International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue
Founded in 1999, the aim of the organisation is to promote and facilitate dialogue among the leadership of the main belligerents. It conducts research and analysis on mediation and peacemaking in support of its work to improve international efforts to secure. To do so, HD opens channels of communication and mediates between parties in conflict, as well as dialogue and provides support to the broader mediation. HD will facilitate dialogue in both confidential settings as well as public ones and it is headquartered in Geneva, which is the location of its Middle East and North Africa programme. HD has regional offices in Africa and Asia, the organisation evolved this approach to include negotiations in support of humanitarian objectives and aimed to create space for humanitarian activities in conflict environments. It quickly broadened, at the behest of conflicting parties in Aceh, to include the resolution of the conflict through mediation and conflict prevention. In July 2015, in recognition of its important role in the mediation of armed conflicts, through this status, HD was awarded certain privileges and immunities intended to enable its peacemaking efforts worldwide.
The Founding Executive Director of HD was Martin Griffiths and he led the organization for more than 10 years, from 1999 to July 2010, when he stepped down from his position. Griffiths was replaced for a period by Angelo Gnaedinger, former Director General of the ICRC. Following this transitional period, David Harland was appointed as HDs new Executive Director in April 2011, HD aims to bring parties together through mediation and dialogue on issues of common concern in conflict zones. This process culminated in signing of agreements, the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro in 2012. In Kenya, HD supported a peace process between local communities in the Rift Valley of Kenya and this area had been the epicentre of post-election violence in 2007-2008. The process culminated in the signing of an agreement, the Nakuru County Peace Accord in August 2012. In northern Mali, HD facilitated and moderated the meeting led to the signing of the Ouagadagou Declaration by the six political. The purpose of the declaration was to put an end to hostilities in northern Mali, in Nigeria, HD supported an inter-communal dialogue process with five local government areas from southern Kaduna State, which culminated in the Kafanchan Peace Declaration in March 2016.
It is a commitment to non-violent conflict resolution by communities from five local government areas in southern Kaduna State, HD seeks to improve the practice of mediation and strengthen capacity within the community of mediators. The Oslo Forum Papers aim to advance thinking and debate on issues linked to armed conflict mediation, HD seeks to promote the sharing of experiences within the community of mediators and peacemakers at The Oslo Forum. Launched in 2003, the Oslo Forum is a led by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and HD to improve practice in conflict mediation
Ohio /oʊˈhaɪ. oʊ/ is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Ohio is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, the states capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, the name originated from the Iroquois word ohi-yo’, meaning great river or large creek. Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state on March 1,1803, Ohio is historically known as the Buckeye State after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are known as Buckeyes. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives, Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state, Ohios geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo, Ohio has the nations 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North Americas population and 70% of North Americas manufacturing capacity.
To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline, Ohios southern border is defined by the Ohio River, and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohios neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Ontario Canada, to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the rivers 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark, the border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with a flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills, in 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region.
This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia, the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States. Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles, was the largest artificial lake in the world and it should be noted that Ohios canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their emergence to location on canals. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold, precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round
International Atomic Energy Agency
The IAEA was established as an autonomous organisation on 29 July 1957. Though established independently of the United Nations through its own treaty, the IAEA Statute. The IAEA has its headquarters in Vienna, the IAEA has two Regional Safeguards Offices which are located in Toronto, and in Tokyo, Japan. The IAEA has two liaison offices which are located in New York City, United States, and in Geneva, in addition, the IAEA has three laboratories located in Vienna and Seibersdorf, and in Monaco. The IAEA serves as a forum for scientific and technical co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear technology. The IAEA and its former Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on 7 October 2005. The IAEAs current Director General is Yukiya Amano and this agency would establish a kind of nuclear bank. The United States called for a scientific conference on all of the peaceful aspects of nuclear power. By November 1954, it had become clear that the Soviet Union would reject any international custody of fissile material, from 8 to 20 August 1955, the United Nations held the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Statute of the IAEA was approved on 23 October 1956, former US Congressman W. Sterling Cole served as the IAEAs first Director General from 1957 to 1961. Blix was succeeded as Director General by Mohamed ElBaradei of Egypt, beginning in 1986, in response to the nuclear reactor explosion and disaster near Chernobyl, the IAEA increased its efforts in the field of nuclear safety. The same happened after the 2011 Fukushima disaster in Fukushima, both the IAEA and its Director General, ElBaradei, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. On 2 July 2009, Yukiya Amano of Japan was elected as the Director General for the IAEA, defeating Abdul Samad Minty of South Africa and Luis E. Echávarri of Spain. On 3 July 2009, the Board of Governors voted to appoint Yukiya Amano by acclamation and he took office on 1 December 2009. The IAEAs mission is guided by the interests and needs of Member States, strategic plans, unlike most other specialised international agencies, the IAEA does much of its work with the Security Council, and not with the United Nations Economic and Social Council.
