The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
Samuel Holberry was a prominent Chartist activist. Holberry was born in Gamston, the youngest of nine children. In 1832 he joined the army, leaving in 1835 and moving to Sheffield, where began working as a distiller, married Mary Cooper. Together with other activists campaigning to extend the political rights given by the Reform Act 1832, he engaged in a number of peaceful protests. After a rebellion in Newport, Monmouthshire now known as the Newport Rising was put down in 1839 Samuel and a group of conspirators planned a Sheffield Rising; the groups began to organise a militia, "provided themselves with arms, fixed upon a plan for taking some, firing other parts of the town. That they had agreed to strike down every policeman and watchman that they might meet, catch the soldiers before they could fire upon them; the barracks were to be fired, the insurgents were to possess themselves of the Town Hall and Tontine, which they were to defend with the barricades." The plot was exposed by the landlord of a pub in Rotherham.
Leaders were identified, both Samuel and Mary were arrested. In contrast to many members of the group, Samuel admitted that he had aimed to upset the Government and was willing to die for the Charter, he was sentenced to four years' imprisonment. Placed in Northallerton House of Correction, he was illegally put on the treadwheel. In gaol, Samuel died after being transferred to York Castle, he was buried in 50,000 people attending his funeral. In the 1980s, Sheffield City Council commemorated Holberry by naming a fountain in the Peace Gardens for him; this was removed during renovations and replaced by the "Holberry Cascades". Www.thepeoplescharter.co.uk Sheffield General Cemetery: Samuel Holberry Sheffield Chartists Political prisoners 1841 Sheffield City Council: Special Features - The Holberry Cascades BBC - South Yorkshire Sense of Place: Frightful Farewells
The Munich Agreement or Munich Betrayal was an agreement concluded at Munich, September 29, 1938, by Germany, Great Britain and Italy. It provided "cession to Germany of the Sudeten German territory" of Czechoslovakia. Most of Europe celebrated because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland, a region of western Czechoslovakia inhabited by 800,000 people German speakers. Hitler announced it was his last territorial claim in Europe, the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement. An emergency meeting of the main European powers – not including Czechoslovakia or the Soviet Union, an ally to both France and Czechoslovakia – took place in Munich, Germany, on 29–30 September 1938. An agreement was reached on Hitler's terms, it was signed by the top leaders of Germany, France and Italy. Militarily, the Sudetenland was of strategic importance to Czechoslovakia as most of its border defenses were situated there to protect against a German attack.
The agreement between the four powers was signed on the backdrop of a low-intensity undeclared German-Czechoslovak war that had started on 17 September 1938. Meanwhile Poland, relying on German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact moved its army units towards its common border with Czechoslovakia after 23 September 1938. Facing the combined force of Germany and Poland alongside most of its border, Czechoslovakia yielded to French and British diplomatic pressure and ceded the Sudetenland to Germany in line with the terms of the agreement; the Munich Agreement was soon followed by the First Vienna Award on 2 November 1938, separating Hungarian inhabited territories in southern Slovakia and southern Subcarpathian Rus' from Czechoslovakia, while Poland annexed territories from Czechoslovakia in the North. In March 1939, the First Slovak Republic was proclaimed, shortly by the creation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia Germany took full control of the remaining Czech parts; as a result, Czechoslovakia had disappeared.
Today, the Munich Agreement is regarded as a failed act of appeasement, the term has become "a byword for the futility of appeasing expansionist totalitarian states". Czechoslovakia was created in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I; the Treaty of Versailles recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia with a population that included three million German-speaking people, 24 percent of the total population of the country. The Germans lived in border regions of the historical lands of Bohemia and Moravia for which they coined the new name Sudetenland, bordering on Germany and the newly created country of Austria; the Sudeten Germans were not consulted about. Although the constitution guaranteed equality for all citizens, there was a tendency among political leaders to transform the country "into an instrument of Czech and Slovak nationalism"; some progress was made to integrate the Germans and other minorities, but they continued to be under-represented in the government and the army.
Moreover, the Great Depression beginning in 1929 impacted the industrialized and export-oriented Sudeten Germans more than it did the Czech and Slovak populations. By 1936, 60 percent of the unemployed people in Czechoslovakia were Germans. In 1933 Sudeten German leader Konrad Henlein founded the Sudeten German Party, "militant and hostile" to the Czechoslovakian government and soon captured two-thirds of the vote in districts with a heavy German population. Historians differ as to whether the SdP was from its beginning a Nazi front organization, or evolved into one. By 1935, the SdP was the second largest political party in Czechoslovakia as German votes concentrated on this party while Czech and Slovak votes were spread among several parties. Shortly after the Anschluss of Austria to Germany, Henlein met with Hitler in Berlin on 28 March 1938, where he was instructed to raise demands unacceptable to the Czechoslovak government led by president Edvard Beneš. On 24 April, the SdP issued a series of demands upon the government of Czechoslovakia, that were known as the Carlsbad Program.
Among the demands, Henlein demanded autonomy for Germans living in Czechoslovakia. The Czechoslovak government responded by saying that it was willing to provide more minority rights to the German minority but was reluctant to grant them autonomy. With tension high between Germans and the Czechoslovakian government, on 15 September 1938 President Beneš offered secretly to give 6,000 square kilometres of Czechoslovakian territory to Germany in exchange for a German agreement to admit 1.5 to 2.0 million Sudeten Germans which Czechoslovakia would expel. Hitler did not reply; as the previous appeasement of Hitler had shown, the governments of both France and Britain were intent on avoiding war. The French government did not wish to face Germany alone and took its lead from Britain's Conservative government of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. Chamberlain considered the Sudeten German grievances justified and believed Hitler's intentions were limited. Both Britain and France, advised Czechoslovakia to accede to Germany's demands.
Beneš resisted and on 19 May initiated a partial mobilization in response to possible German invasion. On 20 May, Hitler presented his generals with a draft plan of attack on Czechoslovakia codenamed Operation Green, insisting that he would not "smash Czechoslovakia" militarily without "provocation," "a favourable oppor
Heart of the City, Sheffield
The Heart of the City was a £130 million major re-development in Sheffield, England begun in 2004, completed in 2016 and one of the 12 official quarters of Sheffield City Centre. As its name suggests the Heart of the City is located in the heart of the city centre. Heart of the City was developed by Sheffield One, an Urban Regeneration Company set up in February 2000 to facilitate the redevelopment; the Heart of the City scheme has created many new public spaces and skyscrapers. Subsequent review found that it satisfied many of the goals for a successful city laid out in the "Sheffield First" plan. Peace Gardens Sheffield Town Hall Tudor Square St Paul's Place Millennium Square Sheffield Winter Gardens Millennium Gallery St Paul's Tower Sheffield City Hall Barker's Pool Crucible Theatre Sheffield City Library Lyceum Theatre Sheffield railway station Sheaf Square Velocity Tower Arundel Gate St Paul's Place contains map
The River Sheaf is a river in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Its source is the union of the Totley Brook and the Old Hay Brook in Totley, now a suburb of Sheffield, it flows northwards, past Dore, through the valley called north of Heeley. It passes into a culvert, through which it flows under the centre of Sheffield emerging just once before joining the River Don near Blonk Street Bridge; this lower section of the River Sheaf together with the River Don, between the present Blonk Street and Lady's Bridges, formed two sides of the boundary of Sheffield Castle. The main tributaries of the Sheaf are the Porter Brook, which joins it beneath Sheffield Midland station, the Meers Brook; the river has been polluted upstream through centuries of industrial activity, including iron and steel working, is only recovering. The river used to provide the power for a number of metal works, an important surviving example of, the Grade I-listed Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet. A Sheaf Valley Walk has been developed which follows the river from Granville Square out to Millhouses Park and beyond to the Peak District.
Until the 17th century the name Sheaf was written as Sheath. Sidney Oldall Addy equates the origins of this word with the Old English shed or sheth, which mean to divide, or separate; the Sheaf—along with its tributaries the Meers Brook and the Limb Brook—formed part of the border separating the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. The city of Sheffield derives its name from the Sheaf; the waters which form the River Sheaf rise as a series of streams on a ridge of gritstone between 6 and 7 miles to the south west of the main city centre. The Blacka Dike, Needhams Dike and Redcar Brook combine to form Old Hay Brook, while Totley Brook is joined by Rodmoor Brook, itself joins Old Hay Brook, after which the combined flow forms the Sheaf. Below the junction, the river is crossed by the Hope Valley railway line, which joins the Midland Main Line, both cross back over to reach Dore and Totley railway station, built on the site of Walk Mill in 1872; the river shares its valley with the railway, there are a further five crossings before both reach Sheffield Station.
