Dan Albas is a Canadian politician, elected to the House of Commons of Canada in the 2011 election. He represents the electoral district of Central Okanagan—Similkameen—Nicola as a member of the Conservative Party. In the 41st Canadian Parliament, Albas was appointed to the Standing Committee on Transport and Communities and introduced one piece of legislation, a private members bill called An Act to amend the Importation of Intoxicating Liquors Act which would allow individuals to import wine from another province for the purpose of personal consumption. Born in 1976, Dan Albas' family moved to Penticton. With his two sisters, he was raised in in Penticton by a father who worked as a lawyer and was active in conservative politics and a mother who worked as a social worker; the family spent a short time living in Whitehorse, but moved to Alberta to seek medical treatment after an accident left Dan with severe burns over much of his body. They moved back to Penticton where Albas attended Penticton Secondary School and Okanagan University College.
He worked as a martial arts instructor and in the late-1990s he opened his own martial arts studio, Kick City Martial Arts. In 2005 his studio held a fund-raiser in which pledges were taken by students who would break boards with martial arts moves in support of a Hurricane Katrina-related charity; the Penticton and Wine Country Chamber of Commerce named Albas the 2005 young entrepreneur of the year. In the same year Albas became a board member on the Chamber of Commerce and was appointed to represent the region on the British Columbia Chamber of Commerce, he helped merge the independent Chambers of Commerce in Penticton, Okanagan Falls and Osoyoos into the South Okanagan Chamber of Commerce. He ran the regional United Way fund-raising campaign in 2007 and again in 2010. In 2008 he became active with a community group called the Penticton Housing Coalition advocating for affordable housing in the city, like secondary suites. In the 2008 local government elections the 31-year-old Albas ran, placed first with 5,656 votes, for a seat on the Penticton City Council.
Albas became known as the most fiscally-conservative councillor on an fiscally-conservative council. Beyond the measures agreed to by the council, Albas sought to avoid having the city purchase or pay for a fire-rescue boat, the restoration of the SS Sicamous, landscaping improvements at the South Okanagan Events Centre and the beaches, mobile radar speed signs, building an agricultural centre in the downtown area and unsuccessfully tried to defer the hiring of additional fire department officers and eliminate a 2.1% raise in councillor salaries. He voted against opening public library on Sundays to avoid the extra costs and against raising the electricity rate to match FortisBC rate increases, requiring developers who work with the city to have professional liability insurance, though all were approved by council. Initiatives that Albas began or assisted with included bylaw enforcement fines for aggressive pan-handling, keeping a Canada Post outlet in the downtown area. Believing public transit should be funded through user fees, he voted against acquiring new buses from BC Transit unless it was paid for through higher fares and sought to raise fares by 25% to fund operational costs.
He drew criticism as a councillor for interfering with staff management and for posting speculative comments on his blog regarding privatization of city services. Albas was appointed to be a director at the Regional District of Okanagan-Similkameen where he was successful he reducing the Regional District's contribution to the Okanagan Film Commission by 50%. In March 2011, after Stockwell Day, the MP for Okanagan—Coquihalla for the last 11 years, unexpectedly announced his retirement, a nomination election was held to seek his replacement as the Conservative Party nominee. Albas faced two other candidates: Marshall Neufeld who had worked as Day's parliamentary assistant and West Kelowna landscaper Russell Ensign. A fourth candidate, Chamber of Commerce president Jason Cox, campaigned but missed the deadline for submitting his nomination papers; the nomination election came under criticism from Conservative Party members for being rushed. The 2011 federal election campaign began soon after the nomination vote.
Albas faced former Summerland councillor David Finnis of the New Democratic Party, semi-retired Ashcroft businessman John Kidder for the Liberal Party, Penticton marketer Dan Bouchard for the Green Party, Penticton doctor Dietrich Wittel, West Kelowna real estate agent Sean Upshaw who campaign in protest of the Conservative Party nomination process which he felt excluded from due to its rushed vote. Albas won the election in the Okanagan—Coquihalla riding with 54% of the vote and his Conservative Party formed a majority government; when the 41st Parliament began Albas was appointed to the'Standing Committee on Transport and Communities' and the'Standing Joint Committee on Scrutiny of Regulations'. In the House of Commons, Albas introduced Private Members Bill C-311, entitled An Act to amend the Importation of Intoxicating Liquors Act which would allow individuals to import wine from another provi
Canadian wine is wine produced in Canada. Ontario and British Columbia are the two largest wine-producing provinces in Canada, with two-thirds of the Canada's vineyard acreage situated in Ontario. However, wine producing regions are present in other provinces, including Alberta and Nova Scotia. In 2015, Canada produced 56.2 million litres of wine, with 62 per cent of that total originating from Ontario. The second largest wine-producing province, British Columbia, constitutes 33 per cent of Canada's wine production. Between 2006 and 2011, 68 per cent of Canadian wine exports came from Ontario-based wineries. Icewine can be produced reliably in most Canadian wine-producing regions; as a result, Canada is the world's leading icewine producer, with more icewine produced in Canada than all other countries combined. The top icewine producing provinces are Ontario, British Columbia and Nova Scotia. In addition to standard grape wines, icewines, the country is home to several fruit wineries and meaderies, found in provinces such as in Alberta and Manitoba, provinces whose local climate is not favourable for grape production.
Canadian wine has been produced for over 200 years. Early settlers tried to cultivate Vitis vinifera grapes from Europe with limited success, they found it necessary to focus on the native species of Vitis labrusca and Vitis riparia along with various hybrids. However, the market was limited for such wines because of their peculiar taste, called "foxy". However, this became less apparent. In 1866, the first commercial winery opened in Canada, situated on Pelee Island in Ontario. During the first half of the twentieth century, the temperance movement and consumer demand for fortified and sweet wines hampered the development of a quality table wine industry. Consumer demand did not shift from sweet and fortified wines to drier and lower alcohol table wines until the 1960s. At the same time, there were significant improvements in wine-making technology, access to better grape varieties and disease-resistant clones, systematic research into viticulture. After the repeal of alcohol prohibition in Canada in 1927, provinces limited the number of licences to produce wine.
A nearly 50-year moratorium on issuing new winery licences was dropped in 1974. During the same decade, demonstration planting began to show that Vitis vinifera could be grown in Canada. Other growers found that high quality wines could be produced if Vitis vinifera vines were grown with reduced yields, new trellising techniques, appropriate canopy management. In 1988, three important events occurred: free trade with the United States, the establishment of the Vintners Quality Alliance standard, a major grape vine replacement/upgrading program; the VQA acts as the regulatory and appellation system that intends to ensure "high quality" and "authenticity of origin" for Canadain wines from the provinces of British Columbia, Ontario. Each of these events served in one way or another to improve the viability of the wine industry in Canada. During the 1990s, Canadian vintners continued to demonstrate that fine grape varieties in cooler growing conditions could possess complex flavours, delicate yet persistent aromas focused structure and longer ageing potential than their counterparts in warmer growing regions of the world.
Cellared in Canada was a former indicator from 1994 to 2018 for wine products from Canadian wineries, whose grape must originated from outside of Canada. Canadian wineries are able to import pre-fermented grape must from other countries, use it to produce wine under their own products; the maximum quantity of foreign wine used in Cellared in Canada wine products depended on the province the wine originated from. In Ontario, 30 per cent of the grapes in Cellared in Canada wine had to originate from local wineries. Conversely British Columbia did not stipulate the use of local grapes in the production of its Cellared in Canada wine products. In late 2009, local and international criticism of the Cellared in Canada practice and the Liquor Control Board of Ontario emerged. Grape growers in Ontario began protesting the practice as a threat to their livelihood claiming that thousands of tons of Canadian grapes are left rotting on the vine because producers are using imported grapes to make wine labelled as "Canadian".
Wine producers who do not use the "Cellared in Canada" designation criticized the practice as tarnishing the reputation of Canadian wines and misleading consumers. Producers and growers in Canada have petitioned the government for several changes in the practices such as making the origin of grapes more clear on the wine label and increasing the visibility of 100 per cent Canadian wines produced by members of the Vintners Quality Alliance in province run liquor stores; as of August 2009, the province stores of the LCBO featured less than 2.5 per cent Canadian wine produced by VQA members with the vast majority of its wines produced under the "Cellared in Canada" designation with up to 70 per cent foreign grapes. In March 2018, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency announced the Cellared in Canada designation replaced by two new designations, dependent on the quantity of foreign wine mixed into the product. Products that are made of foreign grapes are designated "International blend from imported and domestic wines".
Okanagan—Coquihalla was a federal electoral district in the province of British Columbia, represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1997 to 2015. The electoral district included the towns of Penticton, Summerland, Logan Lake, West Kelowna and Peachland; this riding was created in 1996 from parts of Fraser Valley East and Okanagan—Similkameen—Merritt ridings. In 2003, it underwent slight boundary changes, with small parts added from Kamloops and Highland Valleys and Kelowna ridings; this riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts Controversies in the Canadian federal election, 2011 " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Library of Parliament Riding Profile Campaign expense data from Elections Canada – 2008 Expenditures - 2004 Expenditures – 2000 Expenditures – 1997 Website of the Parliament of Canada Map of riding archived by Elections Canada
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Orographic lift occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain. As the air mass gains altitude it cools down adiabatically, which can raise the relative humidity to 100% and create clouds and, under the right conditions, precipitation. Precipitation induced by orographic lift occurs in many places throughout the world. Examples include: The Mogollon Rim in central Arizona The western slope of the Sierra Nevada range in California The mountains near Baja California North – La Bocana to Laguna Hanson; the windward slopes of Khasi and Jayantia Hills in the state of Meghalaya in India. The Western Highlands of Yemen, which receive by far the most rain in Arabia; the Western Ghats that run along India's western coast. The Great Dividing Range of Eastern and South Eastern Australia which forces uplift of moist air originating from the ocean to the east; the mountains of New Zealand, which faces a prevailing westerly flow off the Tasman Sea.
The mountains of western Tasmania which face a prevailing westerly flow. The southern Andes, which faces a prevailing westerly flow off the Pacific Ocean; the Northwestern United States and Canada see prevailing westerly flow off the northern Pacific Ocean. Places on the sea-facing side of coastal mountains see in excess of 140 inches of precipitation per year; these locales are on the side of the mountains which are in the path of storm systems, therefore receive the moisture, squeezed from the clouds. The ski country region of New York and Pennsylvania with lake effect snows. Transylvania County, North Carolina, which gets the most rainfall of anywhere in the Eastern U. S.. The Appalachian Mountains in West Virginia; the Eastern seaboard of Madagascar. Table Mountain, Cape Town, South Africa; the cold Atlantic air mass flows up over the north western face to 3,500 feet above sea level and is met by the warm Indian Ocean air mass from the south eastern back side of the mountain forming the famous "Table Cloth".
Oppland mountain area, Norway. The Front Range Foothills of Northern Colorado – west of Boulder to Golden as storms pass by. Winter storms can produce 5–6 feet of snow; the highest precipitation amounts are found upwind from the prevailing winds at the crests of mountain ranges, where they relieve and therefore the upward lifting is greatest. As the air descends the lee side of the mountain, it dries, creating a rain shadow. On the lee side of the mountains, sometimes as little as 15 miles away from high precipitation zones, annual precipitation can be as low as 8 inches per year. Areas where this effect is observed include: The Himalayas block moisture from the Tibetan Plateau The Atacama Desert in Peru and Chile Switzerland's Rhone valley Areas east of the Cascade Range in the Pacific Northwest Areas east of the Olympic Mountains in Washington state, The Great Basin of the United States, east of the Sierra Nevada Geography of the United States Pacific Mountain System Pacific Cordillera California's Central Valley The Canadian Prairies All of the Hawaiian Islands.
The entire island of Kaho'olawe is in the rain shadow of Maui North East England is in the rain shadow of the Pennines, this combined with Britain's prevailing wind from the South West. This explains the significant differences between the rainfall in the North North East; the Judean Desert in the Land of Israel and the Dead Sea. Downslope winds occur on the leeward side of mountain barriers when a stable air mass is carried over the mountain by strong winds that increase in strength with height. Moisture is removed and latent heat released as the air mass is orographically lifted; as the air mass descends, it is compression heated. The warm foehn wind, locally known as the Chinook wind, Bergwind or Diablo wind or Nor'wester depending on the region, provide examples of this type of wind, are driven in part by latent heat released by orographic-lifting-induced precipitation. A similar class of winds, the Sirocco, the Bora and Santa Ana winds, are examples where orographic lifting has limited effect since there is limited moisture to remove in the Saharan or other air masses.
As air flows over mountain barriers, orographic lift can create a variety of cloud effects. Orographic fog is formed as the air rises up the slope and will envelope the summit; when the air is humid, some of the moisture will fall on the windward slope and on the summit of the mountain. When there is a high wind, a banner cloud is formed downwind of the upper slopes of isolated, steep-sided mountains, it is created by the low pressure areas in the downwind vortices drawing in humid air from the lower slopes of the mountain. This reduction in pressure compared to the surrounding air increases condensation, in the same manner as an aircraft's wingtip vortices; the most famous such cloud forms in the lee of the Matterhorn. The leeward edge of an extensive mass of orographic clouds may be quite distinct. On the leeward side of the mountain, the air flowing downward is known as a foehn wind; because some of the moisture that has condensed on the top of the mountain has precipitated, the foehn is drier, the lower moisture content causes the descending air mass to warm up more than it had cooled down during ascent.
The distinct cut-off line which forms along and parallel to the ridge line is sometimes known as a foehn wall. This is because the edge appears stationary and it appears to h
A lake monster is a lake-dwelling entity of mythic origin. A well-known example is the Loch Ness Monster. Lake monsters' depictions are similar to sea monsters. According to the Swedish naturalist and author Bengt Sjögren, the present-day lake monsters are variations of older legends of water kelpies. Sjögren claims. Older reports talk about horse-like appearances, but more modern reports have more reptile and dinosaur-like appearances, he concludes that the legendary kelpies evolved into the present day saurian lake-monsters since the discovery of dinosaurs and giant aquatic reptiles and the popularization of them in both scientific and fictional writings and art; the stories cut across existing in some variation in many countries. They've undergone what Michel Meurger calls concretizing and naturalization over time as humanity's view of the world has changed. In many of these areas around Loch Ness, Lake Champlain and the Okanagan Valley, these lake monsters have become important tourist draws.
In Ben Radford and Joe Nickell's book Lake Monster Mysteries, the authors attribute a vast number of sightings to otter misidentifications. Ed Grabianowski plotted the distribution of North American lake monster sightings, he overlaid the distribution of the common otter and found a near perfect match. It turns out that three or four otters swimming in a line look remarkably like a serpentine, humped creature undulating through the water, it is easy to mistake for a single creature if you see them from a distance. "This isn't speculation. I'm not making this up," Nickell said. "I've spoken to people who saw what they thought was a lake monster, got closer and discovered it was a line of otters. That happens." Not every lake monster sighting can be accounted for with otters, but it's an excellent example of how our perceptions can be fooled. Paul Barrett and Darren Naish note that the existence of any large animals in isolation is unlikely. Naish observes that the stories are remnants of tales meant to keep children safely away from the water.
There have been many purported sightings of lake monsters, some photographs, but each time these have either been shown to be deliberate deceptions, such as the Lake George Monster Hoax, or serious doubts about the veracity and verifiability have arisen, as with the famous Mansi photograph of Champ. Well-known lake monsters include: Nessie, in Loch Ness, Scotland Morag, in Loch Morar, Scotland Lagarfljót Worm, in Lagarfljót, Iceland Ogopogo, in Okanagan Lake, Canada Lariosauro, in Lake Como, Italy Champ, in Lake Champlain, Canada and US Memphre, in Lake Memphremagog, Canada and US Bessie, in Lake Erie, Canada and US Nahuelito, in Nahuel Huapi Lake, Argentina Muyso or Monster of Lake Tota, in Lake Tota, Colombia Van Gölü Canavarı or Lake Van Monster, in Lake Van, Turkey Inkanyamba, in Howick Falls, South Africa Tahoe Tessie, in Lake Tahoe, US Flathead Lake Monster, Flathead Lake, Montana, US