The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, in most countries it started in 1929 and it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States, after a fall in stock prices that began around September 4,1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15%, by comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s, however, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%, unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%.
Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries, farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time, john D. Rockefeller said These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come, prosperity has always returned and will again. The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April and this was still almost 30% below the peak of September 1929. Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered losses in the stock market the previous year. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S, by mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed.
By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928, prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Florence Owens Thompson
Florence Owens Thompson, born Florence Leona Christie, was the subject of Dorothea Langes famous photo Migrant Mother, an iconic image of the Great Depression. The Library of Congress titled the image, Destitute pea pickers in California, Florence Owens Thompson was born Florence Leona Christie on September 1,1903, in Indian Territory, present-day Oklahoma. Her father, Jackson Christie, had abandoned her mother, Mary Jane Cobb, before Florence was born, the family lived on a small farm in Indian Territory outside of Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Seventeen-year-old Florence married Cleo Owens, a 23-year-old farmers son from Stone County and they soon had their first daughter, followed by a second daughter, and a son, Leroy. The family migrated west with other Owens relatives to Oroville, California, by 1931, Florence was pregnant with her sixth child when her husband Cleo died of tuberculosis. Florence worked in the fields and in restaurants to support her six children, in 1933 Florence had another child, returned to Oklahoma for a time, and was joined by her parents as they migrated to Shafter, north of Bakersfield.
There Florence met Jim Hill, with whom she had three more children, during the 1930s the family worked as migrant farm workers following the crops in California and at times into Arizona. Florence recalled periods when she picked 400–500 pounds of cotton from first daylight until after it was too dark to work and she said, I worked in hospitals. I done a bit of everything to make a living for my kids. The family settled in Modesto, California, in 1945, well after World War II, Florence met and married hospital administrator George Thompson. This marriage brought her far greater security than she had ever enjoyed. On the road, the timing chain snapped and they coasted to a stop just inside a pea-pickers camp on Nipomo Mesa. They were shocked to find so many people camping there – as many as 2,500 to 3,500, a notice had been sent out for pickers, but the crops had been destroyed by freezing rain, leaving them without work or pay. Years Florence told an interviewer that when she cooked food for her children that day little children appeared from the pea pickers camp asking, Can I have a bite.
While Jim Hill, her husband, and two of Florences sons went into town to get the damaged radiator repaired, Florence. As Florence waited, photographer Dorothea Lange, working for the Resettlement Administration, drove up and started taking photos of Florence and she took 6 images in the course of 10 minutes. Langes field notes of the read, Seven hungry children. Destitute in pea pickers’ camp … because of failure of the pea crop
Class is an essential object of analysis for sociologists, political scientists and social historians. However, there is not a consensus on the best definition of the class, the precise measurements of what determines social class in society has varied over time. According to philosopher Karl Marx, class is determined entirely by ones relationship to the means of production, the term class is etymologically derived from the Latin classis, which was used by census takers to categorize citizens by wealth, in order to determine military service obligations. In the late 18th century, the class began to replace classifications such as estates, rank. Historically social class and behavior was sometimes laid down in law, definitions of social classes reflect a number of sociological perspectives, informed by anthropology, economics and sociology. The major perspectives historically have been Marxism and Structural functionalism, the common stratum model of class divides society into a simple hierarchy of working class, middle class and upper class.
For Marx, class is a combination of objective and subjective factors, objectively, a class shares a common relationship to the means of production. Subjectively, the members will necessarily have some perception of their similarity, Class consciousness is not simply an awareness of ones own class interest but is a set of shared views regarding how society should be organized legally, culturally and politically. These class relations are reproduced through time and this is the fundamental economic structure of work and property, a state of inequality that is normalized and reproduced through cultural ideology. Marxists explain the history of civilized societies in terms of a war of classes between those who control production and those who produce the goods or services in society, in the Marxist view of capitalism, this is a conflict between capitalists and wage-workers. Furthermore, in countries where modern civilisation has become fully developed, an industrial army of workmen, under the command of a capitalist, like a real army and sergeants who, while the work is being done, command in the name of the capitalist.
This would mark the beginning of a society in which human needs rather than profit would be motive for production. In a society with democratic control and production for use, there would be no class, no state and no need for financial and banking institutions and money. Max Weber formulated a three-component theory of stratification, that saw social class as emerging from an interplay between class and power. Weber believed that class position was determined by a relationship to the means of production. Weber derived many of his key concepts on social stratification by examining the structure of many countries. He noted that contrary to Marxs theories, stratification was based on more than simply ownership of capital, Weber pointed out that some members of the aristocracy lack economic wealth yet might nevertheless have political power. Likewise in Europe, many wealthy Jewish families in lack prestige and honor, Class, A persons economic position in a society
U.S. Route 66
U. S. Route 66, known as the Will Rogers Highway, the Main Street of America or the Mother Road, was one of the original highways within the U. S. Highway System. US66 was established on November 11,1926, with signs erected the following year. It was recognized in popular culture by both the hit song Route 66 and the Route 66 television show in the 1960s. US66 served as a path for those who migrated west, especially during the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. Portions of the road passed through Illinois, New Mexico, and Arizona have been designated a National Scenic Byway of the name Historic Route 66. Several states have adopted significant bypassed sections of the former US66 into the road network as State Route 66. His secondary orders were to test the feasibility of the use of camels as pack animals in the southwestern desert and this road became part of US66. Parts of the original Route 66 from 1913, prior to its naming and commissioning. The paved road becomes a road, south of Cajon. Before a nationwide network of numbered highways was adopted by the states, the route that would become US66 was covered by three highways.
The Lone Star Route passed through St. Louis on its way from Chicago to Cameron, the transcontinental National Old Trails Road led via St. Again, a shorter route was taken, here following the Postal Highway between Oklahoma City and Amarillo. Finally, the National Old Trails Road became the rest of the route to Los Angeles, the original inspiration for a roadway between Chicago and Los Angeles was planned by entrepreneurs Cyrus Avery of Tulsa and John Woodruff of Springfield, Missouri. The pair lobbied the American Association of State Highway Officials for the creation of a following the 1925 plans. The numerical designation 66 was assigned to the Chicago-to-Los Angeles route on April 30,1926 in Springfield, Louis streets and on Route 266 to Halltown, Missouri. Avery was adamant that the highway have a number and had proposed number 60 to identify it. A controversy erupted over the number 60, largely from delegates from Kentucky who wanted a Virginia Beach–Los Angeles highway to be US60, arguments and counterarguments continued throughout February, including a proposal to split the proposed route through Kentucky into Route 60 North and Route 60 South.
The final conclusion was to have US60 run between Virginia Beach and Springfield, and the Chicago–L. A. Avery and highway engineer John Page settled on 66, which was unassigned, because he thought the number would be easy to remember as well as pleasant to say
The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath is an American realist novel written by John Steinbeck and published in 1939. The book won the National Book Award and Pulitzer Prize for fiction, due to their nearly hopeless situation, and in part because they are trapped in the Dust Bowl, the Joads set out for California. Along with thousands of other Okies, they seek jobs, dignity, the Grapes of Wrath is frequently read in American high school and college literature classes due to its historical context and enduring legacy. A celebrated Hollywood film version, starring Henry Fonda and directed by John Ford, was made in 1940, the narrative begins just after Tom Joad is paroled from McAlester prison, where he had been imprisoned after being convicted of homicide. On his return to his home near Sallisaw, Tom meets former preacher Jim Casy, whom he remembers from his childhood, when they arrive at Toms childhood farm home, they find it deserted. Disconcerted and confused and Casy meet their old neighbor, Muley Graves, Graves tells them that the banks have evicted all the farmers, but he refuses to leave the area.
The next morning and Casy go to Uncle Johns, the Joads have no option but to seek work in California, described in handbills as fruitful and offering high pay. The Joads put everything they have into making the journey, although leaving Oklahoma would violate his parole, Tom decides it is worth the risk, and invites Casy to join him and his family. Traveling west on Route 66, the Joad family find the road crowded with other migrants, in makeshift camps, they hear many stories from others, some returning from California, and the group worries about lessening prospects. The family unit dwindles, Granpa dies along the road, and they bury him in a field, Granma dies close to the California state line, led by Ma, the remaining members realize they can only continue, as nothing is left for them in Oklahoma. Reaching California, they find the state oversupplied with labor, so wages are low, the big corporate farmers are in collusion, and smaller farmers suffer from collapsing prices. Nonetheless, as a Federal facility, the camp protects the migrants from harassment by California deputies, in response to the exploitation, Casy becomes a labor organizer and tries to recruit for a labor union.