From the junction of the Redcar Brook and the Old Hay Brook to the city centre, the river descends by around 400 feet, this fall has resulted in it being harnessed to provide water power for a number of industries from at least the 16th century. The river valley is broad, cutting through the underlying coal measures with its sandstones and clays, the location of harder rock has been a major factor in where weirs and dams have been located. There are some 28 sites which have well-documented and long standing mills associated with them, a further seven were located on some of the smaller tributaries, or were more transitory in nature; the Sheaf supplied a greater variety of industry than the other Sheffield rivers because of its close proximity to Derbyshire, with its mineral reserves of lead. The lead ore was brought to the area around Dore and Norton, in Derbyshire. There were at least ten mills where the ore was smelted in ore hearths, which used kiln-dried wood as the heat producing agent, water-powered bellows to produce the temperatures required.
As well as the lead smelting mills, there were a variety of corn and paper mills along the river, some of which were adapted in the 18th century to service the metal trades as they grew and expanded. Walk Mill was one of the earliest known mills on the Sheaf, having been built around 1280 by the Canons of Beauchief Abbey as a fulling mill. After the abbey was dissolved in the reign of Henry VIII, it was used as a cutlers wheel. By 1746 John Tyzack was using it for grinding scythes, in 1797 Thomas Biggin was making knives for cutting hay and straw, it was being used as a sickle mill in 1805. After a brief spell as a paper mill around 1826, it was occupied by Thomas Tyzack and Sons, who made saws; the site was sold to the Midland Railway by the Duke of Devonshire in 1871 to enable the construction of Dore and Totley station, the last mill buildings were taken down in 1890. Below Walk Mill, the Limb Brook flows in from the west. Whirlow Wheel was situated on the brook, was used for milling corn between about 1586 until 1803, when a grinding wheel was added.
With the building decaying, the site was sold to Sheffield Corporation in 1935. The roof of the building collapsed in 2006, but although there were calls to demolish it, the Friends of Whirlow Wheel campaigned for it to be retained until a use could be found for the site. Abbeydale Works was powered by two water wheels. In 1855, these were supplemented by a steam engine, but the site declined after 1900, it was given to Sheffield Corporation in 1935 as an industrial museum, only an active campaign by members of a local history group prevented its demolition. Restoration began in 1964, in 1970 it was opened as a museum, known as Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet; the Abbey Brook joins the river from the east, below which the river is bordered by Millhouses Park. In order to reduce flooding and pollution of the river when the sewerage system is overloaded by heavy rainfall, Yorkshire Water excavated the park in 2004/5 to construct a tank capable of holding 10,000 cubic metres of storm water; the decision to build a tank rather than a vertical shaft was made after test boreholes found hard rock and high groundwater pressure in
St Vincent's Quarter
St Vincent's Quarter is one of Sheffield's eleven designated quarters, centring on and named after St Vincent's Church. An office and industrial location, its regeneration has increased over the past few years, with the new Metier residential block and Velocity Village office and residential accommodation springing up on the north side of Tenter Street. Despite recent development, the area still contains several dilapidated or derelict workshops and prostitution is common in the area, it is broadly triangular in shape, with Tenter Street and Broad Lane to the south, Netherthorpe Road and Hoyle Street to the north-west and Shalesmoor, Gibraltar Street and West Bar to the north-east. The A57 runs through the middle of the quarter but upon the completion of the Northern Relief Road, a dedicated route will be provided around the quarter, with the intention of improving the character of the area, it has three designated character areas: Furnace Hill, Solly Street, Well Meadow. The quarter played an important part in Sheffield's industrial heritage and examples include the cementation furnace on Doncaster Street and the crucible furnace and buildings at 35 Well Meadow Street
The Porter Brook is a river in the City of Sheffield, England descending over 1,000 feet from its source among the sedge grass on Burbage moor behind a small farm on Hangram just inside the Peak District National Park in the west of the city at Clough Hollow, near the village of Ringinglow. Porter Brook derives its name from its brownish colour, similar to the colour of Porter, a brownish discolouration obtained as it passes over iron-ore deposits on its course from the source. From here it flows eastward through Porter Clough through Mayfield Valley to the first of the remaining mill dams. Beyond Forge Dam, where the Porter is defined as a main river, the brook makes its way through Endcliffe Park to Hunter's Bar, before running between Ecclesall Road and Sheffield General Cemetery, past the former Wards brewery; the section of the river from Renton Street, near to the location of Sharrow Forge, is now built over running through culverts beneath the intersection of London Road and Eyre Street.
It re-emerges by Eyre Street after which it flows alongside Mary Street, beneath the bridge on Matilda Street and behind the BBC offices on Shoreham Street, passing beneath Leadmill Road towards the culvert at Cross Turner Street outside Sheffield Station. It meets the River Sheaf in subterranean tunnels beneath the Station; the Porter, like the other rivers in Sheffield, is ideally suited for providing water power, as the final section falls some 450 feet in a little over 4 miles. This enabled dams to be constructed reasonably close together, without the outflow from one mill being restricted by the next downstream dam. In addition to this water-power, natural sandstone was available in abundance in the nearby hills of Sheffield and the Peak District National Park. Lying at the edge of these hills, mill-owners found Millstone Grit was an extractable resource. By 1740 Sheffield became the most extensive user of water-power in Britain and in Europe. Ninety mills had been built, two-thirds of them for grinding.
By 1850 these mills numbered well over 100. In the Porter valley alone 21 mill dams served 19 water-wheels used for grinding corn, operating forge-hammers, rolling mills, grinding knives and the various types of blade that made Sheffield famous. Most were active during the 19th centuries. Fulwood CornmillA mill is known to have existed at Fulwood in 1641, when Ulysses Fox its builder appeared before the Court of Kings Bench changed with "trespass", as the rights to grind corn were owned by the manor. Despite having to pay £35 8s 9d the mill survived. There were two wheels served by two dams lying between Mill Lane and Mark Lane in Mayfield Valley above Forge Dam. In 1760 the mill was used by Thomas Boulsover for the production of Sheffield-plate buttons. A steam engine was used at the Nether or lower mill from 1847, both were unused by 1884; the complex was given to Sheffield Corporation in 1937. Unlike most installations in Sheffield, the dam impounded the whole of the flow from the Mayfield Brook, with the result that the dam has silted up.
Forge Dam. Thomas Boulsover first used this site for the production of writing paper, but this was unsuccessful, as the water contained ochre. By 1765, it had become a forge and rolling mill, by 1832 was used for the production of saws, while two drop-hammers were used to beat heated metal ingots into wrought-iron. Two water wheels were supplemented by a steam engine in 1835, the operation ceased around 1887. A showman called Herbert Maxfield used the dam as a boating pool between 1900 and 1920, the site was bought by Sheffield Corporation in 1939; the workers’ cottages became a café. The 40-foot weir is still in good condition, but the dam has suffered from silting, as its layout was similar to the Fulwood dam. Wiremill Dam Previously Whiteley Wood Rolling Mill known as Bowser Bottom or Thomas Boulsover's Rolling Mill; the mill produced thin steel plate suitable for sawplate and for other items fashioned from strip steel, wire used in the cutlery industry. Wiremill Dam was once the site of the largest diameter water-wheel in Sheffield.
Two overshot wheels were recorded in each 34.5 feet in diameter and 4.25 feet wide. They were fed by a head of water of about 10 feet. Nether Wheel Shepherd Wheel Named after Edward Shepherd, tenant at the wheel from 1749 to 1794, when 10 men were employed here. From the 1820s, the wheel was occupied by the Hinde family who worked here for over a hundred years and is now run as a museum by the Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust. Ibbotson’s Wheel Upper Spurgear Wheel or 4th Endcliffe Wheel. During the early 1900s this dam became Porter Glen Boating Lake. Nether Spurgear Wheel known as 3rd Endcliffe Wheel Second Endcliffe Wheel Holme Wheel known as Nether Mill, Leather Wheel, or Whiteley Woods Bottoms Wheel; the dam became Endcliffe Boating Lake when Endcliffe Park was re-opened in 1887 to commemorate the Jubilee of Queen Victoria following major re-design and landscaping by landscape architect William Goldring. Porter Valley Parks are all part of the Sheffield Round Walk. First Endcliffe WheelFor a short while this dam at Hunter's Bar became Endcliffe Bathing Pool.
It was closed at the outbreak of World War II. Some 20 years it was drained and filled in. Upper Lescar Wheel This cutlers wheel and the Nether Lescar Wheel took their names from the marshy area, Leeche Carr by the Porter Brook, carr being Old Norse for a wetland undergoing transition to a woodland; the wheel existed in 1587. This dam was to supply po