered 336 m inside Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France and this would have required a more advanced social structure than previously known for Neanderthals. Thal is a spelling of the German word Tal, which means valley. Nevertheless, Kings name had priority over the proposal put forward in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel, the practice of referring to the Neanderthals and a Neanderthal emerged in the popular literature of the 1920s. The German pronunciation of Neanderthaler or Neandertaler is in the International Phonetic Alphabet, in British English, Neanderthal is pronounced with the /t/ as in German, but different vowels.
In laymans American English, Neanderthal is pronounced with a /θ/ and /ɔ/ instead of the longer British /aː/, during the early 20th century the prevailing view was heavily influenced by Arthur Keith and Marcellin Boule, who wrote the first scientific description of a nearly complete Neanderthal skeleton. During the 1930s scholars Ernst Mayr, George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky reinterpreted the existing fossil record, Neanderthal man was classified as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis - an early subspecies contrasted with what was now called Homo sapiens sapiens. The obviously unbroken succession of fossil sites of both subspecies in Europe was considered evidence that there was a slow and gradual evolutionary transition from Neanderthals to modern humans, contextual interpretations of similar excavation sites in Asia lead to the hypothesis of multiregional origin of modern man in the 1980s. Current scientific ideas hold that both evolved from a common African ancestor, Homo erectus
The Mustelidae are a family of carnivorous mammals, including the weasel, otter, ferret, mink and wolverine. Mustelids are diverse and the largest family in the order Carnivora, the internal classification is still disputed, with rival proposals containing between two and eight subfamilies. One study, published in 2008, questions the long-accepted Mustelinae subfamily, mustelids vary greatly in size and behaviour. The least weasel is not much larger than a mouse, while the giant otter can measure up to 1.7 m in length and sea otters can exceed 45 kg in weight. The wolverine can crush bones as thick as the femur of a moose to get at the marrow, the sea otter uses rocks to break open shellfish to eat. The marten is largely arboreal, while the badger digs extensive networks of tunnels, some mustelids have been domesticated, the ferret and the tayra are kept as pets, or as working animals for hunting or vermin control. Others have been important in the fur trade—the mink is often raised for its fur, as well as being one of the most species-rich families in the order Carnivora, the family Mustelidae is one of the oldest.
Mustelid-like forms first appeared about 40 million years ago, roughly coinciding with the appearance of rodents, the direct ancestors of the modern mustelids first appeared about 15 million years ago. Within a large range of variation, the mustelids exhibit some common characteristics and they are typically small animals with short legs, round ears, and thick fur. Most mustelids are solitary, nocturnal animals, and are active year-round, with the exception of the sea otter, they have anal scent glands that produce a strong-smelling secretion the animals use for sexual signaling and for marking territory. Most mustelid reproduction involves embryonic diapause, the embryo does not immediately implant in the uterus, but remains dormant for some time. No development takes place as long as the embryo remains unattached to the uterine lining, as a result, the normal gestation period is extended, sometimes up to a year. This allows the young to be born under more favorable environmental conditions, reproduction has a large energy cost and it is to a females benefit to have available food and mild weather.
The young are likely to survive if birth occurs after previous offspring have been weaned. Mustelids are predominantly carnivorous, although some eat vegetable matter at times, while not all mustelids share an identical dentition, they all possess teeth adapted for eating flesh, including the presence of shearing carnassials. With variation between species, the most common formula is 126.96.36.199.1.3.2. Several members of the family are aquatic to varying degrees, ranging from the semiaquatic mink, to the river otters, the sea otter is one of the few nonprimate mammals known to use a tool while foraging. It uses anvil stones to open the shellfish that form a significant part of its diet
The cave bear was a species of bear that lived in Europe and Asia during the Pleistocene and became extinct about 24,000 years ago during the Last Glacial Maximum. Both the word cave and the scientific name spelaeus are used because fossils of species were mostly found in caves. This reflects the views of experts that cave bears may have spent more time in caves than the brown bear, Cave bear skeletons were first described in 1774 by Johann Friederich Esper in his book Newly Discovered Zoolites of Unknown Four Footed Animals. While scientists at the time considered that the skeletons could belong to apes, felids, or even dragons or unicorns, twenty years later, Johann Christian Rosenmüller, an anatomist at the Leipzig University, gave the species its binomial name. The bones were so numerous that most researchers had little regard for them, during World War I, with the scarcity of phosphate dung, earth from the caves where cave bear bones occurred were used as a source of phosphates. When the dragon caves in Austrias Steiermark region were exploited for this purpose, only the skulls, many caves in Central Europe have skeletons of cave bears inside, for example the Heinrichshöhle in Hemer, the Dechenhöhle in Iserlohn, Germany.
A complete skeleton, five complete skulls, and 18 other boness were found inside Jaskinia Niedźwiedzia in 1966 in Poland, in Romania, in a cave called Bears Cave,140 cave bear skeletons were discovered in 1983. Both the cave bear and the bear are thought to be descended from the Plio-Pleistocene Etruscan bear that lived about 5.3 Mya to 10,000 years ago. The last common ancestor of cave bears and brown bears lived between 1.2 and 1.4 Mya. The immediate precursor of the bear was probably Ursus deningeri. Ursus spelaeus deningeroides, while other authorities consider both taxa to be variants of the same species. Cave bears found in different regions vary in age, thus facilitating investigations into evolutionary trends, the three anterior premolars were gradually reduced, possibly in response to a largely vegetarian diet. In a fourth of the found in the Conturines, the third premolar is still present. The last remaining premolar became conjugated with the molars, enlarging the crown and granting it more cusps.
This phenomenon, known as molarization, improved the mastication capacities of the molars and this allowed the cave bear to gain more energy for hibernation, while eating less than its ancestors. The cave bear had a broad, domed skull with a steep forehead. Its stout body had long thighs, massive shins and in-turning feet, Cave bears were comparable in size to the largest modern-day bears. The average weight for males was 400 to 500 kilograms, with a specimen weighing 817 kg or more
Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly flint tools associated primarily with Neanderthals. They date to the Middle Paleolithic, the part of the European Old Stone Age. The culture was named after the site of Le Moustier. Similar flintwork has been all over unglaciated Europe and the Near East. Handaxes and points constitute the industry, sometimes a Levallois technique or another prepared-core technique was employed in making the flint flakes, Mousterian tools that have been found in Europe were made by Neanderthals and date from around 160,000 BP and 40,000 BP. In North Africa and the Near East, Mouseterian tools were produced by anatomically modern humans. In the Levant, for example, assemblages produced by Neanderthals are indistinguishable from those made by Qafzeh type modern humans, possible variants are Denticulate, Charentian named after the Charente region and the Acheulean Tradition - Type-A and Type-B. The industry continued alongside the new Châtelperronian industry during the 45, Mousterian artifacts have been found in Haua Fteah in Cyrenaica and other sites in Northwest Africa.
Contained within a cave in the Syria region, along with a Neanderthaloid skeleton, located in the Haibak valley of Afghanistan. Zagros and Central Iran The archaeological site of Atapuerca, gorhams Cave in Gibraltar contains Mousterian objects. Uzbekistan has sites of Mousterian culture, including Teshik-Tash, siberia has many sites with Mousterian style implements, eg Denisova Cave. Neanderthal extinction hypotheses Synoptic table of the old world prehistoric cultures Levallois technique Neanderthals’ Last Stand Is Traced — New York Times article
The Alpine ibex, known as the steinbock or bouquetin, is a species of wild goat that lives in the mountains of the European Alps. It is a dimorphic species with larger males who carry larger. The coat colour is brownish grey. Alpine ibex tend to live in steep, rough terrain above the snow line and they are social, although adult males and females segregate for most of the year, coming together only to mate. Four distinct groups exist, adult groups, female-offsping groups, groups of young individuals. During the breeding season, males fight for access to females and these two national parks are connected and have been especially created to help the ibex to thrive. The ibex is the emblem of both the Gran Paradiso National Park and the Vanoise National Park, the species is currently listed as of least concern by the IUCN. The Alpine ibex was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 and it is classified in the genus Capra with at least seven other species of wild goat. Both Capra and Ovis descended from an animal from the Miocene and early Pliocene, whose fossils are found in Kenya, China.
The genus Tossunnoria appears in China during the late Miocene and appears to have been intermediate between gorals and goats, fossils of Alpine ibex date back to the late Pleistocene, when it and the Spanish ibex probably evolved from the extinct Pleistocene species Capra camburgensis. The Nubian and Siberian ibex are considered to be subspecies of the Alpine ibex. Compared with other members of its genus, the Alpine ibex has a short, broad head and it has brownish grey hair over most of the body, a pale abdomen and slightly darker markings on the chin and throat and in a stripe along the back. They moult twice a year, firstly in April or May, and again in September, when they replace the short coat with thicker hair. Males commonly grow to a height of 90 to 101 centimetres at the withers, with a length of 149 to 171 centimetres. Females are noticeably smaller, with a height of 73 to 84 centimetres, a body length of 121 to 141 centimetres. Both male and female Alpine ibexes have large, backwards-curving, horns with numerous ridges along their length, at 69 to 98 centimetres, those of the males are substantially larger than those of females, which reach only 18 to 35 centimetres in length.
It was introduced to Bulgaria and Slovenia, an excellent climber, its preferred habitat is the rocky region along the snow line above alpine forests, where it occupies steep, rough terrain at elevations of 1,800 to 3,300 metres. Alpine ibex are typically absent from woodland areas although adult males in densely populated areas may stay in larch, males spend the winter in coniferous forests
The Atapuerca Mountains, is a karstic hill formation near Atapuerca town in Castile and Leon, northern Spain. The earliest specimen yet unearthed and reliably dated confirm an age between 1.2 Million and 600,000 years, the site was induced into the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites under the designation Archeological Site of Atapuerca. Stretching alongside the Bureba corridor, a pass that connects the Ebro river valley with the Mediterranean Sea. This conjunction constitutes an ecotone, that is rich in species of both ecosystems, the mountain pass was part of an Roman causeway and the pilgrimage route of Saint James that is now traversed by the N-I and AP-1 highways. Situated strategically in between two major Drainage divides and near the pass is assumed to have been supportive for the successful. The Galería de la Eduarda y el Kolora is a cave that contains parietal rock paintings. Among numerous faunal and floral fossils a jaw fragment was found during the 1970s and a fragment in 1995. They date to between 600,000 and 400,000 years BP, the Gran Dolina site is a huge cavern, which is being excavated since September 1981.
Its sediments were divided into eleven stratae TD-11, Mousterian tools found Level TD-10 presumed to have been a Homo heidelbergensis camp with tools, Level TD-8, accessible since 1994, it contained remarkable carnivore fossils. About 25% of the bones have manipulation marks that suggest cannibalism, taxation of these remains is still being debated, suggestions range from Homo erectus to Homo heidelbergensis and Homo antecessor. The Homo erectus-like fossils were found with retouched flake and core stone tools. Level TD-5 is assumed to have been a carnivore den, in TD-4, four lithic pieces were found during the 1991 excavation and several remnants of Ursus dolinensis, a sparsely described bear species. At the lowest levels no fossils Sima de los Huesos accounts for the greatest number of scientific discoveries. This site is located at the bottom of a 13 m deep shaft, associated finds include Ursus deningeri fossils and a hand axe called Excalibur. The idea sparked a renewal of the disputed evolutionary progress and the stages of human cognitive, ninety percent of the known Homo heidelbergensis fossil record have been obtained at the site.
The fossil bone pit includes, The complete cranium, Skull 5, nicknamed Miguelón, a complete pelvis, humorously nicknamed Elvis Mandibles, teeth, a lot of postcranial bones Remains of a child with craniosynostosis were found and dated to 530,000 BP. The find was considered to provide evidence for food sharing in human populations. Mitochondrial DNA from a 400,000 year old femur has been sequenced, the mtDNA was found to be closer to the mtDNA of Denisova hominins than to the mtDNA of Neanderthals
The woolly mammoth is a species of mammoth that lived during the Pleistocene epoch, and was one of the last in a line of mammoth species, beginning with Mammuthus subplanifrons in the early Pliocene. The woolly mammoth diverged from the steppe mammoth about 400,000 years ago in East Asia and its closest extant relative is the Asian elephant. Mammoth remains had long known in Asia before they became known to Europeans in the 17th century. The origin of these remains was long a matter of debate, the mammoth was identified as an extinct species of elephant by Georges Cuvier in 1796. The woolly mammoth was roughly the size as modern African elephants. Males reached shoulder heights between 2.7 and 3.4 m and weighed up to 6 tonnes, females reached 2. 6–2.9 m in shoulder heights and weighed up to 4 tonnes. A newborn calf weighed about 90 kilograms, the woolly mammoth was well adapted to the cold environment during the last ice age. It was covered in fur, with a covering of long guard hairs. The colour of the coat varied from dark to light, the ears and tail were short to minimise frostbite and heat loss.
It had long, curved tusks and four molars, which were replaced six times during the lifetime of an individual and its behaviour was similar to that of modern elephants, and it used its tusks and trunk for manipulating objects and foraging. The diet of the mammoth was mainly grass and sedges. Individuals could probably reach the age of 60 and its habitat was the mammoth steppe, which stretched across northern Eurasia and North America. The woolly mammoth coexisted with humans, who used its bones and tusks for making art and dwellings. Isolated populations survived on St. Paul Island until 5,600 years ago, after its extinction, humans continued using its ivory as a raw material, a tradition that continues today. It has been proposed the species could be recreated through cloning, the first woolly mammoth remains studied by European scientists were examined by Hans Sloane in 1728 and consisted of fossilised teeth and tusks from Siberia. Sloane was the first to recognise that the remains belonged to elephants, others interpreted Sloanes conclusion slightly differently, arguing the flood had carried elephants from the Tropics to the Arctic.
Sloanes paper was based on descriptions and a few scattered bones collected in Siberia. He discussed the question of whether or not the remains were from elephants, in 1738, Johann Philipp Breyne argued that mammoth fossils represented some kind of elephant
The cave hyena, known as the Ice Age spotted hyena, was a paleosubspecies of spotted hyena which ranged from the Iberian Peninsula to eastern Siberia. It is one of the best known mammals of the Ice Age and is represented in many European bone caves. The cave hyena was a specialised animal, with its progressive and regressive features being more developed than in its modern African relative. The cause of the cave hyenas extinction is not fully understood, though it could have been due to a combination of factors, including climate change, the European cave hyena was much larger than its modern African cousin, having been estimated to weigh 190 kg. As with the African subspecies, female cave hyenas were larger than their male counterparts, paleolithic rock art depicting the cave hyena shows that it retained the spotted pelt of its African relative. Several den sites found in Europe indicate that the cave hyena preferentially targeted large prey, with wild horses predominating, followed by steppe bison, the cave hyenas favouring of horses is consistent with the behaviour of the modern African spotted hyena, which mostly hunts zebras.
Secondary prey species included reindeer, red deer, giant deer, European ass, chamois, a small number of wolf remains have been discovered in hyena den sites. The cave hyena likely killed wolves due to competition, though their presence in the cave site indicates that they were fed upon. Similarly, cave lion and bear remains have been discovered in hyena den sites, the first recorded mention of the cave hyena in literature occurs in Kundmanns 1737 tome Rariora Naturæ et Artis, where the author misidentified a hyenas mandibular ramus as that of a calf. In 1774, Esper erroneously described hyena teeth discovered in Gailenreuth as those of a lion, bucklands findings were followed by further discoveries by Clift and Whidbey in Oreston, Plymouth. He elaborated his view in his Ossemens Fossiles, noting how the cave hyenas digital extremities were shorter and thicker than those of the spotted hyena and his views were largely accepted throughout the first half of the 19th century, finding support in de Blainville and Richard Owen among others.
Further justifications in separating the two animals included differences in the portion of the lower carnassial. Writing again in 1877, he stated after comparing the two animals skulls that there are no characters of specific value. Analyses of the DNA sequences of the cytochrome b genes in both modern African and Pleistocene spotted hyenas demonstrated that the two were the same species. Kills partially processed by Neanderthals and by cave hyenas indicate that hyenas would occasionally steal Neanderthal kills, many caves show alternating occupations by hyenas and Neanderthals. The presence of large populations in the Russian Far East may have delayed the human colonisation of North America. There is fossil evidence of humans in Middle Pleistocene Europe butchering, the cave hyena is depicted in a few examples of Upper Palaeolithic rock art in France. A painting from the Chauvet Cave depicts a hyena outlined and represented in profile, because of the specimens steeped profile, it is thought that the painting was originally meant to represent a cave bear, but was modified as a hyena