2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Macon County, Georgia
Macon County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,740; the county seat is Oglethorpe. The Macon County Courthouse is located in Oglethorpe. Macon County was created in 1837 from parts of Houston and Marion counties, effective December 14 of that year; the 91st county, it was named for the deceased General Nathaniel Macon of North Carolina, who served in the U. S. Congress for 37 years and ran for U. S. vice president. The county was reduced when parts were separated to organize Taylor and Peach counties, in 1852 and 1924, respectively; the first county seat was not chosen until 1838. The Georgia General Assembly designated it on December 29 of that year and incorporated it as a town. In the 1850s, the Central of Georgia Railroad was built through Oglethorpe, changing county dynamics; as a result, the Georgia Assembly called for a referendum on moving the Macon County seat to Oglethorpe in February of both 1854 and 1856. Little is known about the first vote, but the second vote resulted in approval for a change to the county seat, Oglethorpe was designated the following year in 1857.
During the American Civil War, 13,000 Union soldiers who were prisoners of war died at the Confederate camp in Andersonville, Georgia from starvation and disease. In the late period of the war, Georgia had difficulty supplying its own troops and people with food. Throughout the Civil War, more men on both sides died of disease than of their wounds. Commandants of the camp were prosecuted after the war for poor treatment of prisoners; the Andersonville National Cemetery, established for the many Union dead, is at the southwestern tip of the county. The county has an active Mennonite community; the area code for Macon County is 478. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 406 square miles, of which 401 square miles is land and 5.4 square miles is water. Most of the southern half of Macon County, from west of Ideal to State Route 49 north of Montezuma running north along State Route 49 to Marshallville, running southeast in the direction of Unadilla, is located in the Middle Flint River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin.
The northern and northwestern portion of the county, from north of Marshallville heading west, is located in the Upper Flint River sub-basin of the same ACF River Basin. The northeastern corner of Macon County, east of Marshallville, is located in the Lower Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. Peach County Houston County Dooly County Sumter County Schley County Taylor County Andersonville National Historic Site As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,740 people, 4,999 households, 3,363 families residing in the county; the population density was 36.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,136 housing units at an average density of 15.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 60.6% black or African American, 35.1% white, 1.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.6% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 7.1% were American. Of the 4,999 households, 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 24.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% were non-families, 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.15. The median age was 38.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $27,950 and the median income for a family was $37,218. Males had a median income of $27,274 versus $23,750 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,902. About 24.1% of families and 33.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44.8% of those under age 18 and 27.2% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 census of 2000, there were 14,074 people, 4,834 households, 3,485 families residing in the county; the population density was 35 people per square mile. There were 5,495 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 59.48% Black or African American, 37.37% White or Caucasian, 0.22% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.52% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. 2.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,834 households out of which 34.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.70% were married couples living together, 24.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.90% were non-families.
25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.25. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.60% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 12.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 98.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,224, the median income for a family was $29,402. Males had a median income of $26,922 versus $18,611 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,820. About 22.10% of families and 25.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.00% of thos
Georgia's 2nd congressional district
Georgia's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Georgia. The district is represented by Democrat Sanford D. Bishop, Jr. though the district's boundaries have been redrawn following the 2010 census, which granted an additional congressional seat to Georgia. The first election using the new district boundaries were the 2012 congressional elections. One of the largest districts by size, it comprises much of the southwestern portion of the state of Georgia. Much of the district is rural, although the district has a number of small cities and medium-sized towns, such as Albany, Americus and portions of Columbus and Macon; the district is the historic and current home of President Jimmy Carter. The district is one of the most Democratic in the country, as Democrats have held the seat since 1875; as of May 2017, there is one former member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Georgia's 2nd congressional district, living at this time. Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 2nd district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 2nd district at GovTrack.us
Houston County, Georgia
Houston County is a county located in the central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. The estimated 2016 population is 152,122, its county seat is Perry, although the city of Warner Robins is larger in both area and population. The county was created on May 15, 1821, as one of five counties in the state, reduced in size with the formation of Bibb, Pike and Peach counties, it was named after Georgia governor John Houstoun, with the spelling being a common 19th-century variation that evolved to "Houston". The pronunciation, remains to this day "howston." The geographic center of the county was given the name Wattsville, changed to Perry. Houston County is included in the Warner Robins, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in turn is included in the Macon-Warner Robins-Fort Valley Combined Statistical Area. Flat Creek Public Fishing Area is in Houston County, south west of Perry. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 380 square miles, of which 376 square miles is land and 4.4 square miles is water.
The vast majority of Houston County is located in the Lower Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. The northern edge of the county, north of Centerville and Warner Robins, is located in the Upper Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin; the southwestern corner of Houston County, well west of Interstate 75, is located in the Middle Flint River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin. Bibb County - north Peach County - west Twiggs County - east Bleckley County - southeast Pulaski County - south-southeast Dooly County - south Macon County - southwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 139,900 people, 53,051 households, 37,874 families residing in the county; the population density was 372.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 58,325 housing units at an average density of 155.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 63.3% white, 28.6% black or African American, 2.4% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.4% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 6.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 12.9% were American, 10.3% were German, 10.0% were English, 9.1% were Irish. Of the 53,051 households, 38.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 16.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.6% were non-families, 24.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age was 34.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $55,098 and the median income for a family was $67,227. Males had a median income of $47,557 versus $34,239 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,206. About 10.3% of families and 12.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.7% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over. Houston County Schools operates public schools. Centerville Perry Warner Robins Robins Air Force Base National Register of Historic Places listings in Houston County, Georgia Houston County Schools Ripley, George.
"Houston. I. A central county of Georgia"; the American Cyclopædia. Flint Electric Membership Corporation historical marker Houston County historical marker
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Fall Line Freeway
The Fall Line Freeway is a 215-mile-long highway designed to span the width of the U. S. state of Georgia from Columbus at the Alabama state line to Augusta, traveling through several cities including Macon and Sandersville. It is composed of high-speed divided highway portions; as of August 2018, the Fall Line Freeway is 100% open to traffic. Between August 2017 and July 2018, the highway was completed; the Georgia Department of Transportation announced that the highway was signed as SR 540 on September 24, 2018. Most of the FLF was a piecing together of segments of pre-existing highways, upon which SR 540 was designated in September 2018, it consists of U. S. Route 80 from the Alabama state line from Macon to East Macon. From 2018 to 2019, the highway used the southern portion of SR 243, from southwest of Gordon to north-northeast of Ivey, until that highway was decommissioned; the portion of the highway from north-northeast of Ivey to southeast of Milledgeville was newly-built highway for this project.
The FLF is proposed to be the main portion of the Georgia segment of I-14. This Interstate Highway is entirely within Central Texas and may be extended into Augusta. Contrary to its description as a "freeway," the Fall Line Freeway is a four-lane divided highway, except a short section within Wrens and an undivided portion in Reynolds. Four freeway sections exist: following the J. R. Allen Parkway, the bypass north of Columbus, Interstate 75 from Byron to Macon, I-16 in Macon, part of the Ivey–Sandersville segment; the highway is designed to assist the flow of commercial traffic, providing an easier path for freight trucks carrying goods between Columbus and Augusta avoiding Atlanta. Much of the route follows US 80, SR 96, SR 24, SR 88, US 1/SR 4, while other parts are separate alignments, such as most of the portion between Scottsboro and Sandersville. SR 540 and the FLF begin on an unnamed bridge over the Chattahoochee River, at the Alabama state line, on the Phenix City, Alabama–Columbus city line, concurrent with U.
S. Route 80 and SR 22; the state line is the western terminus of SR 22. On the Alabama side of the state line, US 80 travel on the J. R. Allen Parkway, a freeway into Phenix City. On the Georgia side, US 80, SR 22, SR 540, the FLF utilize the parkway as a bypass of most of Columbus, they curve to the northeast. They have an interchange with the northern terminus of SR 22 Connector. Just over 1,000 feet they meet SR 219. After an interchange with Bradley Park Drive, they meet Interstate 185 and US 27/SR 1. On the eastbound side is access to Moon Road, which has a separate exit on the westbound side; the highways meet Blackmon and Schomburg roads. After a curve to the southeast, the freeway ends, the roadway changes to a divided highway, they have an interchange with US 27 Alternate and SR 85. They curve to the east-northeast and meet the eastern terminus of SR 22 Spur, they travel in a northeastern direction until entering Upatoi. There, they curve to the southeast, they curve back to the east-northeast and cross over Baker Creek, where they leave the city limits of Columbus and Muscogee County and enter Talbot County.
The highway travels just to the north of Box Springs. After beginning to head to the northeast, FLF crosses over Rockmore and Upatoi creeks and intersects the northern terminus of SR 355, it intersects SR 41, which joins the concurrency. US 80, SR 22, SR 41, SR 540, the FLF curves to the northeast and enters Geneva. In the central part of the city, US 80, SR 22, SR 41 make a left turn to the north-northwest at the western terminus of SR 96. Here, the FLF takes the beginning of SR 96 to the northeast, it intersects the western terminus of SR 240. The roadway leaves Geneva; the highway intersects a former segment of SR 96. It begins a gradual curve to the northeast. Right after curving back to the south-southeast, it begins a concurrency with SR 90. 2,000 feet SR 90, SR 96, SR 540, the FLF intersect another former segment of SR 96. The highway enters Junction City, it curved to the east-southeast and intersectd Old Mauk Road, which leads to the main part of Junction City. It curved to the east-northeast and intersectd the southern terminus of Buckner Road, which leads to the main part of the city.
At this intersection, SR 90 turns right to the south-southeast. The FLF curves back to the east-southeast, leaving the city enters Taylor County; the FLF travels through the southern part of Howard. Just after beginning a curve to the south-southeast, it intersects the western terminus
The peach is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a nectarine; the specific name persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, from where it was transplanted to Europe. It belongs to the genus Prunus which includes the cherry, apricot and plum, in the rose family; the peach is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. Due to their close relatedness, the inside of a peach stone tastes remarkably similar to almond, peach stones are used to make a cheap version of marzipan, known as persipan. Peaches and nectarines are the same species though they are regarded commercially as different fruits. In contrast to peaches, whose fruits present the characteristic fuzz on the skin, nectarines are characterized by the absence of fruit-skin trichomes.
China alone produced 58% of the world's total for peaches and nectarines in 2016. Prunus persica grows up to 7 m wide. However, when pruned properly, trees are 3–4 m tall and wide; the leaves are lanceolate, 7 -- 16 cm long, 2 -- pinnately veined. The flowers are produced in early spring before the leaves; the fruit has yellow or whitish flesh, a delicate aroma, a skin, either velvety or smooth in different cultivars. The flesh is delicate and bruised in some cultivars, but is firm in some commercial varieties when green; the single, large seed is red-brown, oval shaped 1.3–2 cm long, is surrounded by a wood-like husk. Peaches, along with cherries and apricots, are stone fruits. There are various heirloom varieties, including the Indian Peach, or Indian Blood Peach, which arrives in the latter part of the summer, can have color ranging from red and white, to purple. Cultivated peaches are divided into clingstones and freestones, depending on whether the flesh sticks to the stone or not. Peaches with white flesh are sweet with little acidity, while yellow-fleshed peaches have an acidic tang coupled with sweetness, though this varies greatly.
Both colors have some red on their skin. Low-acid white-fleshed peaches are the most popular kinds in China and neighbouring Asian countries, while Europeans and North Americans have favoured the acidic, yellow-fleshed cultivars; the scientific name persica, along with the word "peach" itself and its cognates in many European languages, derives from an early European belief that peaches were native to Persia. The Ancient Romans referred to the peach as malum persicum "Persian apple" becoming French pêche, whence the English peach; the scientific name, Prunus persica means "Persian plum", as it is related to the plum. Fossil endocarps with characteristics indistinguishable from those of modern peaches have been recovered from late Pliocene deposits in Kunming, dating to 2.6 million years ago. In the absence of evidence that the plants were in other ways identical to the modern peach, the name Prunus kunmingensis has been assigned to these fossils. Although its botanical name Prunus persica refers to Persia from where it came to Europe, genetic studies suggest peaches originated in China, where they have been cultivated since the neolithic period.
Until it was believed that the cultivation started c. 2000 BC. More recent evidence indicates that domestication occurred as early as 6000 BC in Zhejiang Province of China; the oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao site. Archaeologists point to the Yangtze River Valley as the place where the early selection for favorable peach varieties took place. Peaches were mentioned in Chinese writings and literature beginning from the early 1st millennium BC. A domesticated peach appeared early in Japan, in 4700–4400 BC, during the Jōmon period, it was similar to modern cultivated forms, where the peach stones are larger and more compressed than earlier stones. This domesticated type of peach was brought into Japan from China. In China itself, this variety is attested only at a date of c. 3300 to 2300 BC. In India, the peach first appeared during the Harappan period, it is found elsewhere in Western Asia in ancient times. Peach cultivation reached Greece by 300 BC, it is claimed that Alexander the Great introduced the fruit into Europe after he conquered the Persians, although there is no historical evidence for this belief.
Peaches were, well known to the Romans in the 1st century AD, were cultivated in Emilia-Romagna. Peach trees are portrayed in the wall paintings of the towns destroyed by the Vesuvius eruption of 79 AD, while the oldest known artistic representations of the fruit are in two fragments of wall paintings, dated to the 1st century AD, in Herculaneum, now preserved in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples; the peach was brought to the Americas by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, made it to England and France in the 17th century, where it was a prized and expensive treat. The horticulturist George Minifie brought the first peaches from England to its North American colonies in the early 17th century, planting them at his Estate of Buc