The remaining Joads work as strikebreakers in an orchard, where Casy is involved in a strike that eventually turns violent. When Tom Joad witnesses Casys fatal beating, he kills the attacker, the Joads leave the orchard for a cotton farm, where Tom is at risk of being arrested for the homicide. Tom bids his farewell and promises to work for the oppressed. Rose of Sharons baby is stillborn, Ma Joad remains steadfast and forces the family through the bereavement. With rain, the Joads dwelling is flooded, and they move to higher ground, in the final chapter of the book, the family takes shelter from the flood in an old barn. Inside, they find a boy and his father, who is dying of starvation
The region is known for supporting extensive cattle ranching and dry farming. The Canadian portion of the Plains is known as the Prairies, some geographers include some territory of northern Mexico in the Plains, but many stop at the Rio Grande. The term Great Plains is used in the United States to describe a sub-section of the even more vast Interior Plains physiographic division and it has currency as a region of human geography, referring to the Plains Indians or the Plains States. There is no region referred to as the Great Plains in The Atlas of Canada, in terms of human geography, the term prairie is more commonly used in Canada, and the region is known as the Prairie Provinces or simply the Prairies. The region is about 500 mi east to west and 2,000 mi north to south, much of the region was home to American bison herds until they were hunted to near extinction during the mid/late 19th century. It has an area of approximately 500,000 sq mi, current thinking regarding the geographic boundaries of the Great Plains is shown by this map at the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska–Lincoln.
The term Great Plains, for the region west of about the 96th or 98th meridian, nevin Fennemans 1916 study, Physiographic Subdivision of the United States, brought the term Great Plains into more widespread usage. Before that the region was almost invariably called the High Plains, today the term High Plains is used for a subregion of the Great Plains. The Great Plains are the westernmost portion of the vast North American Interior Plains, during the Cretaceous Period, the Great Plains were covered by a shallow inland sea called the Western Interior Seaway. However, during the Late Cretaceous to the Paleocene, the seaway had begun to recede, leaving thick marine deposits. During the Cenozoic era, specifically about 25 million years ago during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, existing forest biomes declined and grasslands became much more widespread. The grasslands provided a new niche for mammals, including many ungulates and glires, the spread of grasslands and the development of grazers have been strongly linked.
The vast majority of animals became extinct in North America at the end of the Pleistocene. In general, the Great Plains have a variety of weather through the year, with very cold and harsh winters and very hot. Wind speeds are very high, especially in winter. Grasslands are among the least protected biomes, humans have converted much of the prairies for agricultural purposes or to create pastures. The Great Plains have dust storms mostly every year or so, the 100th meridian roughly corresponds with the line that divides the Great Plains into an area that receive 20 in or more of rainfall per year and an area that receives less than 20 in. The region is subjected to extended periods of drought, high winds in the region may generate devastating dust storms
Nipomo is a census-designated place in San Luis Obispo County, United States. The population was 12,626 at the 2000 census, Nipomo is located at 35°1′48″N 120°29′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has an area of 14.9 square miles. This region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Nipomo has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated Csb on climate maps. The 2010 United States Census reported that Nipomo had a population of 16,714, the population density was 1,125.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Nipomo was 12,281 White,177 African American,200 Native American,421 Asian,33 Pacific Islander,2,821 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,645 persons. The Census reported that 16,703 people lived in households,11 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 338 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 49 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 807 households were made up of individuals and 346 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.05.
There were 4,365 families, the family size was 3.35. The median age was 37.0 years, for every 100 females there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males, there were 5,759 housing units at an average density of 387.8 per square mile, of which 3,898 were owner-occupied, and 1,576 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1. 7%, the vacancy rate was 3. 1%. 11,583 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 5,120 people lived in housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,626 people,4,035 households, the population density was 1,106.1 people per square mile. There were 4,146 housing units at a density of 363.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 75. 9% White,0. 60% African American,1. 3% Native American,1. 4% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,16. 0% from other races, and 4. 7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 34. 6% of the population,13. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6. 6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 3.13 and the family size was 3.42
Tennessee Ernie Ford
Ernest Jennings Ford, known professionally as Tennessee Ernie Ford, was an American recording artist and television host who enjoyed success in the country and Western and gospel musical genres. Noted for his rich voice and down-home humor, he is remembered for his hit recordings of The Shotgun Boogie. Born in Bristol, Tennessee to Maud and Clarence Thomas Ford, Ford began his radio career as an announcer at WOPI-AM in Bristol. In 1939, the young left the station to study classical singing at the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music in Ohio. As First Lieutenant, he served in the United States Army Air Corps in World War II as the bombardier on a B-29 Superfortress flying missions over Japan and he was a bombing instructor at George Air Force Base, located in Victorville, California. After the war, Ford worked at stations in San Bernardino and Pasadena. At KFXM in San Bernardino, Ford was hired as a radio announcer and he was assigned to host an early morning country music disc jockey program, Bar Nothin Ranch Time.
To differentiate himself, he created the personality of Tennessee Ernie and he became popular in the area and was soon hired away by Pasadenas KXLA radio. At KXLA, Ford continued doing the show and joined the cast of Cliffie Stones popular live KXLA country show Dinner Bell Roundup as a vocalist while still doing the early morning broadcast. Cliffie Stone, a talent scout for Capitol Records, brought him to the attention of the label. In 1949, while doing his morning show, he signed a contract with Capitol. He became a local TV star as the star of Stones popular Southern California Hometown Jamboree show, radiOzark produced 260 15-minute episodes of The Tennessee Ernie Show on transcription disks for national radio syndication. He released almost 50 country singles through the early 1950s, several of which made the charts, ill Never Be Free, a duet pairing Ford with Capitol Records pop singer Kay Starr, became a huge country and pop crossover hit in 1950. A duet with Ella Mae Morse, False Hearted Girl was a top seller for the Capitol Country and Hillbilly division, Ford eventually ended his KXLA morning show and in the early 1950s, moved on from Hometown Jamboree.
He took over from band-leader Kay Kyser as host of the TV version of NBC quiz show Kollege of Musical Knowledge when it returned briefly in 1954 after a four-year hiatus. He became a name in the U. S. largely as a result of his portrayal in 1954 of the country bumpkin, Cousin Ernie on three episodes of I Love Lucy. In 1955, Ford recorded Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier with Farewell to the Mountains on side B. The songs authorship has been claimed by both Travis and George S. Davis, although Travis is recognized as the author on the recording itself, by BMI
An Okie is a resident, native, or cultural descendant of Oklahoma. Like most terms that disparage specific groups, it was first applied by the dominant cultural group and it is derived from the name of the state, similar to Texan or Tex for someone from Texas, or Arkie or Arkansawyer for a native of Arkansas. In the 1930s in California, the term came to refer to very poor migrants from Oklahoma, the Dust Bowl and the Okie migration of the 1930s brought in over a million newly displaced people, many headed to the farm labor jobs advertised in Californias Central Valley. Dunbar-Ortiz argues that Okie denotes much more than being from Oklahoma, by 1950, four million individuals, or one quarter of all persons born in Oklahoma, Arkansas, or Missouri, lived outside the region, primarily in the West. Prominent Okies in the 1930s included Woody Guthrie, most prominent in the late 1960s and 1970s were country musician Merle Haggard and writer Gerald Haslam. S. Californians began calling all migrants by that name, even though many newcomers were not actually Oklahomans, the migrants included people from Oklahoma, Missouri, Nebraska, Texas and New Mexico, but were all referred to as Okies and Arkies.
More of the migrants were from Oklahoma than any state. Ben Reddick, a free-lance journalist and publisher of the Paso Robles Daily Press, is credited with first using the term Oakie, in the mid-1930s and he noticed the OK abbreviation on many of the migrants license plates and referred to them in his article as Oakies. The first known usage was an unpublished private postcard from 1907, many West Coast residents and some politically motivated writers used Okie to disparage these poor, white migrant workers and their families. The term became well-known nationwide by John Steinbecks novel The Grapes of Wrath, will Rogers, a famous movie star and political commentator from Oklahoma remarked jokingly that the Okies moving from Oklahoma to California increased the average intelligence of both states. Once the Okie families migrated from Oklahoma to California, they often were forced to work on farms to support their families. Because of the pay, these families were often forced to live on the outskirts of these farms in shanty houses they built themselves.
These homes were set up in groups called Squatter Camps or Shanty Towns. Indoor plumbing was inaccessible to these migrant workers, and so they were forced to resort to using outhouses. Unfortunately, because of the space allotted to the migrant workers, their outhouses were normally located near the irrigation ditches. These irrigation ditches provided the Okie families with a water supply, due to this lack of sanitation in these camps, disease ran rampant among the migrant workers and their families. However, what native Californians failed to realize at the time was that these Okie migrant farm workers did not always live in the conditions that the Dust Bowl left them in. In fact, often these families had owned their own farms and had been able to support themselves