Boorabbin National Park
Boorabbin National Park is a national park in Western Australia, between Coolgardie and Southern Cross. It is located along the Great Eastern Highway for a distance of 25 km with a width of 5 km on each side in Western Australia's eastern goldfields; the park gets its name from the Aboriginal named rock on the edge of the park and the Boorabbin settlement, established in 1898. The Boorabin National Park is situated on top of a plateau; the landscape is sand and the vegetation there is quite distinctive growing in deep sands deposited over 50 million years ago. Today the erosion of this significant landscape is lessening, but as a result of past degradation, the sands are left weathered and lacking in nutrients. Despite this, the vegetation is diverse with countless species thriving in this environment. Vegetation ranges from the rich kwongan heaths and mallee shrublands; the area is recognised for its unique variety of vegetation. With its own designated plateau vegetation system. Other attributes that the park is known for and the wildflowers and Salt Lakes.
Other vegetation that can be found include species of banksia, hakea, sandalwood and grasstree. Two restricted species found in the heathland are Philotheca coccinea. Fauna surveys in the park indicate that 17 native mammal species including the wongai ningaui and bush rats are found within the park boundaries. Other animals including 4 frog species, 52 species of reptile and 51 bird species are resident in the park; the park is home to a rich array of dragon lizards. A bushfire in the park killed three men after a roadblock was lifted on Great Eastern Highway in Coolgardie in December 2007 after a long queue of vehicles were waiting for the highway to open after being closed for most of the day; the three truck drivers tried to turn around and flee the fire but could not escape and died from smoke burns. The bushfire continued to burn for two weeks before being extinguished by fire fighters, authorities had the highway reopened. An inquiry into the fire was commenced in 2008 and when completed, the coroner found that extreme incompetence by the Department of Environment and Conservation had contributed toward the deaths.
The fire burnt out an area of more than 7,500 hectares of the National Park and unallocated crown land. The fire jumped containment lines onto the southern side of Great Eastern Highway. A memorial garden and shelter was opened near the old town site in 2010 for those who died in the 2007 bushfire. Protected areas of Western Australia
A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salts and other dissolved minerals higher than most lakes. In some cases, salt lakes have a higher concentration of salt than sea water. An alkalic salt lake that has a high content of carbonate is sometimes termed a soda lake. Saline lake classification: subsaline 0.5–3 ‰ hyposaline 3–20 ‰ mesosaline 20–50 ‰ hypersaline greater than 50 ‰ Salt lakes form when the water flowing into the lake, containing salt or minerals, cannot leave because the lake is endorheic. The water evaporates, leaving behind any dissolved salts and thus increasing its salinity, making a salt lake an excellent place for salt production. High salinity will lead to a unique halophilic flora and fauna in the lake in question. If the amount of water flowing into a lake is less than the amount evaporated, the lake will disappear and leave a dry lake. Brine lakes consist of water that has reached salt saturation or near saturation, may be saturated with other materials.
Most brine lakes develop as a result of high evaporation rates in an arid climate with a lack of an outlet to the ocean. The high salt content in these bodies of water may come from minerals deposited from the surrounding land. Another source for the salt may be that the body of water was connected to the ocean. While the water evaporates from the lake, the salt remains; the body of water will become brine. Because of the density of brine, swimmers are more buoyant in brine than in fresh or ordinary salt water. Examples of such brine lakes are the Great Salt Lake. Bodies of brine may form on the ocean floor at cold seeps; these are sometimes called brine lakes, but are more referred to as brine pools. It is possible to observe waves on the surface of these bodies. Man-made bodies of brine are created for edible salt production; these can be referred to as brine ponds. Aral Sea Bakhtegan Lake Caspian Sea Dead Sea Don Juan Pond Great Salt Lake Laguna Verde Lake Assal Lake Bumbunga Lake Elton Lake Eyre Lake Gairdner Lake Hillier Lake Mackay Lake Natron Lake Paliastomi Lake Texoma Lake Torrens Lake Urmia Lake Van Lake Vanda Little Manitou Lake Lough Hyne Maharloo Lake Mono Lake Namtso Salton Sea Sambhar Salt Lake Sawa Lake Sutton Salt Lake List of bodies of water by salinity Media related to Salt lakes at Wikimedia Commons
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Badgingarra National Park
Badgingarra National Park is a national park in Western Australia, 190 km north of Perth off the Brand Highway adjacent to the town of Badgingarra. The park is 13,108 hectares in area and features high breakaway country overlooking low undulating sandplains; the park is renowned for its incredible diversity of endemic wildflowers. Mullering Brook passes through the park creating a swampy area; the area is composed of low scrub with plant species such as mottlecah, Banksia, kangaroo paw and the rare Badgingarra mallee are found throughout the area. The area is threatened by the spread of dieback; some of the spectacular wildflowers that can be found within the park include rare species such as Hakea flabellifolia, Strangea cynanchicarpa and Eucalyptus pendens. Many animals such as western grey kangaroos, emus and wedgetail eagles inhabit the area
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Eastern Mallee is an Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia subregion in southern Western Australia. Eastern Mallee is defined as the eastern half of the Mallee biogeographic region, it has an area of around 46,000 square kilometres, is sparsely populated. The only towns occur along the road from Esperance to Norseman; the largest and best known town is Salmon Gums. Watercourses in the area include Lort River, Oldfield River and Jerdacuttup River. Drainage is occluded and the area has numerous salt pans. Situated on the south-eastern edge of the Yilgarn Craton, Eastern Mallee has a undulating landscape, it has a variety including calcareous clays and loams containing kankar. Gypsum dunes occur in the area. Western Mallee is semi-arid, with a warm, Mediterranean climate, a winter rainfall of 300 and 500 millimetres. Only about 34% of the subregion retains its native vegetation. Within this area, most soil types carry mallee communities consisting of Eucalyptus species. Clay soils support patches of Eucalyptus woodland in addition to mallee, calcareous clay areas are vegetated by communities of mallee with Melaleuca pauperiflora.
Myrtaceous and proteaceous scrub-heath occurs in sandstone areas, salt affected areas grow Tecticornia. There are a number of vegetation communities of lesser extent, including some that are considered endangered or at risk; these include vulnerable thicket communities of the Russell Range, a vulnerable ecological community of herb and bunch grasslands that occurs on gypsum dunes along the margins of salt lakes. Granite outcrops have their own characteristic vegetation. Information on Eastern Mallee's flora and fauna is scarce, as the area has not had a thorough biodiversity survey. What information is available has been gathered in the context of conservation assessment: The subregion contains many endemic plant species in the Eucalyptus and Acacia genera, it contains numerous rare and priority flora. Declared rare flora include Anigozanthos bicolor subsp.. Minor, Conostylis lepidospermoides, Drummondita longifolia, Eremophila denticulata subsp. Denticulata, Eremophila lactea, Eucalyptus merrickiae, Leucopogon marginatus, Myoporum turbinatum and Ricinocarpos trichophorus.
It supports a number of rare or endangered fauna, including the mammals western quoll and dibbler. Coastal areas are visited by the shy albatross, the Australian sea lion and the southern right whale. Around a quarter of Eastern Mallee falls within what the Department of Agriculture and Food terms the "Intensive Land-use Zone", the area of Western Australia, cleared and developed for intensive agriculture such as cropping and livestock production; the remaining three quarters of the subregion falls within the "Extensive Land-use Zone", where the native vegetation has not been cleared but may have been degraded by the grazing of introduced animals and/or changes to the fire regime. In total, around 70% of Eastern Mallee retains its native vegetation. Somewhat less than 15% of the subregion is held within nature reserves, covering about 34% of the remaining native vegetation. Prominent nature reserves include Frank Hann National Park, Peak Charles National Park and Cape Arid National Park. There is substantial mining in the area, with large areas covered by mines, mining tenements or exploration leases.
There is a small amount of gypsum mining in the area, some plantation forestry. Little is done to manage the subregion for conservation purposes, as most reserves are undisturbed giving it a low management priority. Rising salinity is a threat in cleared areas, this is unmanaged; the threat of bushfire is managed by the maintenance of fire access tracks. There is no management of feral rabbits and foxes, incursions of agricultural weeds; the subregion was given a Continental Stress Class of 4 when measured against the criteria, but the authors of that assessment stated that it should more properly be rated at 3, because of the threat of salinity, because clearance of western parts has resulted in a biased reserve system. Eastern Mallee was introduced in IBRA Version 6.1. Its region code is MAL1, it is one of two subregions of the other being Western Mallee. The Mallee, Avon Wheatbelt and Geraldton Sandplains regions together comprise Hopper's Transitional Rainfall Zone of Beard's South West Botanical Province.
Under the World Wide Fund for Nature's regionalisation of the world's terrestrial surface into "ecoregions", the Western Mallee subregion falls within the Esperance Mallee ecoregion, one of 6 ecoregions comprising the Southwest Australia ecozone. Thackway, R and I D Cresswell An interim biogeographic regionalisation for Australia: a framework for setting priorities in the National Reserves System Cooperative Program Version 4.0 Canberra: Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Reserve Systems Unit, 1995. ISBN 0-642-21371-2
A heath is a shrubland habitat found on free-draining infertile, acidic soils and is characterised by open, low-growing woody vegetation. Moorland is related to high-ground heaths with—especially in Great Britain—a cooler and damper climate. Heaths are fast disappearing and considered a rare habitat in Europe, they form extensive and diverse communities across Australia in humid and sub-humid areas where fire regimes with recurring burning are required for the maintenance of the heathlands. More diverse though less widespread heath communities occur in Southern Africa. Extensive heath communities can be found in the California chaparral, New Caledonia, central Chile and along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. In addition to these extensive heath areas, the vegetation type is found in scattered locations across all continents, except Antarctica. Heathland is favoured where climatic conditions are hard and dry in summer, soils acidic, of low fertility, sandy and free-draining. Heaths are dominated by low shrubs, 20 centimetres to 2 metres tall.
Heath vegetation can be plant-species rich, heathlands of Australia are home to some 3,700 endemic or typical species in addition to numerous less restricted species. The fynbos heathlands of South Africa are second only to tropical rainforests in plant biodiversity with over 7,000 species. In marked contrast, the tiny pockets of heathland in Europe are depauperate with a flora consisting of heather and gorse; the bird fauna of heathlands are cosmopolitan species of the region. In the depauperate heathlands of Europe, bird species tend to be more characteristic of the community and include Montagu's harrier, the tree pipit. In Australia the heathland avian fauna is dominated by nectar-feeding birds such as honey-eaters and lorikeets although numerous other birds from emus to eagles are common in Australian heathlands. Australian heathlands are home to the world's only nectar-feeding terrestrial mammal: the honey possum; the bird fauna of the South African fynbos includes sunbirds and siskins.
Heathlands are an excellent habitat for insects including ants, moths and wasps with many species being restricted to it. One such example of an organism restricted to heathland is the silver-studded blue butterfly, Plebejus argus. Anthropogenic heath habitats are a cultural landscape that can be found worldwide in locations as diverse as northern and western Europe, the Americas, New Zealand and New Guinea; these heaths were created or expanded by centuries of human clearance of the natural forest and woodland vegetation, by grazing and burning. In some cases this clearance went so far that parts of the heathland have given way to open spots of pure sand and sand dunes, with a local climate that in Europe, can experience temperatures of 50 °C in summer, drying the sand spot bordering the heathland and further raising its vulnerability for wildfires. Referring to heathland in England, Oliver Rackham says, "Heaths are the product of human activities and need to be managed as heathland. In recent years the conservation value of these man-made heaths has become much more appreciated, most heathlands are protected.
However they are threatened by tree incursion because of the discontinuation of traditional management techniques such as grazing and burning that mediated the landscapes. Some are threatened by urban sprawl. Anthropogenic heathlands are maintained artificially by a combination of grazing and periodic burning, or mowing; the re-colonising tree species will depend on what is available as the local seed source, thus it may not reflect the natural vegetation before the heathland became established. Bolster heath Chalk heath Garrigue Maquis shrubland Matorral Scrubland The Countryside Agency information on types of open land Origin of the word'heath'