Sir Sidney Lee was an English biographer and critic. Lee was born Solomon Lazarus Lee in 1859 at 12 Keppel Street, London, he was educated at the City of London School and at Balliol College, where he graduated in modern history in 1882. In 1883, Lee became assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography. In 1890 he became joint editor, on the retirement of Sir Leslie Stephen in 1891, succeeded him as editor. Lee wrote over 800 articles in the Dictionary on Elizabethan authors or statesmen, his sister Elizabeth Lee contributed. While still at Balliol, Lee had written two articles on Shakespearean questions, which were printed in The Gentleman's Magazine. In 1884, he published a book with illustrations by Edward Hull. Lee's article on Shakespeare in the 51st volume of the Dictionary of National Biography formed the basis of his Life of William Shakespeare, which reached its fifth edition in 1905. In 1902, Lee edited the Oxford facsimile edition of the first folio of Shakespeare's comedies and tragedies, followed in 1902 and 1904 by supplementary volumes giving details of extant copies, in 1906 by a complete edition of Shakespeare's works.
Lee received a knighthood in 1911. Between 1913 and 1924, he served as Professor of English Literature and Language at East London College. Besides the editions of English classics, Lee's works include: Life of Queen Victoria Great Englishmen of the Sixteenth century, based on his Lowell Institute lectures at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1903 Shakespeare and the Modern Stage Shakespeare's England: an account of the life & manners of his age King Edward VII, a Biography. There are personal letters from Lee, including those written during his final illness, in the T. F. Tout Collection of the John Rylands Library in Manchester. John Denham Parsons Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lee, Sidney". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Sidney Lee Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome Works by Sidney Lee at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sidney Lee at Internet Archive Works by Sidney Lee at LibriVox Works by Sidney Lee at Open Library
Hugh Stowell Brown
Hugh Stowell Brown was a Manx Christian minister and renowned preacher. Hugh Stowell Brown was a preacher and social reformer in Liverpool in the nineteenth century, his public work among the poor brought him great renown. On his death a statue was raised to him, one of only three Liverpool clergymen to receive that honour, his brother was the Manx poet Thomas Edward Brown. He was born at Douglas, Isle of Man, on 10 August 1823, was second son of Robert Brown, his wife Dorothy. Thomas Edward Brown was his younger brother; the father, Robert Brown, was at one time master of the grammar school in Douglas, in 1817 became chaplain of St. Matthew's chapel in that town. An evangelical of extreme views, he never read the Athanasian Creed, took no notice of Ash Wednesday or Lent. In 1832, he became curate of Kirk Braddan, succeeding as vicar on 2 April 1836, he learned Manx in order to preach in it, supported a family of nine on less than £200 a year. His boys spent the summers in collecting his tithes of hay and corn, intermittently walking five miles to Douglas grammar school, but Hugh's early education consisted chiefly in reading four or five hours daily to his father, who became blind.
Robert Brown was found dead by the roadside on 28 November 1846, buried next day at Kirk Braddan. He wrote twenty-two Sermons on various Subjects and London, 1818, 8vo. Hugh was apprenticed when fifteen to a land surveyor, employed in tithe commutation and ordnance surveys in Cheshire and York. In 1840, he entered the Birmingham Railway's works at Wolverton, Buckinghamshire. While earning from four to eight shillings a week he began to study Greek, chalking his first exercises on a fire-box. After three years, part of the time spent in driving a locomotive between Crewe and Wolverton, he returned home and entered King William's College at Castletown to study for the church; when his training was complete he felt unable to subscribe to the ordination service, resolved to return to his trade. About November 1847, he was accepted by that congregation as their minister, he was twenty-four. There he remained until his death. To his Sunday afternoon lecture, established in 1854 in the Concert Hall, Brown drew from two to three thousand working men, whom his own early experiences, added to great power and plainness of speech, with abundant humour, powerfully influenced.
