Anina is a town in southwestern Romania, in Caraş-Severin County, with a population of 10,886 in 2000. The town administers one village, Steierdorf, in 2002, the oldest modern human remains in Europe were discovered in a cave near Anina. Nicknamed Ion din Anina, the remains are some 40,000 years old, the Early Jurassic flora is represented by Bryophytes and Gymnosperms, with numerous coal generators. The coal mining heritage is very significant, with Austrian industrial architecture and pits still preserved, such as the Northern Pit, Pit II. Coal mining activities began in 1792, after the first coal outcrop was discovered by Matthew Hammer, the Anina-Oravita railway built in 1863, it is still in use today for touristic purposes. It is one of the most beautiful railways in Europe due to very picturesque landscapes and long tunnels. The railway preserves many aspects of the design and, as such, it does not comply with many UIC standards and it needs special, more powerful locomotives. Peștera Muierilor Peștera cu Oase Bucur, I.
I, formatiunile mesozoice din zona Resita-Moldova Noua, Cluj-Napoca,214 pp. Givulescu, R.1998. Flora fosila a Jurasicului inferior de la Anina, editura Academiei Romane, Bucuresti,90 pp. Pienkowski, G. Popa, M. E. and Kedzior, A.2009. Early Jurassic sauropod footprints of the Southern Carpathians, Romania and palaeogeographical significance, first find of Mesozoic tetrapod tracks in Romania. Bucur, Filipescu, S. Sasaran, E. Algae, aspects of Romanian Early Jurassic Palaeobotany and Palynology. Popa, M. E. and Kedzior, A.2006, preliminary ichnological results on the Steierdorf Formation in Anina, Romania. In, Z. Csiki and Cenozoic vertebrates and paleoenvironments, Popa, M. E. and Van Konijnenburg - Van Cittert, J. H. A. Aspects of Romanian Early - Middle Jurassic palaeobotany and palynology, progress in Natural Sciences,16, 203-212
It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools, probably by Homo habilis initially,2.6 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene around 10,000 BP. The Paleolithic era is followed by the Mesolithic, the date of the Paleolithic–Mesolithic boundary may vary by locality as much as several thousand years. During the Paleolithic period, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, the Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use as tools, including leather and vegetable fibers, due to their nature, surviving artifacts of the Paleolithic era are known as paleoliths. About 50,000 years ago, there was a increase in the diversity of artifacts. For the first time in Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record, the first evidence of human fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa. The new technology generated an explosion of modern humans which is believed to have led to the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Humankind gradually evolved from members of the genus Homo—such as Homo habilis. The climate during the Paleolithic consisted of a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate periodically fluctuated between warm and cool temperatures, by c. 50,000 – c. 40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia. By c. 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61°N latitude in Europe, by c. 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, and by c. 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia, above the Arctic Circle. At the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed Beringia, the term Paleolithic was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865. It derives from Greek, παλαιός, old, and λίθος, stone, human evolution is the part of biological evolution concerning the emergence of anatomically modern humans as a distinct species. The Paleolithic Period coincides almost exactly with the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time and this epoch experienced important geographic and climatic changes that affected human societies.
During the preceding Pliocene, continents had continued to drift from possibly as far as 250 km from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current location. South America became linked to North America through the Isthmus of Panama, most of Central America formed during the Pliocene to connect the continents of North and South America, allowing fauna from these continents to leave their native habitats and colonize new areas. Africas collision with Asia created the Mediterranean Sea, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean, climates during the Pliocene became cooler and drier, and seasonal, similar to modern climates. The formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by a shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice-rafted cobbles in the North Atlantic. Mid-latitude glaciation probably began before the end of the epoch, the global cooling that occurred during the Pliocene may have spurred on the disappearance of forests and the spread of grasslands and savannas
Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves and it has been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes, the English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century. The German word came into use before the 19th century, according to the prevalent interpretation, the term is derived from the German name for the Karst region, a limestone plateau above the city of Trieste in the northern Adriatic. Scholars disagree, however, on whether the German word was borrowed from Slovene, the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, and the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. The Slovene words arose through metathesis from the reconstructed form *korsъ, the word is of Mediterranean origin, believed to derive from some Romanized Illyrian base.
It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra- rock, the name may be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, and perhaps to Latin Carusardius. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, if this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power. The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through the atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of acid can be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation.
As oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation. This chain of reactions is, This reaction chain forms gypsum, the karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath. On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, limestone pavement, medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, disappearing streams, and reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements and karst valleys, mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground systems and extensive caves. Some of the most dramatic of these formations can be seen in Thailands Phangnga Bay, calcium carbonate dissolved into water may precipitate out where the water discharges some of its dissolved carbon dioxide.