The structure and functions of the IAEA are defined by its founding document, the IAEA has three main bodies, the Board of Governors, the General Conference, and the Secretariat. The IAEA exists to pursue the safe and peaceful uses of nuclear sciences, the IAEA recognises knowledge as the nuclear energy industry’s most valuable asset and resource, without which the industry cannot operate safely and economically. Following the IAEA General Conference since 2002 resolutions the Nuclear Knowledge Management, in 2004, the IAEA developed a Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy
Lingnan University (Hong Kong)
Lingnan University (Chinese, 嶺南大學, Cantonese Yale, Ling Nam Tai Hok, formerly called Lingnan College, is the only public liberal arts university in Hong Kong. It aims to provide students with an education in the liberal tradition and has joined the Global Liberal Arts Alliance since 2012. In 2015, Lingnan University was selected as one of the Top 10 Asian Liberal Arts Colleges by Forbes, Lingnan University has 3 faculties,16 departments and 19 undergraduate degree programmes of a broad range of disciplines in humanities, social sciences and business administrations. Lingnan offers a variety of taught masters, research masters and PhD programmes. LU ranks second among the institutions and is above the sector-wide 19%, LUs overall success rate of 36. 1% ranks second among the institutions and is above the sector-wide 34. 9%. Humanities and Social Sciences, LUs success rate of 47. 4% is the highest among the institutions, humanities & Creative Arts, LUs 80% success rate is top among the institutions.
Mechanical, Production & Industrial Engineering, Together with another institution, LU takes the position among all with a success rate of 50%. Education, LUs success rate is 100% while the average is 34%. LUs success rate of 71. 4% is the highest among the institutions while the average is 39. 9%. Humanities and Social Sciences, LU comes first under this panel with a rate of 66. 7% while the sector average is 34. 3%. Humanities & Creative Arts, LUs success rate is 100% and the average is 47. 8%. Business Studies, LUs success rate is 100% while the average is 33. 8%. Lingnan University was founded as Canton Christian College in Guangzhou, China as a Non-Denominational Christian university by the American Presbyterians Council in 1889, the school changed location several times over the years. In 1900, the school was relocated to Macau due to the Boxer Rebellion, the school moved back to Guangzhou and built a permanent campus at the Haizhu District in 1904. The university moved to Hong Kong for the first time in 1938 after Guangzhou fell to the Japanese military, the university stayed in Hong Kong for 4 years before moving to Shaoguan after Hong Kongs capitulation to the Japanese forces.
After World War II concluded, Lingnan University moved back to its permanent campus at Haizhu, after the communist revolution in Mainland China, the university remained in Guangzhou, and was merged into Sun Yat-sen University in 1952. In the formative years, the only provided preparatory form education. During the 1970s, Lingnan School began to offer programmes in such subjects as liberal arts, commerce
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Swisspeace is a practice-oriented peace research institute located in Bern and Basel, Switzerland. It aims to contribute to the improvement of conflict prevention and conflict transformation by supporting Swiss, swisspeace was founded in 1988 as the Swiss Peace Foundation with the goal of strengthening independent peace research in Switzerland. Today swisspeace employs approximately fifty people and is headquartered in Bern, swisspeace is a member of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and is an associated Institute of the University of Basel. Jakob Kellenberger, former president of the International Committee of the Red Cross, professor Laurent Goetschel is the director of swisspeace. Swisspeace aims to shape and help implement the Swiss government‘s peace and security policy through research, advisory services and it cooperates with other organizations and has the capacity to found new organizations. The Foundation focuses on the subjects, Third parties can play an important role in establishing dialogue between warring parties.