He anticipated the post office by opening a workman's savings bank, to which over £80,000 was entrusted before it was wound up. In 1873, he visited the States. Brown was president in 1878 of the Baptist Union, his addresses were an appeal for a better educated nonconformist ministry. He thought at one time of retiring from Liverpool to open a hall at Oxford or Cambridge, to be affiliated to one of the colleges, he was in favour of abandoning denominational colleges, the students to take their arts degrees at existing universities. He was an active member of the Baptist Missionary Society, for many years president of the Liverpool Peace Society and chairman of the Seaman's Friend Association. Brown died after a few days' illness from apoplexy on 24 February 1886 at 29 Falkner Square and was buried on 28 February at the Liverpool Necropolis. Brown married, first, in 1848, Alice Chibnall Sirett, the mother of all his children, died in 1863. P, she died on 25 March 1884. Soon after his death a statue of Hugh Stowell Brown was paid for by public subscription.
The Statue was unveiled on Tuesday 15 October 1889 in the churchyard at the front of Myrtle Street Baptist Church opposite the Philharmonic Hall. In 1939, Myrtle Street church was closed and subsequently demolished, the site became a car park; the statue was moved to Princes Road/Avenue, close to Princes Park gates, Liverpool on Saturday 25 September 1954. The statue was removed around the time that the William Huskisson was toppled from its pedestal in 1988, it had suffered extensive damage lay forlornly in the stable yard at Croxteth Hall in Liverpool until in early 2014. As part of the planning stipulations for the development of student apartments on Hope Street an agreement between the Nordic Construction and Liverpool City Council was made to restore the statue and erect it on Hope street at the entrance to the apartments and opposite the Philharmonic pub; the restoration itself was coordinated via Nick Roberson of Roberson Stone Carving and Stewart Darlow of Nordic Construction to ensure the project was kept as original as possible.
The extensive restoration began with cleaning the once white marble. This included removal of lichen and moss and extensive steam cleaning; the hands and frock coat damage were replaced using matching Italian marble and original photographic reference to replicate the lost detail. This left the nose and ears which were restored using marble dust and lime in accordance with current accepted restoration practice. On 10 September 2015 the 7.5 tonne restored statue and plinthwere erected not far from their original location on Hope Street. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, Charlotte Fell. "Brown, Hugh Stowell". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. A Memorial Volume. Routledge and Sons. 1888. "Rev. Hugh Stowell Brown, Campaign", Liverpool Monument
The Moravian Church, formally named the Unitas Fratrum, in German known as Brüdergemeine, is one of the oldest Protestant denominations in the world, with its heritage dating back to the Bohemian Reformation in the 15th century and the Unity of the Brethren established in the Kingdom of Bohemia. The name by which the denomination is known comes from the original exiles who fled to Saxony in 1722 from Moravia to escape religious persecution, but its heritage began in 1457 in Bohemia and its crown lands forming an autonomous kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire; the modern Unitas Fratrum, with about one million members worldwide, continues to draw on traditions established during the 18th century. The Moravians continue their tradition of missionary work, such as in the Caribbean, as is reflected in their broad global distribution, they place high value on ecumenism, personal piety and music. The Moravian Church's emblem is the Lamb of God with the flag of victory, surrounded by the Latin inscription: Vicit agnus noster, eum sequamur.
The Hussite movement, to become the Moravian Church was started by Jan Hus in early 15th century Bohemia, in what is today the Czech Republic. Hus objected to some of the doctrines of the Catholic Church. Since these actions predate the Protestant Reformation by a century, some historians claim the Moravian Church was the first Protestant church; the movement gained support in the Crown of Bohemia. However, Hus was summoned to attend the Council of Constance, which decided that he was a heretic and had him burned at the stake on 6 July 1415. From 1419 to 1437 were a series of Hussite Wars between various Catholic rulers and the Hussites, the political situation continued into a Hussite civil war between the more compromising Utraquists and the radical Taborites. In 1434, an army of Utraquists and Catholics defeated the Taborites at the Battle of Lipany; the Utraquists signed the Compacts of Basel on 5 July 1436. Within fifty years of Hus' death, a contingent of his followers had become independently organised as the "Bohemian Brethren" or Unity of the Brethren, founded in Kunvald, Bohemia, in 1457.