Rivers which emerge from springs may produce tufa terraces, consisting of layers of calcite deposited over extended periods of time, in caves, a variety of features collectively called speleothems are formed by deposition of calcium carbonate and other dissolved minerals
Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. ANU enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students, the universitys endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is ranked 22nd in the world by the 2016/17 QS World University Rankings, ANU was named the worlds 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2016 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, a ranking of university graduates employability. ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking, ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers,30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of Government departments of Australia, calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900.
After the location of the capital, was determined in 1908. A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock, economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANUs first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was originally organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies, the first residents’ hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the government in 1924. The first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, the Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of education in the national capital, having been established in 1929. Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution, CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university.
Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, in 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies, initially with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later, Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961. The Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art were amalgamated by ANU in 1992, ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires largely destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory, ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope
The Iron Gates is a gorge on the Danube River. It forms part of the boundary between Serbia and Romania, the gorge lies between Romania to the north and Serbia to the south. At this point, the river separates the southern Carpathian Mountains from the foothills of the Balkan Mountains. The Romanian side of the gorge constitutes the Iron Gates natural park, in English, the gorge is known as Iron Gates or Iron Gate. An 1853 article about the Danube in The Times of London referred to it as the Iron Gate, or the Gate of Trajan. In languages of the region including Romanian, Polish, Czech and Bulgarian and these names are Romanian, Porțile de Fier. An alternative Romanian name for the last part of the route is Defileul Dunării, in Serbian, the gorge is known as Đerdap, with the last part named Đerdapska klisura from the Byzantine Greek Κλεισούρα, enclosure or pass. The first narrowing of the Danube lies beyond the Romanian isle of Moldova Veche and is known as the Golubac gorge and it is 14.5 km long and 230 m wide at the narrowest point.
At its head, there is a fort at Golubac. Through the valley of Ljupovska lies the second gorge, Gospodjin Vir, the cliffs scale to 500 m and are the most difficult to reach here from land. The broader Donji Milanovac forms the connection with the Great and the Small Kazan gorge, the Orșova valley is the last broad section before the river reaches the plains of Wallachia at the last gorge, the Sip gorge. The Great Kazan is the most famous and the most narrow gorge of the whole route, east of this site the Roman emperor Trajan had built the legendary bridge erected by Apollodorus of Damascus. Construction of the bridge ran from 103 through 105, preceding Trajans final conquest of Dacia, on the right bank a Roman plaque commemorates him. On the Romanian bank, at the Small Kazan, the likeness of Trajans Dacian opponent Decebalus was carved in rock from 1994 through 2004, the sandstone statues dated to the early neolithic era are particularly splendid. Together with many other findings in the Iron Gates gorges area, the riverbed rocks and the associated rapids made the gorge valley an infamous passage for shipping.
In German, the passage is known as the Kataraktenstrecke. Near the actual Iron Gates strait the Prigrada rock was the most important obstacle until 1896, the river widened considerably here, the Greben rock near the Kazan gorge was notorious. In 1831 a plan had already been drafted to make the passage navigable, finally Gábor Baross, Hungarys Iron Minister, succeeded in financing this project
Neanderthals, or more rarely Neandertals, were a species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo that became extinct about 40,000 years ago. Neanderthals and modern humans share 99. 7% of their DNA and are closely related. Neanderthals left bones and stone tools in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central, from the 1950s to the early 1980s, Neanderthals were widely considered a subspecies of Homo sapiens and a minority of scholars still hold this view. Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe, the earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 160,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorhams Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar, male Neanderthals had cranial capacities averaging 1600 cm3, females 1300 cm3, extending to 1736 cm3 in Amud 1. This is notably larger than the 1250–1400 cm3 typical of modern humans, males stood 164–168 cm and females 152–156 cm tall. Recent studies show that a few Neanderthals began mating with ancestors of modern humans long before the out of Africa migration of present day non-Africans.
Claims that Neanderthals deliberately buried their dead, and if they did, the debate on deliberate Neanderthal burials has been active since the 1908 discovery of the well-preserved Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 skeleton in a small hole in a cave in southwestern France. In 2013, scientists sequenced the genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the bone of a 50. In 2016, elaborate constructions of rings of broken stalagmites made by early Neanderthals around 176,000 years ago were discovered 336 m inside Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France and this would have required a more advanced social structure than previously known for Neanderthals. Thal is a spelling of the German word Tal, which means valley. Nevertheless, Kings name had priority over the proposal put forward in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel, the practice of referring to the Neanderthals and a Neanderthal emerged in the popular literature of the 1920s. The German pronunciation of Neanderthaler or Neandertaler is in the International Phonetic Alphabet, in British English, Neanderthal is pronounced with the /t/ as in German, but different vowels.
In laymans American English, Neanderthal is pronounced with a /θ/ and /ɔ/ instead of the longer British /aː/, during the early 20th century the prevailing view was heavily influenced by Arthur Keith and Marcellin Boule, who wrote the first scientific description of a nearly complete Neanderthal skeleton. During the 1930s scholars Ernst Mayr, George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky reinterpreted the existing fossil record, Neanderthal man was classified as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis - an early subspecies contrasted with what was now called Homo sapiens sapiens. The obviously unbroken succession of fossil sites of both subspecies in Europe was considered evidence that there was a slow and gradual evolutionary transition from Neanderthals to modern humans, contextual interpretations of similar excavation sites in Asia lead to the hypothesis of multiregional origin of modern man in the 1980s. Current scientific ideas hold that both evolved from a common African ancestor, Homo erectus
A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period beginning 500,000 years ago. It typically includes Homo neanderthalensis, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo heidelbergensis and this category is contrasted with anatomically modern humans, which include the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo sapiens idaltu. Modern humans are theorized to have evolved from humans, who in turn evolved from Homo erectus. Varieties of archaic humans are sometimes included under the binomial name Homo sapiens because their size is very similar to that of modern humans. Archaic humans had a brain size averaging 1200 to 1400 cubic centimeters, archaics are distinguished from anatomically modern humans by having a thick skull, prominent supraorbital ridges and the lack of a prominent chin. Anatomically modern humans appear from about 200,000 years ago and after 70,000 years ago, non-modern varieties of Homo are certain to have survived until after 30,000 years ago, and perhaps until as recent as 10,000 years ago.
Which of these, if any, are included under the archaic human is a matter of definition. Nonetheless, according to recent genetic studies, modern humans may have bred with at least two groups of ancient humans and Denisovans. New evidence suggests another group may have been extant as recently as 11,500 years ago, chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London has suggested that these people could be a result of mating between Denisovans and modern humans. Other scientists remain skeptical, suggesting that the features are within the variations expected for human populations. The category archaic human lacks a single, agreed upon definition, according to one definition, Homo sapiens is a single species comprising several subspecies that include the archaics and modern humans. Under this definition, modern humans are referred to as Homo sapiens sapiens, for example, the Neanderthals are Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, and Homo heidelbergensis is Homo sapiens heidelbergensis. Other taxonomists prefer not to consider archaics and modern humans as a single species, in this case the standard taxonomy is used, i. e.
Homo rhodesiensis, or Homo neanderthalensis. The evolutionary dividing lines that separate humans from archaic Homo sapiens. However, these modern humans do possess a number of archaic traits, such as moderate. The emergence of humans is sometimes used as an example of punctuated equilibrium. This occurs when a species undergoes significant biological evolution within a short period. Subsequently, the species undergoes very little change for long periods until the next punctuation, the brain size of archaic humans expanded significantly from 900 cm2 in erectus to 1,300 cm2
University of Bergen
The University of Bergen is a public university located in Bergen, Norway. Although founded as late as 1946, academic activity had taken place at Bergen Museum as far back as 1825, the university today serves approximately 17,000 students, and is one of eight universities in Norway. The University of Bergen, in common with other Norwegian universities, does not charge tuition fees, students are however required to be members of the student welfare organisation. As of Fall 2015, this fee is NOK590 per semester, 40kr of the fee is a donation to the SAIH, a student charity, but this is optional. However most of the give the donation. In 2010 the university was ranked as number 135 worldwide by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, UiB was ranked number 148 worldwide in the July 2010 Webometrics Ranking of World Universities. The URAP has ranked UiB for 2014/2015 as the 219th worldwide, the University of Bergen has an elected rector, currently Dag Rune Olsen. The university has six faculties, the University of Bergen Library, the Faculty of Law was established as a separate faculty in 1980, with legal studies and research having been conducted at the university since 1969.
The faculty is one of three Norwegian institutions which offer legal studies, the two being the law faculties at the University of Oslo and the University of Tromsø. The faculty offers a programme leading to a Masters degree in law and a three-year PhD programme. Established in 1980, it educates psychologists and is responsible for the Universitys pedagogic education, mukhisa Kituyi Karl Ove Knausgård Erna Solberg Tore Renberg The University has an Arboretum and Botanical Garden. Official site All academic units List over research groups Humanities IT centre Wittgenstein Archives of Bergen - Ludwig Wittgenstein Utrecht Network
Speleology and caving are often connected, as the physical skills required for in situ study are the same. In Romania, the term speology is used, this is derived from a Greek word for cave, rather than the Latin, spelaeum. Speleology is a field that combines the knowledge of chemistry, geology, physics and cartography to develop portraits of caves as complex. In 1895 Martel founded the Société de Spéléologie, the first organization devoted to science in the world. The creation of an accurate, detailed map is one of the most common technical activities undertaken within a cave, caves provide a home for many unique biota. Cave ecologies are diverse, and not sharply distinct from surface habitats. Generally however, the deeper the cave becomes, the more rarefied the ecology, cave environments fall into three general categories, Endogean the parts of caves that are in communication with surface soils through cracks and rock seams, groundwater seepage, and root protrusion. Parahypogean the threshold regions near cave mouths that extend to the last penetration of sunlight and these can be in regular contact with the surface via wind and underground rivers, or the migration of animals, or can be almost entirely isolated.
Deep hypogean environments can host autonomous ecologies whose primary source of energy is not sunlight, cave organisms fall into three basic classes, There are so-called accidental trogloxenes which are surface organisms that enter caves for no survival reason. Some may even be troglophobes, which survive in caves for any extended period. Examples include deer which fell through a sinkhole, frogs swept into a cave by a flash flood, the two factors that limit cave ecologies are generally energy and nutrients. To some degree moisture is available in actively forming Karst caves. Cut off from the sunlight and steady deposition of plant detritus, the majority of energy in cave environments comes from the surplus of the ecosystems outside. One major source of energy and nutrients in caves is dung from trogloxenes, because of their rarity and position in the ecosystem they are threatened by a large number of human activities. Dam construction, limestone quarrying, water pollution and logging are just some of the disasters that can devastate or destroy underground biological communities.
Speleologists work with archaeologists in studying underground ruins, tunnels and aqueducts, such as the various inlets and outlets of the Cloaca Maxima in Rome
Electron paramagnetic resonance
Electron paramagnetic resonance or electron spin resonance spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons. The basic concepts of EPR are analogous to those of nuclear magnetic resonance, EPR spectroscopy is particularly useful for studying metal complexes or organic radicals. EPR was first observed in Kazan State University by Soviet physicist Yevgeny Zavoisky in 1944, and was developed independently at the same time by Brebis Bleaney at the University of Oxford. Every electron has a moment and spin quantum number s =12, with magnetic components m s = +12 and m s = −12.0023 for the free electron. Therefore, the separation between the lower and the state is Δ E = g e μ B B0 for unpaired free electrons. This equation implies that the splitting of the levels is directly proportional to the magnetic fields strength. An unpaired electron can move between the two levels by either absorbing or emitting a photon of energy h ν such that the resonance condition. This leads to the equation of EPR spectroscopy, h ν = g e μ B B0.
Furthermore, EPR spectra can be generated by varying the photon frequency incident on a sample while holding the magnetic field constant or doing the reverse. In practice, it is usually the frequency that is kept fixed, a collection of paramagnetic centers, such as free radicals, is exposed to microwaves at a fixed frequency. At this point the electrons can move between their two spin states. The upper spectrum below is the absorption for a system of free electrons in a varying magnetic field. The lower spectrum is the first derivative of the absorption spectrum, the latter is the most common way to record and publish EPR spectra. For the microwave frequency of 9388.2 MHz, the predicted resonance occurs at a field of about B0 = h ν / g e μ B =0.3350 teslas =3350 gausses. For example, for the field of 3350 G shown at the right, in practice, EPR samples consist of collections of many paramagnetic species, and not single isolated paramagnetic centers. At 298 K, X-band microwave frequencies give n upper / n lower ≈0.998, transitions from the lower to the higher level are more probable than the reverse, which is why there is a net absorption of energy.
With k f and P being constants, N min ~ −1, i. e. N min ~ ν − α, in practice, α can change varying from 0.5 to 4.5 depending on spectrometer characteristics, resonance conditions, and sample size. A great sensitivity is obtained with a low detection limit N min
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris, after disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ancient universities are frequently referred to as Oxbridge. The university is made up of a variety of institutions, including 38 constituent colleges, All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. Being a city university, it not have a main campus, its buildings. Oxford is the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the worlds oldest and most prestigious scholarships, the university operates the worlds oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system in Britain.
Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 28 Nobel laureates,27 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, the University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in form as early as 1096. It grew quickly in 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris, the historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190. The head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge, the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two nations, representing the North and the South. In centuries, geographical origins continued to many students affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. At about the time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities.
Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, Lincolnshire was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III. Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England, even in London, thus and Cambridge had a duopoly, the new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, as a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxfords reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment, enrolments fell and teaching was neglected