The Peace River is a 1,923-kilometre-long river in Canada that originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows to the northeast through northern Alberta. The Peace River joins the Athabasca River in the Peace-Athabasca Delta to form the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River; the Finlay River, the main headwater of the Peace River, is regarded as the ultimate source of the Mackenzie River. The combined Finlay–Peace–Slave–Mackenzie river system is the 13th longest river system in the world; the regions along the river are the traditional home of the Danezaa people, called the Beaver by the Europeans. The fur trader Peter Pond is believed to have visited the river in 1785. In 1788 Charles Boyer of the North West Company established a fur trading post at the river's junction with the Boyer River. In 1792 and 1793, the explorer Alexander Mackenzie travelled up the river to the Continental Divide. Mackenzie referred to the river as Unjegah, from a native word meaning "large river".
The decades of hostilities between the Danezaa and the Cree, ended in 1781 when a smallpox epidemic decimated the Cree. The Treaty of the Peace was celebrated by the smoking of a ceremonial pipe; the treaty made the Peace River a border, with the Danezaa to the Cree to the South. In 1794, a fur trading post was built on the Peace River at Fort St. John; the rich soils of the Peace River valley in Alberta have been producing wheat crops since the late 19th century. The Peace River region is an important centre of oil and natural gas production. There are pulp and paper plants along the river in Alberta and British Columbia; the Peace River has two navigable sections, separated by the Vermilion Chutes, near Fort Vermilion. The first steam-powered vessel to navigate the Peace River was the Grahame, a Hudson's Bay Company vessel built at Fort Chipewyan, on Lake Athabasca. Brothers of the Oblate Order of Mary Immaculate built the St. Charles to navigate the upper reaches of the River, from Fort Vermilion to Hudson's Hope.
A dozen vessels were to navigate the river. Most of the early vessels were wood-burning steamships, fueled by wood cut from the river's shore; the last cargo vessel was the Watson's Lake, retired in 1952. This river is 1,923 kilometres long, it drains an area of 302,500 square kilometres. At Peace Point, where it drains in the Slave River, it has an annual discharge of 68.2 billion cubic metres. A large man-made lake, Williston Lake, has been formed on the upper reaches by the construction of the W. A. C. Bennett Dam for hydroelectric power generation. Prior to its flooding, the confluence of the Finlay and Parsnip Rivers at Finlay Forks was distinct. A half mile east of that location were the half-mile long Finlay Rapids and a further seven miles east is the Peace Pass, which separates the Muskwa Ranges and the Hart Ranges of the Canadian Rockies; the only river cutting through the Rockies, it nowadays flows into Dinosaur Lake, a reservoir for the Peace Canyon Dam. After the dams, the river flows east into Alberta and continues north and east into the Peace-Athabasca Delta in Wood Buffalo National Park, at the western end of Lake Athabasca.
Water from the delta flows into the Slave River east of Peace Point and reaches the Arctic Ocean via the Great Slave Lake and Mackenzie River. Communities located directly on the river include: Hudson's Hope, British Columbia Taylor, British Columbia Peace River, Alberta Fort Vermilion, AlbertaMany provincial parks and wildland reserves are established on the river, such as Butler Ridge Provincial Park, Taylor Landing Provincial Park, Beatton River Provincial Park, Peace River Corridor Provincial Park in British Columbia and Dunvegan Provincial Park, Dunvegan West Wildland, Peace River Wildland Provincial Park, Greene Valley Provincial Park, Notikewin Provincial Park, Wood Buffalo National Park in Alberta. A few Indian reserves are located on the river banks, among them Beaver Ranch 163, John D'Or Prairie 215, Fox Lake 162, Peace Point 222 and Devil's Gate 220. Tributaries of the Peace River include: List of rivers of Alberta List of rivers of British Columbia List of longest rivers of Canada Steamboats of the Peace River "Peace River".
BC Geographical Names. "Peace Reach". BC Geographical Names. "Peace River Canyon". BC Geographical Names. "Peace Canyon Dam". BC Geographical Names. Http://pgnewspapers.pgpl.ca/fedora/repository Discover The Peace Country
Dawson Creek is a city in northeastern British Columbia, Canada. The municipality of 24.37 square kilometres had a population of 11,583 in 2011. Dawson Creek derives its name from the creek of the same name that runs through the community; the creek was named after George Mercer Dawson by a member of his land survey team when they passed through the area in August 1879. Once a small farming community, Dawson Creek became a regional centre after the western terminus of the Northern Alberta Railways was extended there in 1932; the community grew in 1942 as the US Army used the rail terminus as a transshipment point during construction of the Alaska Highway. In the 1950s, the city was connected to the interior of British Columbia via a highway and railway through the Rocky Mountains. Since the 1960s, growth has slowed. Dawson Creek is located in the windy prairie land of the Peace River Country; as the seat of the Peace River Regional District and a service centre for the rural areas south of the Peace River, the city has been called the "Capital of the Peace".
It is known as the "Mile 0 City", referring to its location at the southern end of the Alaska Highway. It has a heritage interpretation village, an art gallery, a museum. Annual events include a fall rodeo. Dawson Creek is named after the watercourse of the same name, itself named after George Mercer Dawson who led a surveying team through the area in August 1879; the community that formed by the creek was one of many farming communities established by European-Canadian settlers moving west through the Peace River Country. When the Canadian government began issuing homestead grants to settlers in 1912, the pace of migration increased. With the opening of a few stores and hotels in 1919 and the incorporation of the Dawson Creek Co-operative Union on 28 May 1921, Dawson Creek became a dominant business centre in the area. After much speculation by land owners and investors, the Northern Alberta Railways built its western terminus 3 km from Dawson Creek; the golden spike was driven on 29 December 1930, the first passenger train arrived on 15 January 1931.
The arrival of the railway and the construction of grain elevators attracted more settlers and business to the settlement. The need to provide services for the growing community led Dawson Creek to incorporate as a village in May 1936. A small wave of refugees from the Sudetenland settled in the area in 1939 as World War II was beginning; the community exceeded 500 people in 1941. Upon entering the war, the United States decided to build a transportation corridor to connect the US mainland to Alaska. In 1942, thousands of US Army personnel and contractors poured into the city – the terminal of rail transport – to construct the Alaska Highway; the highway was completed in less than a year. In February 1943, a major fire and explosion in a livery barn, packed with road-building supplies including dynamite, caused serious damage to the center of town. Dawson Creek became a RCAF station during WWII, in September 1944; the station disbanded in March 1946. By 1951, Dawson Creek had more than 3,500 residents.
In 1952, the John Hart Highway linked the town to the rest of the British Columbia Interior and Lower Mainland through the Rocky Mountains. The next year, western Canada's largest propane gas plant was built and federal government offices were established in town. In 1958, the extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway to the Peace from Prince George was completed, the village was re-incorporated as a city. Between 1951 and 1961, the population of Dawson Creek more than tripled; the RCAF center reemerged on 1 October 1956 and was declared functional in 1958. It was disbanded a final time in March 1964. Growth slowed in the 1960s, with the population reaching its all-time high in 1966. In the 1970s, the provincial government moved its regional offices from Pouce Coupe to the city, Northern Lights College opened a Dawson Creek campus, the Dawson Creek Mall was constructed. Several modern grain elevators were built, the town's five wooden grain elevators, nicknamed "Elevator Row", were taken out of service.
Only one of the historic elevators remains. Since the 1970s, with the nearby town of Fort St. John attracting much of the area's industrial development and Grande Prairie becoming a commercial hub, the town's population and economy have not increased. Since 1992, the city has undergone several boundary expansions. One expansion incorporated undeveloped land in the southeast for an industrial park and a Louisiana-Pacific Canada veneer factory; the city extended water lines to the location. A business making manufactured homes bought the factory and completed its development in 2005. Another expansion incorporated the existing oriented strand board factory in the northwest corner of the city, while further incorporations have included undeveloped land to the south and north; the 1941 census, the first to include Dawson Creek as a defined subdivision, counted 518 residents. Its growth spurred by the construction of the Alaska Highway, the town recorded a sevenfold increase to 3,589 residents in the 1951 census.
Within five years, the population doubled to 7,531. New transport links with southern British Columbia and Alberta spurred continued growth into the next decade; the population peaked in 1966 at 12,392 declined throu
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
Kamloops is a city in south-central British Columbia, Canada, at the confluence of the two branches of the Thompson River near Kamloops Lake. With a population of 90,280, it is the largest community in the Thompson-Nicola Regional District and the location of the regional district's offices; the surrounding region is more referred to as the Thompson Country. Kamloops is ranked 36th on the list of the largest metropolitan areas in Canada and represents the 36th largest census agglomeration nationwide, with 103,811 residents in 2016; the population of the regional district is 132,663. Kamloops is known as the Tournament Capital of Canada and hosts over 100 tournaments each year at world class sports facilities such as the Tournament Capital Centre, Kamloops Bike Ranch, Tournament Capital Ranch. Health care and education are major contributing industries to the regional economy and have grown in recent years. Kamloops was British Columbia's first city to become a Bee City in 2016 as numerous organisations in the community are protecting and creating bumble bee habitats in the city.
The first European explorers arrived in 1811, in the person of David Stuart, sent out from Fort Astoria still a Pacific Fur Company post, who spent a winter there with the Secwepemc people, with Alexander Ross establishing a post there in May 1812 - "Fort Cumcloups". The rival North West Company established another post - Fort Shuswap - nearby in the same year; the two operations were merged in 1813 when the North West Company officials in the region bought the operations of the Pacific Fur Company. After the North West Company's forced merger with the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, the post became known as Thompson's River Post, or Fort Thompson, which over time became known as Fort Kamloops; the post's journals, kept by its Chief Traders, document a series of inter-Indian wars and personalities for the period and give much insight to the goings-on of the fur companies and their personnel throughout the entire Pacific Slope. Soon after the forts were founded, the main local village of the Secwepemc headed by a chief named Kwa'lila, was moved closer to the trading post in order to control access to its trade, for prestige and security.
With Kwalila's death, the local chieftaincy was passed to his nephew and foster-son Chief Nicola, who led an alliance of Syilx and Nlaka'pamux people in the plateau country to the south around Stump and Douglas Lakes. Relations between Nicola and the fur traders were tense, but in the end Nicola was recognised as a great help to the influx of whites during the gold rush, though admonishing those, in parties waging violence and looting on the Okanagan Trail, which led from American territory to the Fraser goldfields. Throughout, Kamloops was an important way station on the route of the Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail, which connected Fort Astoria with Fort Alexandria and the other forts in New Caledonia to the north, which continued in heavy use through the onset of the Cariboo Gold Rush as the main route to the new goldfields around what was to become Barkerville; the gold rush of the 1860s and the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which reached Kamloops from the West in 1883, brought further growth, resulting in the City of Kamloops being incorporated in 1893 with a population of about 500.
The logging industry of the 1970s brought many Indo-Canadians into the Kamloops area from the Punjab region of India. In 1973, Kamloops annexed other nearby communities. "Kamloops" is the anglicised version of the Shuswap word "Tk'əmlúps", meaning "meeting of the waters". Shuswap is still spoken in the area by members of the Tk'emlúps Indian Band. An alternate origin sometimes given for the name may have come from the native name's accidental similarity to the French "Camp des loups", meaning "Camp of Wolves". One story connected with this version of the name concerns an attack by a pack of wolves, much built up in story to one huge white wolf, or a pack of wolves and other animals, travelling overland from the Nicola Country being repelled by a single shot by John Tod Chief Trader, thus preventing the fort from attack and granting Tod a great degree of respect locally. Kamloops is in the Montane Cordillera Ecozone; the city's centre is in the valley near the confluence of the Thompson River's north and south branches.