A brother known as Gregory the Patriarch was influential in forming the group, as well as the teachings of Peter Chelcicky. This group held to a strict obedience to the Sermon on the Mount, which included non-swearing of oaths, non-resistance, not accumulating wealth; because of this, they considered themselves separate from the majority Hussites that did not hold those teachings. They received episcopal ordination through the Waldensians in 1467; these were some of the earliest Protestants, rebelling against Rome some fifty years before Martin Luther. By the middle of the 16th century as many as 90 per cent of the inhabitants of the Bohemian Crown were Protestant; the majority of the nobility was Protestant, the schools and printing-shops established by the Moravian Church were flourishing. Protestantism had a strong influence in the education of the population. In the middle of the 16th century there was not a single town without a Protestant school in the Bohemian crown lands, many had more than one with two to six teachers each.
In Jihlava, a principal Protestant center in Moravia, there were five major schools: two German, one Czech, one for girls and one teaching in Latin, at the level of a high/grammar school, lecturing on Latin and Hebrew, Dialectics, fundamentals of Philosophy and fine arts, as well as religion according to the Lutheran Augustana. With the University of Prague firmly in hands of Protestants, the local Catholic church was unable to compete in the field of education. Therefore, the Jesuits were invited, with the backing of the Catholic Habsburg rulers, to come to the Bohemian Crown and establish a number of Catholic educational institutions. One of these is the university in the Moravian capital of Olomouc. In 1582 they forced closure of local Protestant schools. In 1617, Emperor Matthias had his fiercely Catholic brother Ferdinand of Styria elected King of Bohemia, but in 1618 Protestant Bohemian noblemen, who feared losing their religious freedom, started the Bohemian Revolt; the Revolt started by the unplanned second Defenestrations of Prague and was defeated in 1620 in the Battle of White Mountain near Prague.
As consequence the local Protestant noblemen were either executed or expelled from the country while the Habsburgs placed Catholic nobility in their place. The war and subsequent disruption led to a decline in the population from over 3 million to some 800,000 people. By 1622 the entire education system was in the hands of Jesuits and all Protestant schools were closed; the Brethren were forced to operate underground and dispersed across Northern Europe as far as the Low Countries, where their Bishop John Amos Comenius attempted to direct a resurgence. The largest remaining communities of the Brethren were located in Leszno in Poland, which had strong ties with the Czechs, small, isolated groups in Moravia; these latter are referred to as "the Hidden Seed" which John Amos Comenius had prayed would preserve the evangelical faith in the land of the fathe
British and Foreign Bible Society
The British and Foreign Bible Society known in England and Wales as the Bible Society, is a non-denominational Christian Bible society with charity status whose purpose is to make the Bible available throughout the world. The Society was formed on 7 March 1804 by a group of people including William Wilberforce and Thomas Charles to encourage the "wider circulation and use" of the Scriptures; the British and Foreign Bible Society dates back to 1804 when a group of Christians, associated with the Religious Tract Society, sought to address the problem of a lack of affordable Bibles in Welsh for Welsh-speaking Christians. Many young girls had walked long distances to Rev Thomas Charles to get copies of the Bible; the story was told of one of them - a young girl called Mary Jones who walked over 20 miles to get a Bible in Bala, Gwynedd. BFBS was not the first Bible Society in the world; the first organisation in Britain to be called "The Bible Society" was founded in 1779 and now called the Naval and Air Force Bible Society.
The first BFBS translation project was the Gospel of John into Mohawk for Canada. In the British Isles BFBS reprinted Bibles in Welsh, Scots Gaelic and Manx Gaelic first produced by SPCK; the first Romani translation was the Gospel of Luke into the Caló language of Iberia. From the early days, the Society sought to be non-sectarian; the Controversy in 1825-6 about the Apocrypha and the Metrical Psalms resulted in the secession of the Glasgow and Edinburgh Bible Societies, which formed what is now the Scottish Bible Society. This and another similar 1831 controversy about Unitarians holding significant Society offices resulted in a minority separating to form the Trinitarian Bible Society; the Bible Society extended its work to England, India and beyond. Protestant communities in many European countries date back to the work of nineteenth century BFBS Bible salesmen. Auxiliary branches were set up all over the world, which became Bible Societies in their own right, today operate in co-operation as part of the United Bible Societies.
The Bible Society is a non-denominational Christian network which works to translate, revise and distribute affordable Bibles in England and Wales. During World War One Bible Society distributed more than nine million copies of Scripture, in over 80 languages, to combatants and prisoners of war on all sides of the war. Bible Society managed this despite immense challenges – supply shortages, rising paper costs, paper rationing, submarine blockades and the sinking of merchant shipping. Greater than these physical difficulties was the emotional toll – former colleagues found themselves fighting on opposing sides. Bible salesmen throughout Europe volunteered into their respective armies; the Bible Society responded to the challenge. They printed New Testaments bound in khaki, stamped with a cross, for distribution via the Red Cross among sick and wounded soldiers and prisoners of war. On average between 6–7,000 volumes were sent out every working day for fighting men, the sick and wounded, the prisoners of war and refugees.
That's over four copies distributed each minute and night, for the duration of the war. Translation work never stopped – between August 1914 and November 1918, Bible Society printed Scriptures in 34 new languages and dialects; this meant. For many years the headquarters of the society was in London. C.4. By 1972 it had distributed whole Bibles or parts of the Bible in 1,431 languages. At that time it was distributing 173 million copies each year; the Society is working to circulate the Scriptures across the world, in the church and through the culture. The strategy of Bible Society centres on Bible availability and credibility - what it calls the ‘lifecycle’ of the Bible; these strategic approaches encompass all of its activity: translation, distribution, literacy and advocacy. Translation: making the Bible available in languages without the Scriptures, revising existing Bibles to bring the language up-to-date, so that everyone can experience the Scriptures in their mother tongue. Translation is into spoken and signed languages Production: printing physical copies of the Bible and producing Scriptures in different formats such as print and digital forms in order to meet the demands of the millions around the world who want a Bible of their own Distribution: taking the Bible to places where it might otherwise be hard to come by, in formats that people can use Literacy: helping people to read and to read well, using the Bible as a resource Engagement: helping people grapple with the Bible and respond to it wisely Advocacy: giving the wider culture a reason and opportunity to encounter the joys of the BibleThe Bible Society has by far the largest collection of Bibles in the world, with about 39,000 items.
It includes its Chinese Collection, the largest collection of Chinese Scriptures anywhere in the world. Since the society's move to Swindon in 1985 the library has been located in the library of the University of Cambridge; the Society's mission is global. Its work is organised into two categories: international; the Society is part of an international fellowship of over 140 Bible Societies around the world, known as the United Bible Societies. Its entire international programme is delivered on the ground through the close relationship they have with each of their fellow Bible Societies. American Bible Society Protestant missionary societies in China during the 19th Century Christian apologetics Ernest Tipson George Borrow 1823 Peshitta editi
Charles Gilpin (politician)
Charles Gilpin was a Quaker, politician and railway director. Amongst his many causes were the movement to repeal the Corn Laws, to establish world peace through the Peace Society, abolition of the death penalty and the anti-slavery movement, enfranchisement by providing freehold land for purchase, liberation of Hungary from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Hungarian exiles in England, the Poor Law and prison reform, Foreign relations... "a thorough liberal" He was born at Bristol on 31 March 1815, eldest of six surviving sons of James Gilpin and Mary Gilpin, a sister of Joseph and Edmund Sturge. He was educated at Sidcot School from 1824 to 1828. At the age of 13, he organised a mock trial, "with great ability", his first job was as a traveller for a Manchester warehouse. During this period he came under the influence of the liberal views of his uncle Joseph and Richard Cobden. By way of their opposition to the Corn Laws, Gilpin received a training in public speaking so successful that "before he was five-and-twenty, his services were sought in favour of many great public movements of the time".
He married Anna Crouch, daughter of William Crouch of Falmouth and Lucretia Crouch. The number and lives of their children is unclear: A daughter called Anna was born 1 December 1840, married on 21 September 1872 to Richard Pigott and was a beneficiary of Gilpin's Will. A biographical entry in Sidcot School: The Register of Old Scholars says Charles Gilpin married Anna Crouch c.1839 at Falmouth and had children named Anne and Charles. Milligan's Biographical Dictionary... says there were two sons and two daughters of the marriage. An obituary of Charles Gilpin says that an only son died, after a long illness, the sorrow of this loss leading to Gilpin's own death in 1874. In 1842, Charles Gilpin moved to London and took over the stock of the bookseller's and publisher's business of Edward Fry moving it from Houndsditch to No. 5, Bishopsgate Street Without in the City of London. The business was successful but in 1853, he retired to develop his other business and political interests; the British Library Integrated Catalogue lists 76 titles printed by Charles Gilpin, including works by Elihu Burritt, Henry Clarke Wright, Jonathan Dymond, George William Alexander, Thomas Clarkson, György Klapka, William Wells Brown, George Copway and Giuseppe Mazzini.
He published a large number of memoirs of the lives of Quakers, including those of Elizabeth Fry and William Allen. He published the Scriptural verse of his wife's sister's husband, he published Aunt Jane’s Verses, for Children... Illustrated in 1851: Aunt Jane was Jane Crewdson. Gilpin published at least two books on the subject of water hydropathy. One, by E. S. Abdy was translated from German, the other was on the waters of Ben Rhydding in West Yorkshire, he published at least two books by the prison reformer Alexander Maconochie. He published the Proceedings of the third International Peace Congresses. In 1842, at the request of a weighty Quaker board, he launched and published The Friend, an open-minded evangelical Quaker magazine; the first issue was dated "First-month 1843", under the editorship of Charles Tylor. In 1849, Gilpin purchased the publication from the board and was its editor from 1852 until 1857; the magazine is still in publication. Gilpin was elected to The Court of Common Council of the City of London in 1848.
He was instrumental in the abolition of street tolls. Since 1841, the Perth constituency had been represented in Parliament by Fox Maule, the heir apparent of his father, Baron Panmure, he was Secretary at War from July 1846 to January 1852, when for two or three weeks he was President of the Board of Control. In April 1852, he succeeded his father as 2nd Baron Panmure. Fox Maule's appointment to the Board of Control necessitated a by-election. Gilpin challenged him, supported by local reformers and a meeting to nominate the candidate was held on Monday 9 February 1852. Maule defended his record in Parliament and in Office, "amidst mingled cheers and hisses". Mr. Gilpin was greeted by cheers and hisses and stated that 150 to 200 electors had invited him to stand as "the Rt Hon Gentleman had not fulfilled his profession of reform". Maule had justified the continuation of the Government Grant to the Catholic Maynooth College. Gilpin said he was against all state funding of religion and would vote against the continuation of the grant.
However, when Mr. Maule demanded a poll, despite a show of hands in Gilpin's favour, Gilpin withdrew and Maule was declared returned. Maule's elevation to the House of Lords on the death of his father on 13 April 1852 caused a further by-election in Perth. However, he had offered to stand for the Forfar constituency; the liberal contestants for Perth were Charles Gilpin and Hon. Arthur Kinnaird and their supporters were equally divided between the two candidates. Through the Conservative vote, Gilpin lost to Kinnaird. Gilpin did not stand for Parliament at the July 1852 General Election. At the general elections 1857, 1859, 1865 and February 1874, Gilpin was elected to represent the Northampton constituency Gilpin opposed the Conspiracy to Murder Bill of 1858, drafted in response to the attempted assassination of Napoleon III on 4 January 1858; the plot was hatched in England. The bill sought to increase the penalty for conspiring to murder persons abroad from a misdemeanour to a felony; the failure of the bill led to Palmerston's resignation
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion. In some countries, conscientious objectors are assigned to an alternative civilian service as a substitute for conscription or military service; some conscientious objectors consider themselves pacifist, non-interventionist, non-resistant, non-aggressionist, anti-imperialist, antimilitarist or philosophically stateless. On March 8, 1995, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights resolution 1995/83 stated that "persons performing military service should not be excluded from the right to have conscientious objections to military service"; this was re-affirmed in 1998, when resolution 1998/77 recognized that "persons performing military service may develop conscientious objections". A number of organizations around the world celebrate the principle on May 15 as International Conscientious Objection Day; the term has been extended to objecting to working for the military–industrial complex due to a crisis of conscience.
Many conscientious objectors have been executed, imprisoned, or otherwise penalized when their beliefs led to actions conflicting with their society's legal system or government. The legal definition and status of conscientious objection has varied over the years and from nation to nation. Religious beliefs were a starting point in many nations for granting conscientious objector status; the first recorded conscientious objector, was conscripted into the Roman army in the year 295, but "told the Proconsul in Numidia that because of his religious convictions he could not serve in the military". He was executed for this, was canonized as Saint Maximilian. An early recognition of conscientious objection was granted by William the Silent to the Dutch Mennonites in 1575, they could refuse military service in exchange for a monetary payment. Formal legislation to exempt objectors from fighting was first granted in mid-18th century Great Britain following problems with attempting to force Quakers into military service.
In 1757, when the first attempt was made to establish a British Militia as a professional national military reserve, a clause in the Militia Ballot Act allowed Quakers exemption from military service. In the United States, conscientious objection was permitted from the country's founding, although regulation was left to individual states prior to the introduction of conscription. In 1948, the issue of the right to "conscience" was dealt with by the United Nations General Assembly in Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, it reads: The proclamation was ratified during the General Assembly on 10 December 1948 by a vote of 48 in favour, 0 against, with 8 abstentions. In 1974, the Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations, Seán MacBride said, in his Nobel Lecture, "To the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights one more might, with relevance, be added, it is'The Right to Refuse to Kill'."In 1976, the United Nations treaty the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights entered into force.
It was based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was created in 1966. Nations that have signed this treaty are bound by it, its Article 18 begins: "Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought and religion."However, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights left the issue of conscientious objection inexplicit, as in this quote from War Resisters International: "Article 18 of the Covenant does put some limits on the right, stating that manifestations must not infringe on public safety, health or morals. Some states argue that such limitations would permit them to make conscientious objection during time of war a threat to public safety, or mass conscientious objection a disruption to public order... that it is a'moral' duty to serve the state in its military."On July 30, 1993, explicit clarification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Article 18 was made in the United Nations Human Rights Committee general comment 22, Paragraph 11: "The Covenant does not explicitly refer to a right to conscientious objection, but the Committee believes that such a right can be derived from article 18, inasmuch as the obligation to use lethal force may conflict with the freedom of conscience and the right to manifest one's religion or belief."
In 2006, the Committee has found for the first time a right to conscientious objection under article 18, although not unanimously. In 1997, an announcement of Amnesty International's forthcoming campaign and briefing for the UN Commission on Human Rights included this quote: "The right to conscientious objection to military service is not a marginal concern outside the mainstream of international human rights protection and promotion."In 1998, the Human Rights Commission reiterated previous statements and added "states should... refrain from subjecting conscientious objectors... to repeated punishment for failure to perform military service". It encouraged states "to consider granting asylum to those conscientious objectors compelled to leave their country of origin because they fear persecution owing to their refusal to perform military service..."In 2001, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union recognised the right to conscientious objection. The Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees states: 171.
Not every conviction, genuine though it may be, will constitute a s
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, transdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement. Evangelicals believe in the centrality of the conversion or "born again" experience in receiving salvation, in the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity, in spreading the Christian message; the movement has had a long presence in the Anglosphere before spreading further afield in the 19th, 20th and early 21st centuries. Its origins are traced to 1738, with various theological streams contributing to its foundation, including English Methodism, the Moravian Church, German Lutheran Pietism. Preeminently, John Wesley and other early Methodists were at the root of sparking this new movement during the First Great Awakening. Today, evangelicals are found across many Protestant branches, as well as in various denominations not subsumed to a specific branch.
Among leaders and major figures of the evangelical Protestant movement were John Wesley, George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, Billy Graham, Bill Bright, Harold John Ockenga, John Stott and Martyn Lloyd-Jones. The movement gained great momentum during the 18th and 19th centuries with the Great Awakenings in Great Britain and the United States. In 2016, there were an estimated 619 million evangelicals in the world, meaning that one in four Christians would be classified as evangelical; the United States has the largest concentration of evangelicals in the world. American evangelicals are a quarter of the nation's population and its single largest religious group. In Great Britain, evangelicals are represented in the Methodist Church, Baptist communities, among evangelical Anglicans; some evangelical Christian denominations are grouped together in the World Evangelical Alliance. The word evangelical has its etymological roots in the Greek word for "gospel" or "good news": εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, from eu "good", angel- the stem of, among other words, angelos "messenger, angel", the neuter suffix -ion.
By the English Middle Ages, the term had expanded semantically to include not only the message, but the New Testament which contained the message, as well as more the Gospels, which portray the life and resurrection of Jesus. The first published use of evangelical in English was in 1531, when William Tyndale wrote "He exhorteth them to proceed in the evangelical truth." One year Sir Thomas More wrote the earliest recorded use in reference to a theological distinction when he spoke of "Tyndale his evangelical brother Barns". During the Reformation, Protestant theologians embraced the term as referring to "gospel truth". Martin Luther referred to the evangelische Kirche to distinguish Protestants from Catholics in the Roman Catholic Church. Into the 21st century, evangelical has continued in use as a synonym for Protestant in continental Europe, elsewhere; this usage is reflected in the names of Protestant denominations, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
In the English-speaking world, evangelical was applied to describe the series of revival movements that occurred in Britain and North America during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Christian historian David Bebbington writes that, "Although'evangelical', with a lower-case initial, is used to mean'of the gospel', the term'Evangelical', with a capital letter, is applied to any aspect of the movement beginning in the 1730s." According to the Oxford English Dictionary, evangelicalism was first used in 1831. The term may be used outside any religious context to characterize a generic missionary, reforming, or redeeming impulse or purpose. For example, the Times Literary Supplement refers to "the rise and fall of evangelical fervor within the Socialist movement". One influential definition of evangelicalism has been proposed by historian David Bebbington. Bebbington notes four distinctive aspects of evangelical faith: conversionism, biblicism and activism, noting, "Together they form a quadrilateral of priorities, the basis of Evangelicalism."Conversionism, or belief in the necessity of being "born again", has been a constant theme of evangelicalism since its beginnings.
To evangelicals, the central message of the gospel is justification by faith in Christ and repentance, or turning away, from sin. Conversion differentiates the Christian from the non-Christian, the change in life it leads to is marked by both a rejection of sin and a corresponding personal holiness of life. A conversion experience can be emotional, including grief and sorrow for sin followed by great relief at receiving forgiveness; the stress on conversion differentiates evangelicalism from other forms of Protestantism by the associated belief that an assurance of salvation will accompany conversion. Among evangelicals, individuals have testified to both gradual conversions. Biblicism is a high regard for biblical authority. All evangelicals believe in biblical inspiration, though they disagree over how this inspiration should be defined. Many evangelicals believe in biblical inerrancy, while other evangelicals believe in biblical infallibility. Crucicentrism is the centrality that evangelicals give to the Atonement, the saving death and resurrection of Jesus, that offers forgiveness of sins and new life.
This is understood most in terms of a substitutionary atonement, in which Christ died as a substitute for sinful humanity by takin