Ragged schools were charitable organisations dedicated to the free education of destitute children in nineteenth-century Britain. The schools were developed in working-class districts. Ragged schools were intended for society's most destitute children; such children, it was argued, were excluded from Sunday School education because of their unkempt appearance and challenging behaviour. The London Ragged Schools Union was established in April 1844 to combine resources in the city, providing free education, clothing and other home missionary services for poor children. Although the London Ragged School Union did not extend beyond the metropolis, its publications and pamphlets helped spread ragged school ideals across the country. Working in the poorest districts, teachers utilised stables and railway arches for their classes; the majority of teachers were voluntary. There was an emphasis on reading, writing and study of the Bible; the curriculum expanded into commercial subjects in many schools. It is estimated that about 300,000 children went through the London ragged schools alone between 1844 and 1881.
The Ragged School Museum in the East End of London shows. The Ragged School Museum provides an idea of the working of a ragged school, but Thomas Barnardo's institution differed in practice and philosophy from those schools accountable to the London Ragged School Union. Several different schools claim to have pioneered free education for impoverished children. For many of the destitute children of London, going to school each day was not an option. From the 18th century onwards, schools for poor children were few and far between, they had been started in areas where someone had been concerned enough to want to help disadvantaged children towards a better life. In the late eighteenth century Thomas Cranfield offered free education for poor children in London. While he was a tailor by trade, Cranfield's educational background included studies at a Sunday school on Kingsland Road, Hackney. In 1798, he established a free children's day school on Kent Street near London Bridge. By the time of his death in 1838, he had established 19 free schools providing services for children and infants living in the lower-income areas of London.
These opportunities and services were offered days, on Sundays, for the destitute children of poor families throughout London. John Pounds, a Portsmouth shoemaker, provided important inspiration for the movement. At the age of twelve Pounds' father arranged. Three years he fell into a dry dock and was crippled for life after damaging his thigh. Unable to work as a shipwright, John became a shoemaker and, by 1803, had his own shop in St Mary Street, Portsmouth. In 1818, known as the crippled cobbler, began teaching poor children without charging fees, he recruited children and young people to his school. He spent time on the streets and quays of Portsmouth making contact and bribing them to come with the offer of baked potatoes, he began teaching local children reading and arithmetic. His reputation as a teacher grew and he soon had more than 40 students attending his lessons, he gave lessons in cooking and shoemaking. Pounds died in 1839. Pounds became a figurehead for the schools. In 1841 Sheriff Watson established a school in Scotland.
Unlike the earlier efforts of Pounds and Cranfield, Watson used compulsion to increase attendance at the institution. Watson was frustrated by the number of children who committed a petty crime and faced him in his courtroom. Rather than sending them to prison for vagrancy, Watson established a school for boys; as a law official, the sheriff enrolled them in school. The Industrial Feeding School opened to provide reading and arithmetic. Watson believed that gaining these skills would help the boys rise above the lowest level of society, it was not confined to the'three R's', however, as the young scholars received instruction on geology. Three meals a day were provided and the boys were taught useful trades such as shoemaking and printing. A school for girls followed in 1843. In 1845, the schools were integrated. From here, the movement spread to other parts of Scotland; the same year that Watson established his school in Aberdeen, the Field Lane ragged school began in Clerkenwell, London. Historians have debated how connected the movement was between Scotland.
E. A. G. Clark argued that ‘the London and Scottish schools had little in common except their name’. More Laura Mair has demonstrated that literature and passionate individuals were shared between schools, she writes that'schools forged significant links across cities and countries that disregarded physical distance'. It was S. R. Starey, the secretary of the Field Lane ragged school, who first applied the term'ragged' to the institutions in an advert he submitted to The Times seeking public support. Although the Edinburgh Original Ragged School, established by the Reverend Thomas Guthrie in April 1847, was not the first ragged school in Scotland, Guthrie was acknowledged as a core leader of the movement. His'Plea for Ragged Schools', published in March 1847 to garner the public's support for a school in the city, laid out his indisputable arguments that proved influential. Guthrie was first introduced to the idea of a ragged schools in 1841, while acting as the Parish Minister of St. John’s Church in Edinburgh.
Marshalsea Road is a major street in Southwark, south London, England. At the northwest end is the Southwark Bridge Road. At the southeast end is Borough tube station on Borough High Street. Continuing across the street are Great Dover Street. At the northeast corner is the historic St George the Martyr church, where the Charles Dickens character Little Dorrit was married in Dickens' book of the same name; the area around Marshalsea Road has many Dickens associations. Opposite Borough tube station, on the corner of Marshalsea Road and Borough High Street, is Brandon House; this is now the headquarters of Acas, an independent non-departmental public body of the UK Government for resolving industrial relations disputes. The Christian Medical Fellowship is located at 6 Marshalsea Street and the Tara Bryan Gallery is at No 10. BCH Architects, specialists in church restoration projects and ecclesiastical architecture, are located at 16–18 Marshalsea Road; the area was known as The Mint. It was a slum area with privileges for debtors until The Mint in Southwark Act 1722 removed these rights.
The area remained a slum until the 19th century. The only reminder of The Mint is Mint Street off Marshalsea Road, where there used to be a workhouse; the Marshalsea prison, associated with the Marshalsea Court, was located close to the southeast end of what is now Marshalsea Road, just north of St George's Church. The area has Dickensian connections and the prison was mentioned in the works of Charles Dickens; the Marshalsea was significant to Dickens since his father was imprisoned at the prison for debt from 2 February 1824 to 28 May 1824. At the time, Dickens lived nearby in Lant Street, just south of Marshalsea Road, in a house that belonged to the Vestry Clerk of St George's Church; the prison was closed in the 19th century and only a fragment of wall now remains, forming the north part of St George's churchyard. In 1875, it was suggested that a new road to connect with Southwark Bridge Road would be beneficial to the traffic congestion on London Bridge. Powers to create such a road were granted to the Metropolitan Board of Works by the 1877 Metropolitan Street Improvements Act.
Subsequently, Marshalsea Road was opened in 1888, named after the former prison. In 1902, a small public open space, known as Little Dorrit's Playground, after the Charles Dickens character, was opened north of Marshalsea Road. Much of the area became derelict as a result of air raid damage during World War II. North of Marshalsea Road is Little Dorrit's Court named after the Dickens character. LondonOnline information Marshalsea Road house prices
Bermondsey is a neighbourhood in the London Borough of Southwark, England, 2.5 miles southeast of Charing Cross. To the west of Bermondsey lies Southwark, to the east Rotherhithe and Deptford, to the south Walworth and Peckham, to the north the City of London and Whitechapel. Bermondsey may be understood to mean Beornmund's island, thus Bermondsey need not have been an island as such in the Anglo-Saxon period, is as to have been a higher, drier spot in an otherwise marshy area. Though Bermondsey's earliest written appearance is in the Domesday Book of 1086, it appears in a source which, though surviving only in a copy written at Peterborough Abbey in the 12th century, claiming "ancient rights" unproven purporting to be a transcription of a letter of Pope Constantine, in which he grants privileges to a monastery at Vermundesei in the hands of the abbot of Medeshamstede, as Peterborough was known at the time. Bermondsey appears in the Domesday Book as Bermundesye, it was held by King William, though a small part was in the hands of Robert, Count of Mortain, the king's half brother, younger brother of Odo of Bayeux earl of Kent.
Its Domesday assets were recorded as including 13 hides,'a new and handsome church', 5 ploughs, 20 acres of meadow, woodland for 5 pigs. It rendered £15 in total, it included interests in London, in respect of which 13 burgesses paid 44d. The church mentioned in Domesday Book was the nascent Bermondsey Abbey, founded as a Cluniac priory in 1082, was dedicated to St Saviour. Monks from the abbey began the development of the area, cultivating the land and embanking the riverside, they turned an adjacent tidal inlet at the mouth of the River Neckinger into a dock, named St Saviour's Dock after their abbey. But Bermondsey was little more than a high street ribbon, leading from the southern bank of the Thames, at Tooley Street, up to the abbey close; the Knights Templar owned land here and gave their names to one of the most distinctive streets in London, Shad Thames. Other ecclesiastical properties stood nearby at Tooley Street, located in the Archbishop of Canterbury's manor of Southwark, where wealthy citizens and clerics had their houses, including the priors of Lewes and St Augustine's, the abbot of Battle.
King Edward III built a manor house close to the Thames in Bermondsey in 1353. The excavated foundations are visible next to Bermondsey Wall East close to the famous Angel public house; as it developed over the centuries, Bermondsey underwent some striking changes. After the Great Fire of London, it was settled by the well-to-do and took on the character of a garden suburb along the lines of Grange Road, as Bermondsey Street became more urbanised, of Jamaica/ Lower Road. A pleasure garden was founded there in the 17th century, commemorated by the Cherry Garden Pier. Samuel Pepys visited "Jamaica House" at Cherry Gardens in 1664 and recorded in his diary that he had left it "singing finely". Jamaica Road still remains. Though not many buildings survive from this era, one notable exception is the church of St Mary Magdalen in Bermondsey Street, completed in 1690; this church came through The Blitz unscathed. It is not just an unusual survivor for Bermondsey. In the 18th century, the discovery of a spring from the river Neckinger in the area led to the development of Bermondsey Spa, as the area between Grange and Jamaica Roads called Spa Road commemorates.
A new church was built for the growing population of the area, named St John Horsleydown. It was from the Bermondsey riverside that the painter J. M. W. Turner executed his famous painting of The Fighting "Temeraire" Tugged to her Last Berth to be Broken Up, depicting the veteran warship being towed to Rotherhithe to be scrapped. By the mid-19th century, parts of Bermondsey along the riverside, had become notorious slums with the arrival of industrial plants and immigrant housing; the area around St. Saviour's Dock, known as Jacob's Island, was one of the worst in London, it was immortalised in Charles Dickens's novel Oliver Twist, in which the villain, Bill Sikes, meets his end in the mud of'Folly Ditch', in reference to Hickman's Folly, which surrounded Jacob's Island. Dickens provides a vivid description of what it was like:... crazy wooden galleries common to the backs of half a dozen houses, with holes from which to look upon the slime beneath. Bermondsey Town Hall was built on Spa Road in 1881 but Blitzed in 1941.
The area was extensively redeveloped during the 19th century and early 20th century with the expansion of the river trade and the arrival of the railways. London's first passenger railway terminus was built by the London to Greenwich Railway in 1836 at London B
George Peabody was an American financier and philanthropist. He is regarded as the father of modern philanthropy. Born into a poor family in Massachusetts, Peabody went into business in dry goods and into banking. In 1837 he moved to London where he became the most noted American banker and helped to establish the young country's international credit. Having no son of his own to whom he could pass on his business, Peabody took on Junius Spencer Morgan as a partner in 1854 and their joint business would go on to become J. P. Morgan & Co. after Peabody's 1864 retirement. In his old age, Peabody won worldwide acclaim for his philanthropy, he founded the Peabody Trust in Britain and the Peabody Institute and George Peabody Library in Baltimore, was responsible for many other charitable initiatives. For his generosity, he was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal and made a Freeman of the City of London, among many other honors. Peabody was born in 1795 in what was South Danvers, Massachusetts, his family had Puritan ancestors in the state.
As one of seven children in a poor family, George suffered some deprivations during his childhood, was able to attend school for only a few years. He expressed "I have never forgotten and never can forget the great privations of my early years"; these factors influenced his devotion to both thrift and philanthropy. In 1816, he moved to Baltimore, where he would live for the next 20 years, he established his residence and office in the old Henry Fite House, became a businessman and financier. At that time London, Amsterdam and Frankfurt were at the center of international banking and finance; as all international transactions were settled in gold or gold certificates, a developing nation like the United States had to rely upon agents and merchant banks to raise capital through relationships with merchant banking houses in Europe. Only they held the quantity of reserves of capital necessary to extend long-term credit to a developing economy like that of the US. Peabody first visited England in 1827, seeking to use his firm and his agency to sell American states' bond issues, to raise capital for those states' various programs of "internal improvements".
Over the next decade Peabody made four more trans-Atlantic trips, starting in 1835 and establishing a branch office in Liverpool. He established the banking firm of "George Peabody & Company" in London. In 1837, he took up permanent residence in London. In the 1840s, the state of Maryland defaulted on its debt and Peabody, having marketed about half of Maryland's securities to individual investors in Europe, became persona non grata around London; the Times of London noted that while Peabody was an "American gentleman of the most unblemished character", the Reform Club had blackballed him for being a citizen of a country that reneged on its debts. At first, Peabody sent letters to scold Baltimore friends about the need for the state to resume interest payment and rewarded reporters with small gratuities for favourable articles about the state. At last, in 1845 he conspired with Barings to push Maryland into resuming payment by setting up a political slush fund to spread propaganda for debt resumption and elect legislators who would placate their investors.
By means of a secret account, the two firms transferred a thousand sterling to Baltimore and bribed Daniel Webster, the orator and statesman, to make speeches for debt repayment. Their attempts were successful: pro-resumption Whigs were elected and London bankers started to receive payments. Barrings duplicated the same tactics in Pennsylvania. Florida and Mississippi were the most persistent debtors and as such were excluded from Peabody's philanthropies. Although Peabody was engaged in 1838, he never married. Ron Chernow describes him as "homely", with "a rumpled face... knobby chin, bulbous nose, side whiskers, heavy-lidded eyes."Peabody entertained and provided letters of introduction for American businessmen visiting London, became known for the Anglo-American dinners he hosted in honor of American diplomats and other worthies, in celebration of the Fourth of July. In 1851, when the US Congress refused to support the American section at the Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace, Peabody advanced £3000 to improve the exhibit and uphold the reputation of the United States.
In 1854, he offended many of his American guests at a Fourth of July dinner when he chose to toast Queen Victoria before US President Franklin Pierce. At around this time, Peabody began to suffer from rheumatoid gout. In February 1867, on one of several return visits to the United States, at the height of his financial success, Peabody was suggested by Francis Preston Blair, an old crony of President Andrew Jackson and an active power in the smoldering Democratic Party as a possible Secretary of the Treasury in the cabinet of President Andrew Johnson. At about the same time, Peabody was mentioned in newspapers as a future presidential candidate. Peabody described the presidential suggestion as a "kind and complimentary reference", but considered that at age 72, he was too old for either office. While serving as a volunteer in the War of 1812, Peabody met Elisha Riggs, who, in 1814, provided financial backing for what became the wholesale dry goods f
Southwark is a district of Central London and is the north-west of the London Borough of Southwark. Centred 1 1⁄2 miles east of Charing Cross, it fronts the River Thames and the City of London to the north, it was at the lowest bridging point of the Thames in Roman Britain, providing a crossing from Londinium, for centuries had the only Thames bridge in the area, until a bridge was built upstream more than 10 miles to the west. It was a 1295-enfranchised Borough in the county of Surrey created a burh in 886, containing various parishes by the high medieval period succombing to City attempts to constrain its free trade and entertainment, its entertainment district, in its heyday at the time of Shakespare's Globe Theatre has revived in the form of the Southbank which overspills imperceptibly into the ancient boundaries of Lambeth and commences at the post-1997 reinvention of the original theatre, Shakespeare's Globe, incorporating other smaller theatre spaces, an exhibition about Shakespeare's life and work and which neighbours Vinopolis and the London Dungeon.
After the 18th century decline of Southwark's small wharves, the borough grew in population and saw the growth of great docks, printing/paper, goods yards, small artesan and other low-wage industries and Southwark was among many such inner districts to see slum clearance and replacement with social housing during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is now at an advanced stage of regeneration and has the City Hall offices of the Greater London Authority. At its heart is the area known as Borough, which has an eclectic covered and semi-covered market and numerous food and drink venues as well as the skyscraper The Shard. Another landmark is Southwark Cathedral, a priory parish church created a cathedral in 1905, noted for its Merbecke Choir; the area has three main tube stations: Borough, Southwark nearby and one close to the river, combined with a major railway station above, London Bridge. The name Suthriganaweorc or Suthringa geweorche is recorded for the area in the 10th-century Anglo-Saxon document known as the Burghal Hidage and means "fort of the men of Surrey" or "the defensive work of the men of Surrey".
Southwark is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as Sudweca. The name is formed from the Old English sūþ and weorc; the southern location is in reference to the City of London to the north, Southwark being at the southern end of London Bridge. Until 1889, the county of Surrey included the present-day London Borough of Southwark, yet the name has been used for various areas of civil administration, including the ancient Borough of Southwark, the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark and the current London Borough of Southwark; the ancient borough of Southwark was known as The Borough—or Borough—and this name, in distinction from'The City', has persisted as an alternative name for the area. The medieval heart of Southwark was referred to as the ward of Bridge Without when administered by the City and as an aldermanry until 1978. For the toponymy of the area's street names see Street names of Southwark Southwark is sited on a once marshy area south of the River Thames. Recent excavation has revealed prehistoric activity including evidence of early ploughing, burial mounds and ritual activity.
Much was in pre-Roman years a series of tidal islands in the Thames, formalised into ditches such as the so-called River Neckinger. This formed the best place to bridge the Thames and the area became an important part of Londinium, owing its importance to its position as the endpoint of the Roman London Bridge. Two Roman roads, Stane Street and Watling Street, met at Southwark in what is now Borough High Street. Archaeological work at Tabard Street in 2004 discovered a plaque with the earliest reference to'Londoners' from the Roman period on it. Londinium was abandoned at the end of the Roman occupation in the early 5th century and both the city and its bridge collapsed in decay. Archaeologically, evidence of settlement is replaced by a featureless soil called the Dark Earth which represents an urban area abandoned. Southwark appears to recover only during the time of his successors. Sometime about 886, the burh of Southwark was created and the Roman city area reoccupied, it was fortified to defend the bridge and hence the reemerging City of London to the north.
This defensive role is highlighted by the use of the bridge in 1016 as a defence against King Sweyn and his son King Cnut by Ethelred the Unready and again, in 1066, against Duke William the Conqueror. He failed to force the bridge during the Norman conquest of England. Southwark appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 within the hundred of Brixton as held by several Surrey manors, its assets were: Bishop Odo of Bayeux held the monastery and the tideway – which still exists as St Mary Overie dock. Southwark's value to the King was £16. Much of Southwark was owned by the church – the greatest reminder of monastic London is Southwark Cathedral the priory of St Mary Overie. During the early Middle Ages, Southwark developed and was one of the four Surrey towns which returned Members of Parliament for the first commons assembly in 1295. An important market occupied the High Street from some
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Edward Thomas Wakefield
Edward Thomas Wakefield was an UK barrister. He was born in Leeson Street, Dublin in 1821, he obtained his BA from Dublin University on 16 May 1846 and moved to London to practise as a barrister. The first mention of estates in Ireland was on 12 June 1884 when he was in dispute with his tenants over peat rights; the tenants of his Lurgan estate described him as an absentee landlord. The estate included Portadown House, he died at Margate on 21 June 1896. In 1865 E. T. Wakefield bought Chapman's Lot, Askam near Barrow-in-Furness, from Thomas Sharpe; the intention was to build an ironworks for the Furness Iron and Steel Co, in which he was a partner, a housing estate on his own account. There was an iron mine working here on a lease from the Duke of Buccleuch; when the inevitable subsidance became apparent, Wakefield sought to establish: a, that the duke was not entitled to ore under his land and b, that the duke was not entitled to cause surface damage on his land. Wakefield won his case in 1867 but the verdict was overturned in the House of Lords in 1870.
On 7 October 1863, E. T. Wakefield married Florence Wharton at the British embassy in Munich. In 1846 he presented a petition on behalf of the Aborigines' Protection Society and in 1856 became a trustee of the National Savings Bank. In 1857 he addressed the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science on the amendment of law on transfer of land, in September 1858 he addressed the Kendal Scientific Institute on "Poetry as a means of education considered principally in relation to the working classes" and in 1862 he addressed the Literary and Scientific Institute on "The American war, its causes and consequences". In 1859 he became hon sec for the Metropolitan Free Drinking Fountain Association and produced the design for their first fountain, his book on the subject is still in print. In May 1862 he became a trustee of the National Association of British Miners, he became a minister of the United Methodist Free Churches in August 1883 and was a member of the Primitive Methodist church society