Suburbs stretch for more than a dozen kilometres along the north and south branches, as well as to the steep hillsides along the south portion of the city and lower northeast hillsides. Robert W. Service in 1904 described Kamloops as his delightful life and wrote "Life was pleasant, the work was light. At four o'clock we were on our horses, riding over the rolling ridges, or into spectral gulches that rose to ghostlier mountains, it was like the scenery of Mexico, aridly morose. A discouraging land, forbidding in its weariness and resigned to ruin." Kamloops Indian Band areas begin just to the northeast of the downtown core but are not within the city limits. As a result of this placement, it is necessary to leave Kamloops' city limits and pass through the band lands before re-entering the city limits to access the communities of Rayleigh and Heffley Creek. Kamloops is surrounded by the smaller communities of Cherry Creek, Savona, Scotch Creek, Adams Lake, Paul Lake and various others; the climate of Kamloops is semi-arid due to its rain shadow location.
Because of milder winters and aridity, the area west of Kamloops in the lower Thompson River valley falls within Köppen climate classification BWk climate. Kamloops gets short cold s
Willmore Wilderness Park
Willmore Wilderness Park, located in Alberta, Canada, is a 4,600 square kilometre wilderness area adjacent to the world-famous Jasper National Park. It is less visited than Jasper National Park. There are bridges or buildings. There are, several ranger cabins in the park that are available as a courtesy to visitors. Other parks surround this wilderness reserve: Kakwa Wildlands Park to the north, Kakwa Provincial Park and Protected Area to the west, Rock Lake Provincial Park to the south-west, Sulphur Gates Provincial Park to the west. Kakwa Wildlands Park, Kakwa Provincial Park and Willmore Wilderness Park comprise the first interprovincial shared between Alberta and British Columbia. Access to the park is via Highway 40, through the town of Grande Cache, the four staging areas: Sulphur Gates, Cowlick Creek, Berland River and Rock Lake. Motorised vehicles are not allowed in the park, transportation is done by foot, mountain bike or ski. Another staging area is found south-east of the park, in the town of Hinton.
Current conservation-based research within Willmore includes: The Willmore Biodiversity Monitoring Project The Alberta Experimental Wolverine Monitoring Project The park protects a large population of mountain goats and bighorn sheep. Other mammals found here include grizzly bears, mountain caribou, deer and timber wolves. Coyotes, wolverines and black bears are present in the sub-alpine region, while marmots, rock pika and Rocky Mountain goats can be found in the higher alpine areas; the sub-alpine environment contains lodgepole pine, balsam fir and aspen poplar. Several native burial sites are located at Big Grave Flats, as well as some early coal mining and trapper cabins. Recreational activities in the park include camping, horseback riding, mountain biking, cross-country skiing and some hunting. Fishing for bull trout is only allowed in a catch and release fashion. Canoeing and whitewater rafting can be done on the Smoky River. All motorized vehicles are prohibited within the park. Open pit fires allowed.
Potential dangers while travelling through the park are changing weather and water-logged trails and the abundant bear population. Several trails cross the park, horseback riding can be done along rivers and passes. Rock Lake staging area allows easy access to north of Jasper park through Willow Creek trail; the 14 km trail joins the north boundary trail at about 49 km. The park is administered by Alberta Municipal Affairs and is managed by Alberta Community Development as a wilderness park. List of protected areas of Alberta List of Canadian provincial parks List of National Parks of Canada Cypress Hills Interprovincial Park Photographs of Willmore Wilderness Park Willmore Wilderness Foundation
Municipal District of Greenview No. 16
The Municipal District of Greenview No. 16 is a municipal district in northwest Alberta, Canada. It covers the full extent with an area of 32984.24 square kilometers. Its municipal office is located in the Town of Valleyview. Human settlement of the area now forming Greenview occurred millennia ago with archaeological evidence of native peoples in the Grande Cache area dating back over 10,000 years. Modern settlement occurred predominately in the early twentieth century throughout the municipal district. Settlers and homesteaders followed various trails to found homesteads and early communities including DeBolt and Grovedale. During the initial influx, the Edson to Grande Prairie Trail was a common route for many settlers reaching the north and east sections of Greenview. In 1968 three improvement districts 110,111 and 126, were conglomerated to establish Improvement District 16; as an Improvement District it was administered under Alberta's Department of Municipal Affairs. In 1996 Improvement District 16 became the Municipal District of Greenview #16 and was self-governed.
As of January 2019 Grande Cache was dissolved, becoming a hamlet. Greenview covers a landmass with an area of 32,984.24 square kilometres and contains several geographic formations. Its westernmost portion runs along the Alberta – British Columbia border and is part of the Canadian Rockies, its northern portion is located in Peace Country while most of the south and interior is boreal forest. The Wapiti River makes up a portion of the boundary between the County of Grande Prairie No. 1 and Greenview which includes the Simmonette and Little Smoky River valleys. Numerous lakes are located in Greenview; some of the most notable are Sturgeon and Swan Lake as well as a portion of Snipe Lake in its northeastern most corner. The Municipal district encompasses two other municipalities: the towns of Valleyview and Fox Creek as well as three reserves administered by the Sturgeon Lake Cree Nation. Greenview, in turn, is neighboured by six municipalities, Wilmore Wilderness Park in the southwest and British Columbia.
Grande Cache was a third town within the M. D. until its dissolution. The town became a hamlet within Greenview on January 1, 2019. Lying on part of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin which includes some of the largest coal and oil deposits in the world, Greenview is well known for its oil and gas-rich geology; the Hamlet of DeBolt gives its name to the Debolt Formation. Geothermal reservoirs are abundant in certain parts of the municipal district. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Municipal District of Greenview No. 16 recorded a population of 5,583 living in 2,067 of its 2,473 total private dwellings, a 5.4% change from its 2011 population of 5,299. With a land area of 32,984.24 km2, it had a population density of 0.2/km2 in 2016. The Municipal District of Greenview No. 16's 2013 municipal census counted a population of 5,242, a −5% change from its 2000 municipal census population of 5,516. In the 2011 Census, the Municipal District of Greenview No. 16 had a population of 5,299 living in 1,970 of its 2,197 total dwellings, a -3% change from its 2006 population of 5,464.
With a land area of 32,989.05 km2, it had a population density of 0.2/km2 in 2011. Oil and gas is the main economic driver in the Municipal District of Greenview, along with forestry and agriculture. DeBolt and District Pioneer Museum Kakwa Wildlands Park Musreau Lake O'Brien Provincial Park Pierre Grey's Lakes Provincial Park Sturgeon Lake Willmore Wilderness Park The Municipal District of Greenview is governed in accordance with Alberta's Municipal Government Management Act. Residents elect 8 ward councillors every four years. Greenview is served by the Provincial Electoral Divisions of Grande Prairie – Smoky, Grande Prairie – Wapiti and, West Yellowhead. Following the 2015 Alberta general election the major provincial parties had one representative each. Greenview is served by the Federal Electoral Divisions of Grande Prairie Mackenzie, Peace River- Westlock and Yellowhead. All three are represented by members of the Conservative Party; as part of the CANAMEX Corridor, the presence of Highway 43 within the municipal district makes Greenview an important industry travel route.
The Bighorn Highway as well as Highway 49 play a large role in making the area a major transportation route for the north of the province. Several small airports and heliports are in the area including the Valleyview Airport, Fox Creek Airport and DeBolt Aerodrome, they predominately serve industry and medical facilities in the area with light aircraft. List of communities in Alberta List of municipal districts in Alberta Official website
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic