Barrier islands are coastal landforms and a type of dune system that are exceptionally flat or lumpy areas of sand that form by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast. They occur in chains, consisting of anything from a few islands to more than a dozen, they are subject to change during storms and other action, but absorb energy and protect the coastlines and create areas of protected waters where wetlands may flourish. A barrier chain may extend uninterrupted for over a hundred kilometers, excepting the tidal inlets that separate the islands, the longest and widest being Padre Island of Texas; the length and width of barriers and overall morphology of barrier coasts are related to parameters including tidal range, wave energy, sediment supply, sea-level trends, basement controls. The amount of vegetation on the barrier has a large impact on the height and evolution of the island. Chains of barrier islands can be found along 13-15% of the world's coastlines, they display different settings, suggesting that they can form and be maintained in a variety of environmental settings.
Numerous theories have been given to explain their formation. Lower shorefaceThe shoreface is the part of the barrier where the ocean meets the shore of the island; the barrier island body itself separates the shoreface from the backshore and lagoon/tidal flat area. Characteristics common to the lower shoreface are fine sands with mud and silt. Further out into the ocean the sediment becomes finer; the effect from the waves at this point is weak because of the depth. Bioturbation is common and many fossils can be found here. Middle shorefaceThe; the middle shoreface is influenced by wave action because of its depth. Closer to shore the grain size will be medium size sands with shell pieces common. Since wave action is heavier, bioturbation is not likely. Upper shorefaceThe upper shore face is affected by wave action; this results in development of herringbone sedimentary structures because of the constant differing flow of waves. Grain size is larger sands. ForeshoreThe foreshore is the area on land between low tide.
Like the upper shoreface, it is affected by wave action. Cross bedding and lamination are present and coarser sands are present because of the high energy present by the crashing of the waves; the sand is very well sorted. BackshoreThe backshore is always above the highest water level point; the berm is found here which marks the boundary between the foreshore and backshore. Wind is the important factor here, not water. During strong storms high waves and wind can erode sediment from the backshore. DunesThe dunes are typical of a barrier island, located at the top of the backshore. Dunes are made by the wind. See Coastal Dunes for more information; the dunes will display characteristics of typical aeolian wind blown dunes. The difference here is that dunes on a barrier island contain coastal vegetation roots and marine bioturbation. Lagoon and tidal flatsThe lagoon and tidal flat area is located behind the backshore area. Here the water is still and this allows for fine silts and mud to settle out.
Lagoons can become host to an anaerobic environment. This will allow high amounts of organic rich mud to form. Vegetation is common. Moreton Bay, on the east coast of Australia and directly east of Brisbane, is sheltered from the Pacific Ocean by a chain of large barrier islands. Running north to south they are Bribie Island, Moreton Island, North Stradbroke Island and South Stradbroke Island. North Stradbroke Island is the second largest sand island in the world and Moreton Island is the third largest. Fraser Island, another barrier island lying 200 km north of Moreton Bay on the same coastline, is the largest sand island in the world, they are seen most prominently on the United States' East Coast and Gulf Coast, where every state, stretching from Maine to Florida and Florida to Texas on each coast has at least part of a barrier island, stretching to more than twenty-five for Florida. However, this chain is international, it ends in Mexico. No barrier islands are found on the Pacific coast of the United States due to the rocky shore and short continental shelf, but barrier peninsulas can be found.
Barrier islands can be seen on Alaska's Arctic coast. Barrier Islands can be found in Maritime Canada, other places along the coast. A good example is found at Miramichi Bay, New Brunswick, where Portage Island as well as Fox Island and Hay Island protect the inner bay from storms in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Mexico's Gulf Coast has numerous barrier islands and barrier Peninsulas. Barrier islands are more prevalent in the north of both of New Zealand's main islands. Notable barrier islands in New Zealand include Matakana Island, which guards the entrance to Tauranga Harbour, Rabbit Island, at the southern end of Tasman Bay. See Nelson Harbour's Boulder Bank, below. Barrier islands can be observed in the Baltic Sea and are a distinct feature of the Wadden Islands, which stretch from the Netherlands to Denmark; the Lido di Venezia is a notable barrier island which has for centuries protected the city of Venice in Italy. Barrier Islands can be observed except Antarctica. Migration and overwashWater levels may be higher than the island during storm events.
This situation can lead to overwash, which brings sand from the front of the island to the top and/or landward side of the island. This process leads to the migration of the barrier island. Critical width conceptBarrier islands are formed to h
Rodanthe, North Carolina
Rodanthe is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located in Dare County, North Carolina, United States, on Hatteras Island, part of North Carolina's Outer Banks. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 261. Rodanthe, along with Waves and Salvo, are part of the settlement of Chicamacomico. Rodanthe includes the original Chicamacomico Life-Saving Station, decommissioned in 1954, but now a museum. Rodanthe is served by North Carolina Highway 12; the Chicamacomico area is bordered to the north by Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge and to the south by Cape Hatteras National Seashore, a situation which limits potential growth. The town is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east and Pamlico Sound to the west. Rodanthe is the easternmost point of North Carolina, it is famous for its observation of "Old Christmas" on January 6 Christmas, December 25, by the Julian Calendar, a custom held over from the original settlers who still used the "Old Style" calendar. A mythical beast, "Old Buck"—possibly related to Belsnikel or Krampus who are companions of Saint Nicholas in Christmas festivities—is said to appear at the celebration.
The residents of Rodanthe are governed by the Dare County Board of Commissioners. Rodanthe is part of District 4, along with Avon, Frisco, Hatteras and Salvo; the Chicamacomico Life Saving Station and Oregon Inlet Station are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Many of Rodanthe's restaurants and markets are seasonal, closing during the winter months and reopening the following spring. Many of these are family-owned, rather than chain franchises. Provisions can still be purchased on the Outer Banks during the winter months, but a short drive south to the town of Avon or north to Nags Head is required. There are only two motels within the larger settlement of Chicamacomico. There are, three inns or bed and breakfasts on the island of Hatteras There are numerous rental houses and small, as well as numerous campgrounds ranging from deluxe to rustic. Several smaller campgrounds cater to water sports enthusiasts. Local water sports include fishing, swimming, sailboarding and Wreck diving, among others.
In 2002, Nicholas Sparks published the book Nights in Rodanthe, adapted into a movie. George C. Wolfe directed the film adaptation, filmed in the town of Rodanthe and filmed in eastern North Carolina – including Cape Hatteras and Wilmington; the movie was released on September 26, 2008. Several Rodanthe landmarks such as the Rodanthe Pier were used during filming. During film production, one of the rental houses, "Serendipity", the northeastern-most house in Rodanthe, was transformed into the fictional "Inn at Rodanthe"; this house was damaged and condemned after a nor'easter storm in November 2009. The house was saved from demolition by a private businessman, Ben Huss, a bail bondsman, from Newton, North Carolina, moved less than one mile south
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
Dare County, North Carolina
Dare County is the easternmost county in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 33,920, its county seat is Manteo. The county is named after Virginia Dare, the first child born in the Americas to English parents, born in what is now Dare County. Dare County is included in the Kill Devil Hills, NC Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Virginia Beach-Norfolk, VA-NC Combined Statistical Area. At one time, the now-abandoned town of Buffalo City was the largest community in the county; because it includes much of Pamlico Sound, Dare County is the largest county in North Carolina by total area, although if one were to consider land area only, it drops down to 68th in size among the state's 100 counties. This is because, according to the Census Bureau's 2010 statistics, only 24.54% of its area is land, the lowest percentage of all counties in the state. Robeson County is the largest county in North Carolina by land area only. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,563 square miles, of which 383 square miles is land and 1,179 square miles is water.
It is the largest county in North Carolina by area. Dare County contains Roanoke Island. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge Cape Hatteras National Seashore Fort Raleigh National Historic Site Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge Wright Brothers National Memorial As of the census of 2010, there were 33,920 people, 12,690 households, 8,450 families residing in the county; the population density was 78 people per square mile. There were 26,671 housing units at an average density of 70 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.3% White, 2.5% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.4% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. 6.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,690 households out of which 27.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.00% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.79. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.40% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 30.80% from 25 to 44, 27.70% from 45 to 64, 13.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 101.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,411, the median income for a family was $49,302. Males had a median income of $31,240 versus $24,318 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,614. About 5.50% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.90% of those under age 18 and 5.30% of those age 65 or over. As of 2010, the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Dare County were: Duck Kill Devil Hills Kitty Hawk Manteo Nags Head Southern Shores Atlantic Township Croatan Township East Lake Township Hatteras Township Kinnekeet Township Nags Head Township Dare at present is a Republican county.
No Democratic presidential nominee has carried Dare County since Jimmy Carter did so in 1976. Before the 1970s it was a typical “Solid South” Democratic county that did not vote Republican between 1900 and 1952 – a period during which the South’s black population was completely disenfranchised. In the 2016 Republican primary, Donald Trump received 2,650 votes in Dare County followed by Ted Cruz who came in second with 1,156 votes. In the 2016 Democratic Primary, Bernie Sanders received 2,307 votes whereas Hillary Clinton only won 2,003 votes. In the general election Donald Trump received 11,460 votes whereas Hillary Clinton received 7,222 votes and Libertarian Candidate Gary Johnson received 674 votes. In this regards Dare County has the distinction of being one of many counties in the state of North Carolina which Donald Trump won in both the primary election and the general election, which Hillary Clinton lost in both the primary election and the general election. Dare County is governed by the Dare County Board of Commissioners.
Dare County is a part of the Albemarle Commission regional council of governments. Dare County is home to two popular lighthouses: The Cape Hatteras Lighthouse and the Bodie Island Lighthouse. There is a beacon atop the Wright Brothers Memorial. A third lighthouse was built by the Town of Manteo and dedicated on September 25, 2004; the Roanoke Marshes Lighthouse is an exterior recreation of the 1877 screwpile lighthouse of the same name and is located on the Manteo waterfront. It serves as exhibit space for the N. C. Maritime Museum on Roanoke Island. US 64 US 158 US 264 NC 12 NC 345 NC 400 Dare County Regional Airport, a general aviation airport, is located in Dare County. Public education is run by Dare County Schools: Manteo High School Manteo Middle School Manteo Elementary School First Flight High School First Flight Middle School First Flight Elementary School Kitty Hawk Elementary School Dare County Alternative School Cape Hatteras Secondary School Cape Hatteras Elementary School Nags Head Elementary School National Register of Historic Places listings in Dare County, North Carolina
Nags Head, North Carolina
Nags Head is a town in Dare County, North Carolina, United States. It is sand dunes of Jockey's Ridge; the population was 2,757 at the 2010 census. Early maps of the area show Nags Head as a promontory of land characterized by high sand dunes visible from miles at sea; the origin of the town's name is obscure but it is to have been named after any one of the Nag's Heads on the English coast. A folkloric explanation claims that mules or horses would have lights hung on their heads by nefarious wreckers in order to trick ships into running aground and loot the ships of their valuables; the town's emblem depicts one such equine accomplice from the tale. Around 1830, Nags Head so remains today. Jockey's Ridge is the last vestige of the sand dunes seen by the first explorers, as the area is now developed; the town incorporated in 1961. Nags Head is located at 35°55′55″N 75°36′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 6.6 square miles, of which 6.6 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 1.15%, is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 2,757 people, 1,223 households, 741 families residing in the town. The population density was 413.2 people per square mile. There were 4,884 housing units at an average density of 634.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.6% White, 1.6% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 1.4% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.44% of the population. There were 1,223 households out of which 23.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.4% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.65. In the town, the population was spread out with 19.2% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 28.0% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $53,095, the median income for a family was $61,302. Males had a median income of $33,289 versus $30,139 for females; the per capita income for the town was $30,157. About 4.4% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.9% of those under age 18 and 4.3% of those age 65 or over. Located in Nags Head is the largest sand dune on the East Coast, Jockey's Ridge; the sand dune has migrated over the years from the energy of coastal winds and has buried a miniature golf course along the way. Jockey's Ridge has been popular with hang-gliders since the advent of the sport, as well as kite flyers; the park's visitor center includes an informative museum with exhibits on sand and local fauna. The diversity of wildlife may change with seasonal migrations and includes bird species, mice, occasional deer and rabbits.
One of the most exciting features of the Ridge is its capriciousness. Annual visitors find that ephemeral pools can spring up, the sand can shift, making for a fresh experience every time. From the top of the Ridge, the ocean as well as the sound can be seen. Jockey's Ridge has a sound beach on the Roanoke Sound side; the Nags Head Woods Ecological Preserve is 1,092 acres and lies North of Jockey's Ridge and east of Roanoke Sound. It was designated a National Natural Landmark in 1974; as in any other beach town, the ocean and shoreline are the major attractions, providing beaches for swimming, a variety of water sports. A series of historic cottages overlook the beach in sections. There are three piers popular for fishing: Nags Head Pier, Jennette's Pier, Outer Banks Pier; the town features miniature golf courses and small amusement centers with go-karts and bumper cars for family entertainment. Other attractions include various National Register of Historic Places in or near Nags Head, such as the following: Official website Webcams: Nags Head - East and Nags Head - West from outerbanks.net
Avon, North Carolina
Avon is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Dare County in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, it had a permanent population of 776. Avon is located on the North Carolina Outer Banks at latitude 35°21'7" North, longitude 75°30'39" West; the village is north of Buxton on Hatteras Island. The United States Postal Service has assigned Avon the ZIP Code 27915. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the Avon CDP has a total area of 2.41 square miles, of which 2.36 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles, or 2.27%, is water. Avon is bordered to the west by Pamlico Sound. Named "Kinnakeet", the village was renamed "Avon" by the U. S. Postal Service when a post office was established there in 1883; the U. S. Life-Saving Service constructed the Little Kinnakeet Life Saving Station in 1874, remaining active, under the Coast Guard from 1915, until decommissioned in 1954; the building is now part of the Cape Hatteras National Seashore. The residents of Avon are governed by the Dare County Board of Commissioners.
Avon is part of District 4, along with Buxton, Hatteras, Rodanthe and Salvo. Little Kinnakeet Lifesaving Station: Home to Unsung Heroes, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c