The Foundation currently works with UN Women on the participation of women in the peace process, the peaceful resolution of armed conflicts requires thorough analysis of the respective conflict and the actors involved. In this field, swisspeace currently runs a project for public servants in Gaza to support the reconciliation between Hamas and Fatah. Violent conflicts and repressive regimes often have a impact on societies. Dealing with the legacy of rights violations and other crimes. The Foundation seeks to pursue an approach that was jointly developed with the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. This approach has four pillars, the right to know, the right to justice, the right to reparation, since the creation of the Truth and Dignity Commission in Tunisia in 2014, swisspeace has advised the TDC in questions regarding the access to state archives. Whether state institutions can function properly once an armed conflict has ended often depends on the history, in this field, the focus of swisspeace’s activities lies on state-building and traditional authorities for example in South Sudan.
Private companies can play a role in conflict-ridden areas. Against this background, swisspeace offers companies assistance in identifying conflict-related risks of their operations, conflicts affect women and men in different ways. To take these differences into account, swisspeace has sought to promote the implementation of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on women, swisspeace offers postgraduate education programs and courses in the peacebuilding field. Its director between 2001 and 2003 was international peace process expert Thania Paffenholz, currently, KOFF is headed by Sidonia Gabriel. Among other events, the Foundation organized the 2014 OSCE Parallel Civil Society Conference in Basel which took place at the time as the OSCE Ministerial Council meeting
Amena Safi Afzali was born in 1957 in Herat city, Afghanistan. She completed her education in faculty of science of Kabul University in 1978. She was the founder of Educational and Training Centers for women, publications such as Rahrawan Samia, Al-Momenat and Mother were established and released under her surveillance. She served as commissioner with the Independent Human Rights Commission until 2004 and she is a member of the Directorate of Cultural Foundation of Jamee. Cabinet of Ministers Politics of Afghanistan 1000 PeaceWomen http, //www. afghanistanembassy. no/article/70976/H-E-Amina-Afzali
Nobel Peace Prize
Per Alfred Nobels will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year, the prize was formerly awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, the Norwegian Nobel Institute, and the Parliament. Due to its nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history. Alfred Nobels will further specified that the prize be awarded by a committee of five chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. Nobel died in 1896 and he did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category, as he was a trained chemical engineer, the categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear, some Nobel scholars suggest it was Nobels way to compensate for developing destructive forces. His inventions included dynamite and ballistite, both of which were used violently during his lifetime, ballistite was used in war and the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organization, carried out dynamite attacks in the 1880s.
Nobel was instrumental in turning Bofors from an iron and steel producer into an armaments company and it is unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, which was ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobels death. The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have considered Norway better suited to awarding the prize, the Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Each year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee specifically invites qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize, the statutes of the Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. Nominations by committee members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting after this deadline. In 2009, a record 205 nominations were received, but the record was again in 2010 with 237 nominations, in 2011. Nominations from 1901 to 1956, have released in a database.
Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for review is created. Advisers usually have some months to complete reports, which are considered by the Committee to select the laureate. The Committee seeks to achieve a decision, but this is not always possible. The Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway on 10 December each year, the Peace Prize is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm. The Nobel laureate receives a diploma, a medal, and a document confirming the prize amount, as of 2013, the prize was worth 10 million SEK
A non-governmental organization is a not-for-profit organization that is independent from states and international governmental organizations. They are usually funded by donations but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers, NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes, others may be fronts for political, religious, or other interests. The number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 3.7 million, India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, and many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India. China is estimated to have approximately 440,000 officially registered NGOs, NGOs are difficult to define, and the term NGO is not always used consistently. In some countries the term NGO is applied to an organization that in another country would be called an NPO, there are many different classifications of NGO in use.
The most common focus is on orientation and level of operation, an NGOs orientation refers to the type of activities it takes on. These activities might include human rights, improving health, an NGOs level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, national, or international. The term non-governmental organization was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations was created, the term became used more widely. One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as change, malaria prevention. Public surveys reveal that NGOs often enjoy a degree of public trust. NGO/GRO types can be understood by their orientation and level of how they operate, charitable orientation often involves a top-down paternalistic effort with little participation by the beneficiaries.
It includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the poor people, in the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. There is maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators, community-based organizations arise out of peoples own initiatives. They can be responsible for raising the consciousness of the poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services. City-wide organizations include organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, coalitions of business, ethnic or educational groups, national NGOs include national organizations such as the YMCAs/YWCAs, professional associations and similar groups. Some have state and city branches and assist local NGOs and they can be responsible for funding local NGOs, institutions and projects and implementing projects
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing