Hallam HEL-əm is a borough in York County, United States. The population was 2,673 at the 2010 census. Before 1736, all parts of Pennsylvania west of the Susquehanna River, including present-day Hallam Borough and the surrounding Hellam Township, were land of the Iroquois. In October 1736, the Proprietors of Pennsylvania received from the Five Nations deeds for the Susquehanna lands south of the Blue Mountains, including the borough and township. From 1736 to 1739, the area was under the authority of Hempfield Township in Lancaster County east of the Susquehanna. In 1739, the Provincial Assembly passed a special act to empower Lancaster County to establish townships west of the river. Hellam Township was created and included most of what is now York and Cumberland counties. Hellam Township was named after Hallamshire, the township in England where Samuel Blunston, the magistrate of Lancaster County, was born; when Hallam Borough was incorporated in 1902, the town's name was spelled Hallam, the same as the English township.
The Martin Schultz House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993. Hallam is located at 40°0′14″N 76°36′16″W, it is a suburb of York, Pennsylvania and is part of the York-Hanover Metropolitan Statistical Area, as well as the York-Hanover-Gettysburg Combined Statistical Area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.7 square miles, all of it land. Hallam is located within the Kreutz Creek watershed. Hallam lies on the cusp of a humid subtropical climate zone and experiences four discernible seasons, it receives an average of 43 inches of precipitation each year, with the wettest month being June. In January 1994, Hallam experienced its lowest recorded temperature at -21 °F, while the hottest temperature on record was 105 °F in July 1936; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,532 people, 667 households, 450 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,182.5 people per square mile. There were 713 housing units at an average density of 1,015.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the borough was 96.21% White, 1.31% African American, 0.39% Native American, 0.59% Asian, 0.85% from other races, 0.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.31% of the population. There were 667 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.6% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.76. In the borough the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $42,235, the median income for a family was $47,552.
Males had a median income of $34,773 versus $24,716 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $22,868. About 5.0% of families and 4.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.1% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. The Hallam Borough is served by the Eastern York School District. Students in Hallam go to Kreutz Creek Elementary School if they are in grades K-5, Eastern York Middle School in 6-8, Eastern York High School in 9-12. Students may attend one of the Commonwealth's cyber charter schools at no additional cost to the family or student; the local school district pays the state set tuition fee to the cyber charter school that the student chooses to attend. By state law, charter school students have access to all extracurriculars and sports programs at the local public school district. Alternatively, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania permits parents to home school their children or they may attend a private school. Kreutz Creek Valley Preservation Society, "An Early History of Hellam Township" Hallam Borough official website
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Cross Roads, Pennsylvania
Cross Roads is a borough in York County, United States. The population was 512 at the 2010 census; the cross roads in the borough is where Church Road intersects Cross Roads Avenue and are joined by Century Farms Road. East of the intersection Century Farms Road is numbered SR 2050 and Church Road is unnumbered. Cross Roads is located at 39°48′53″N 76°34′23″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.9 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 518 people, 175 households, 149 families residing in the borough; the population density was 275.5 people per square mile. There were 185 housing units at an average density of 98.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.14% White, 2.90% African American, 0.19% Asian, 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.39% of the population. There were 175 households out of which 44.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 77.7% were married couples living together, 5.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.3% were non-families.
10.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.19. In the borough the population was spread out with 31.1% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 33.6% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 6.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $57,750, the median income for a family was $60,556. Males had a median income of $40,000 versus $31,875 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $20,063. About 2.5% of families and 3.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.4% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Cross Roads Borough is served by the South Eastern School District which provides public education
East Prospect, Pennsylvania
East Prospect is a borough in York County, United States. The population was 905 at the 2010 census. East Prospect is located at 39°58′17″N 76°31′14″W and is situated on the west bank of the Susquehanna River opposite Washington Boro; the head end of the Amerindian-named Conejohela Valley and commercially developed dam-created Lake Clarke region are centered mid-river between the towns, on a line, more or less from the two county capitals and Lancaster, which are about equidistant. The borough is just west of the Susquehanna River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 678 people, 258 households, 198 families residing in the borough; the population density was 1,918.4 people per square mile. There were 272 housing units at an average density of 769.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 99.41% White, 0.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.18% of the population.
There were 258 households out of which 40.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.0% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.9% were non-families. 18.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 2.97. In the borough the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 35.4% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 103.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.4 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $41,250, the median income for a family was $48,051. Males had a median income of $32,734 versus $23,036 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $16,787. About 1.4% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.6% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over.
East Prospect is served by the Eastern York School District. Canadochly Elementary School is located in the borough. Students may attend one of the Commonwealth's cyber charter schools at no additional cost to the family or student; the local school district pays the state set tuition fee to the cyber charter school that the student chooses to attend. Students still have access to all extracurriculars and sports programs at the local public school district. Alternatively, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania permits parents to home school their children or they may attend a private school
Harrisburg is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, the county seat of Dauphin County. With a population of 49,192, it is the 15th largest city in the Commonwealth, it lies on the east bank of the Susquehanna River, 107 miles west of Philadelphia. Harrisburg is the anchor of the Susquehanna Valley metropolitan area, which had a 2017 estimated population of 571,903, making it the fourth most populous in Pennsylvania and 96th most populous in the United States. Harrisburg played a notable role in American history during the Westward Migration, the American Civil War, the Industrial Revolution. During part of the 19th century, the building of the Pennsylvania Canal and the Pennsylvania Railroad allowed Harrisburg to become one of the most industrialized cities in the Northeastern United States; the U. S. Navy ship USS Harrisburg, which served from 1918 to 1919 at the end of World War I, was named in honor of the city. In the mid-to-late 20th century, the city's economic fortunes fluctuated with its major industries consisting of government, heavy manufacturing and food services.
The Pennsylvania Farm Show, the largest free indoor agriculture exposition in the United States, was first held in Harrisburg in 1917 and has been held there every early-to-mid January since then. Harrisburg hosts an annual outdoor sports show, the largest of its kind in North America, an auto show, which features a large static display of new as well as classic cars and is renowned nationwide, Motorama, a two-day event consisting of a car show, motocross racing, remote control car racing, more. Harrisburg is known for the Three Mile Island accident, which occurred on March 28, 1979, near Middletown. In 2010 Forbes rated Harrisburg as the second best place in the U. S. to raise a family. Despite the city's recent financial troubles, in 2010 The Daily Beast website ranked 20 metropolitan areas across the country as being recession-proof, the Harrisburg region landed at No. 7. The financial stability of the region is in part due to the high concentration of state and federal government agencies.
Harrisburg's site along the Susquehanna River is thought to have been inhabited by Native Americans as early as 3000 BC. Known to the Native Americans as "Peixtin", or "Paxtang", the area was an important resting place and crossroads for Native American traders, as the trails leading from the Delaware to the Ohio rivers, from the Potomac to the Upper Susquehanna intersected there; the first European contact with Native Americans in Pennsylvania was made by the Englishman, Captain John Smith, who journeyed from Virginia up the Susquehanna River in 1608 and visited with the Susquehanna tribe. In 1719, John Harris, Sr. an English trader, settled here and 14 years secured grants of 800 acres in this vicinity. In 1785, John Harris, Jr. made plans to lay out a town on his father's land, which he named Harrisburg. In the spring of 1785, the town was formally surveyed by William Maclay, a son-in-law of John Harris, Sr. In 1791, Harrisburg became incorporated, in October 1812 it was named the Pennsylvania state capital, which it has remained since.
The assembling here of the sectional Harrisburg Convention in 1827 led to the passage of the high protective-tariff bill of 1828. In 1839, Harrison and Tyler were nominated for President of the United States at the first national convention of the Whig Party of the United States, held in Harrisburg. Before Harrisburg gained its first industries, it was a scenic, pastoral town, typical of most of the day: compact and surrounded by farmland. In 1822, the impressive brick capitol was completed for $200,000, it was Harrisburg's strategic location. It was settled as a trading post in 1719 at a location important to Westward expansion; the importance of the location was. The Susquehanna River flowed west to east at this location, providing a route for boat traffic from the east; the head of navigation was a short distance northwest of the town, where the river flowed through the pass. Persons arriving from the east by boat had to exit at Harrisburg and prepare for an overland journey westward through the mountain pass.
Harrisburg assumed importance as a provisioning stop at this point where westward bound pioneers transitioned from river travel to overland travel. It was because of its strategic location that the state legislature selected the small town of Harrisburg to become the state capital in 1812; the grandeur of the Colonial Revival capitol dominated the quaint town. The streets were orderly and platted in grid pattern; the Pennsylvania Canal was coursed the length of the town. The residential houses were situated on only a few city blocks stretching southward from the capitol, they were one story. No factories were present but there were blacksmith shops and other businesses. During the American Civil War, Harrisburg was a significant training center for the Union Army, with tens of thousands of troops passing through Camp Curtin, it was a major rail center for the Union and a vital link between the Atlantic coast and the Midwest, with several railroads running through the city and spanning the Susquehanna River.
As a result of this importance, it was a target of General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia during its two invasions; the first time during the 1862 Maryland Campaign, when Lee planned to capture the city after taking Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, but was prevented from d
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif