British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Taylor, British Columbia
The District of Taylor is a district municipality in northeastern British Columbia, located on mile 36 of the Alaska Highway. Taylor, a member municipality of the Peace River Regional District, covers an area of about 17.09 km² with 1,373 residents. As it is just south of the much larger city of Fort St. John, there is a sizable amount of commuting and interaction between the two; the town sits on a terrace 60 m above the north bank of the Peace River. The first settler on the flat was a trapper named Herbert Taylor in 1911; the town incorporated in 1958 with industrial business beginning to locate there. Since Taylor has remained a small town though it has developed a large industrial base, it has become home to the annual World's Invitational Class'A' Gold Panning Championships and was featured on the CBC Television program Village on a Diet. The town, the Taylor Flats upon which the town is located, are named after Donald Herbert Taylor, a fur-trader with the Hudson's Bay Company who met his Aboriginal trading counterparts on this river flat.
In 1912 Taylor took up residence on the flats with a few other squatters. That year the federal government opened the area to homesteading and Taylor was granted the land upon which he had settled; these early settlers were trappers with the first farm established by Henry Philip, from Glasgow, who inherited buildings and land from his survey team when they left the area. In 1915, there were 20 settlers. In 1919, with the help of Taylor's nine children, along with those from a few American families who settled there, the provincial government opened the Taylor Flats School; these early settlers all came to the area through the Peace River Country, through Grande Prairie and Pouce Coupe, across the Peace River. Some decided to settle on the steep-sloped south side of the Peace River, an area that would become known as South Taylor. To cross the river a cable ferry, which would prove to be accident-prone, was built in the 1920s but was soon replaced with a motor-driven ferry; this ferry was used until 1942 when the U.
S. Army came through the area building the Alaska Highway and constructed the 2,130-foot long Peace River Suspension Bridge; the highway connected the town to a rail station in Dawson Creek reducing the dependence on shipping along the river. The bridge collapsed on October 16, 1957 with no injuries or fatalities. A new rail trestle, from the rail extension from Chetwynd to Fort St. John, was used while constructing the replacement Peace River Bridge. Major industrial development began in 1957, when Westcoast Energy built the province's first gas processing plant, as well as a refinery and pipeline to Kamloops; the community that formed around this industrial development was incorporated as a Village on August 23, 1958 and soon after Canfor opened a planer mill. Meanwhile, 120 km upstream, the W. A. C. Bennett Dam was completed in 1966 and the Peace Canyon Dam in 1980, which controlled the level and flow of the Peace River, making navigation and flood control much easier. Following the construction of a natural gas processing plant by Westcoast Energy in 1985, Fibreco Pulp opened its sawmill in 1988, the Village was re-incorporated into the District of Taylor in 1989.
Despite the closure of the Petro-Canada refinery in 1991, economic growth continued throughout the decade as Westcoast Energy's McMahon Gas Plant expanded in 1991 and added a cogeneration plant in 1993. Fibreco Pulp doubled its capacity in 1996, the Younger Natural Gas Liquids Extraction Plant was expanded in 1996, the Taylor Straddle plant was built in 1997. Since 1993, the town of 1,373 residents have built a new hockey arena, leisure skating arena, curling rink, an 18-hole golf course. Strong community pride developed as demonstrated by the town placing first at the provincial level, in its small category, in the parks and gardens-oriented Communities in Bloom Competition in 1997 and second in the national competition in 1998. Other local projects have included building a memorial garden and cenotaph in 2000 dedicated to the 341st Engineers of the U. S. Army corps of Engineers who were stationed on the Taylor Flats in 1942 during the construction of the Alaska Highway and the Peace River Suspension Bridge.
The 1961 Canadian census, the first to include Taylor as a distinct subdivision, counted 438 people. During the subsequent five years the population rose 36% to 595 people but rose only a further 2% to 605 people by 1971; the population spiked in the late-1970s during the construction of the Peace Canyon Dam and when the sawmills were opened in town. After the dams were built businesses the population decline in the early-1980s. Since 1985 a series of large industrial businesses opened facilities in town creating a steady population rise since then. According to the 2011 Canadian Census, there were 1,405 people living in the municipality in 535 households. A little over the provincial average 68.5 % are married. With 2.5% of Taylor residents being foreign-born, 96.4% with an English-only mother tongue, the town has few visible minorities. While not counted as visible minorities during the census, 180 people considered themselves to have an Aboriginal identity, just over twice the provincial average of 5.4%.
Housing is owned with 21.5% of the stock being rented, with the provincial average being 29.8%. The Taylor Flats, upon which the town is situated, was formed by a pre-glacial bend in the Peace River that now flows eastwards, originating in Hudson's Hope and emptying into the Arctic Ocean; the terrace is 60 m above the north bank of the Peace River. Escarpments
Fort St. John, British Columbia
The City of Fort St. John is a city in northeastern British Columbia, Canada. A member municipality of the Peace River Regional District, the city encompasses a total area of about 22 square kilometres with 18,609 residents at the 2011 census Located at Mile 47, it is one of the largest cities along the Alaska Highway. Established in 1794, as a trading post, Fort St. John is the oldest European-established settlement in present-day British Columbia. Fort St. John is served by the Fort St. John Airport; the municipal slogan is Fort St. John: The Energetic City. Over the years the community has been moved a number of times for varying economic reasons; the present location is thought to be its sixth. The original trading post built in the area was named Rocky Mountain House, it was established one year after Sir Alexander Mackenzie explored the area in 1793. One of a series of forts along the Peace River constructed to service the fur trade, it was located southwest of the present site of Fort St. John.
The Dunneza and Sikanni First Nations used it as a trading post. It was used as a supply depot for further expeditions into the territory; the fort closed in 1805. Fort d'Epinette was built in 1806 by the North West Company, it was renamed Fort St. John in 1821 following the purchase of the North West Company by the Hudson's Bay Company; this fort was located about 500 metres downstream from the mouth of the Beatton River, which at that time was known as the Pine River. It was shut down in 1823; the site was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1958. After a lapse of nearly forty years, Fort St. John was reopened in 1860 on the south side of the Peace River, directly south of the present community, it was moved in 1872 by Francis Work Beatton directly across the river. This community lasted until 1925 when the river ceased to be the main avenue of transportation and the fort was moved closer to where settlers were establishing homesteads; the new town was constructed at Fish Creek, northwest of the present community, on the new trail to Fort Nelson.
It did not shut down until 1975. In 1928, C. M. Finch moved his general store to two quarters of land where he built a government building to house the land and post offices; the present site for the town was established after he donated five acres for a Roman Catholic Church and additional land for a hospital. The first census to include Fort St. John as a defined subdivision occurred in 1951 and recorded 884 people; the population increased, doubling every 5 years for 15 years so that by 1966 there were 6,749 residents living in the community. Population growth slowed in the 1970s, rising by 1,551 people, from 8,264 in 1971 to 9,815 in 1978. However, by 1981 the population had swelled to 14,337 people, an increase of 4,522 people in just 3 years. A recession in the 1980s kept the population from reaching 15,000 until 1994. However, Fort St. John has managed to become the largest city in the BC Peace, second largest after Grande Prairie in the entire Peace region, which straddles the boundary between the provinces of BC and Alberta.
Since the population has continued to rise at about 2% a year. The 2001 census recorded 16,034 residents living in 4,240 families; this was 7% more people than the previous census five years earlier. As seen by the median age ten years younger than the provincial median and less than half the proportion of the population over 65 years old, the city has a young population. Of those over 15 years of age in 2001, 51 % were higher than the 45 % provincial average. Fort St. John has 94 % of 93 % with an English-only mother tongue; the town has few visible minorities. Though not included as visible minorities, 11% identified themselves as Aboriginal, a higher proportion than the 4% provincial average. Police protection is contracted to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police which operates a 26 officer municipal detachment and a 10-member rural detachment from the city. In 2005, the municipal detachment reported 4,048 Criminal Code offences, which translates into a crime rate of 228 Criminal Code offences per 1,000 people, much higher than the provincial average of 125 offences.
During that year, compared to the provincial average, the RCMP reported much higher crime rates in Fort St. John for cocaine, non-sexual assaults, property damage, arson related offences. However, the city had lower crime rates for robbery, theft from motor vehicles, business break-and-enters. Fort St. John, located on the upland prairies north of the Peace River, experiences a cold humid continental climate, with cold winters and warm summers. Although winters can be frigid, the area has milder winters than much of the rest of Canada due to the influence of the nearby Rocky Mountains, they tend to block arctic air masses coming in from the north/northwest, although they can still penetrate the area. A predominantly southwesterly wind blows with wind speeds averaging around 13.7 km. Fort St. John uses Mountain Standard Time all year, because of its northerly latitude experiences short daylight hours in winter and long daylight hours in summer. Fort St. John is east of the Rocky Mountains, thus has a climate much more similar to the prairies than the British Columbia interior west of the mountains.
The frost-free period is much longer east of the mountains than west, thus the Peace River area including Fort St. John can grow crops that cannot be grown in most of the province such as wheat and canola. Fort St. John