International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
A nature reserve is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. Nature reserves may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions, regardless of nationality. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws, it is more protected than a nature park. Cultural practices that equate to the establishment and maintenance of reserved areas for animals date back to antiquity, with King Devanampiya Tissa of Anuradhapura establishing one of the world's earliest wildlife sanctuaries in the 3rd century BC. Early reservations had a religious underpinning, such as the'evil forest' areas of West Africa which were forbidden to humans, who were threatened with spiritual attack if they went there. Sacred areas taboo from human entry to fishing and hunting are known by many ancient cultures worldwide.
The world's first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall, West Yorkshire. He spent £9000 on the construction of a 3 mile long, 9 ft tall wall to enclose his park from poachers, he tried to encourage birdlife by hollowing out trunks for owls to nest in. He invented artificial nest boxes to house starlings and sand martins and unsuccessfully attempted to introduce little owls from Italy. Waterton allowed local people access to his reserve and was described by David Attenborough as “one of the first people anywhere to recognise not only that the natural world was of great importance but that it needed protection as humanity made more and more demands on it”. Drachenfels was protected as the first state-designated nature reserve in modern-day Germany; the first major nature reserve was Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States, followed by the Royal National Park near Sydney and the Barguzin Nature Reserve of Imperial Russia, the first of zapovedniks set up by a federal government for the scientific study of nature.
In Australia, a nature reserve is the title of a type of protected area used in the jurisdictions of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia. The term “nature reserve” is defined in the relevant statutes used in those states and territories rather than by a single national statute; as of 2016, 1767 out of a total of 11044 protected areas listed within the Australian National Reserve System used the term “nature reserve" in their names. In Brazil, nature reserves are classified as ecological stations estações ecológicas) or biological reserves by the National System of Conservation Units, their main objectives are preserving fauna and flora and other natural attributes, excluding direct human interference. Visits are allowed only with permission, only for educational or scientific purposes. Changes to the ecosystems in both types of reserve are allowed to restore and preserve the natural balance, biological diversity and natural ecological processes. Ecological stations are allowed to change the environment within defined limits for the purpose of scientific research.
A wildlife reserve in Brazil is protected, hunting is not allowed, but products and by-products from research may be sold. There are 30 nature reserves in Egypt; those nature reserves were built according to the laws no. 102/1983 and 4/1994 for protection of the Egyptian nature reserve. Egypt announced a plan from to build 40 nature reserves from 1997 to 2017, to help protect the natural resources and the culture and history of those areas; the largest nature reserve in Egypt is Gebel Elba in the southeast, on the Red Sea coast. Denmark has three national parks and several nature reserves, some of them inside the national park areas; the largest single reserve is Hanstholm Nature Reserve, which covers 40 km2 and is part of Thy National Park. In Sweden, there are 29 national parks; the first of them was established in 1909. In fact, Sweden was the first European country. There are 4,000 nature reserves in Sweden, they comprise about 85% of the surface, protected by the Swedish Environmental Code. In Estonia, there are 5 national parks, more than 100 nature reserves, around 130 landscape protection areas.
The largest nature reserve in Estonia is Alam-Pedja Nature Reserve, which covers 342 km2. As of 2017, France counts 10 national parks, around 8 marine parks. In 1995 Germany had 5,314 nature reserves covering 6,845 km2, the largest total areas being in Bavaria with 1,416 km2 and Lower Saxony with 1,275 km2. In Hungary, there are 10 National Parks, more than 15 nature reserves and more than 250 protected areas. Hortobágy National Park is the largest continuous natural grassland in Europe and the oldest national park in Hungary, it is situated on the plain of the Alföld. It was established in 1972. There are alkaline grasslands interrupted by marshes, they have a sizable importance. One of the most spectacular sights of the park is the autumn mi
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
Horton Plains National Park
Horton Plains National Park is a protected area in the central highlands of Sri Lanka and is covered by montane grassland and cloud forest. This plateau at an altitude of 2,100–2,300 metres is rich in biodiversity and many species found here are endemic to the region; this region was designated a national park in 1988. It is a popular tourist destination and is situated 8 kilometres from Ohiya, 6 kilometres from the world famous Ohiya Gap/Dondra Watch and 32 kilometres from Nuwara Eliya; the Horton Plains are the headwaters of three major Sri Lankan rivers, the Mahaweli and Walawe. In Sinhala the plains are known as Maha Eliya Plains. Stone tools dating back to Balangoda culture have been found here; the plains' vegetation is grasslands interspersed with montane forest and includes many endemic woody plants. Large herds of Sri Lankan sambar deer feature as typical mammals and the park is an Important Bird Area with many species not only endemic to Sri Lanka but restricted to the Horton Plains.
Forest dieback is one of the major threats to the park and some studies suggest that it is caused by a natural phenomenon. The sheer precipice of World's End and Baker's Falls are among the tourist attractions of the park. Horton Plains is located on the southern plateau of the central highlands of Sri Lanka; the peaks of Kirigalpoththa and Thotupola Kanda, the second and the third highest of Sri Lanka, are situated to the west and north respectively. The park's elevation ranges from 1,200–2,300 metres; the rocks found in the park belong to the Archaean age and belong to the high series of the Precambrian era and are made up of Khondalites and granitic gneisses. The soil type is of the red-yellow podsolic group and the surface layer is covered with decayed organic matter; the mean annual rainfall is greater than 2,000 millimetres. Frequent cloud cover limits the amount of sunlight, available to plants; the mean annual temperature is 13 °C but the temperature varies during the course of a day, reaching as high as 27 °C during the day time, dipping as low as 5 °C at night.
During the southwest Monsoon season, the wind speed sometimes reaches gale force. Although some rain falls throughout the year, a dry season occurs from January–March; the ground frost is common in February. Mist can persist in the most of the day during the wet season. Many pools and waterfalls can be seen in the park, Horton Plains is considered the most important watershed in Sri Lanka; the Horton Plains are the headwaters of important rivers such as the Mahaweli and Walawe. The plains feeds Belihul Oya, Agra Oya, Kiriketi Oya, Uma Oya, Bogawantalawa Oya. Due to its high elevation and cloud deposit a considerable amount of moisture on the land. Slow moving streams and waterfalls are the important wetland habitats of the park; the original name of the area was Maha Eliya Thenna. But in the British period the plains were renamed after Sir Robert Wilmot-Horton, the British governor of Ceylon from 1831 to 1837, who travelled to the area to meet the Ratemahatmaya of Sabaragamuwa in 1836, in 1834 by Lt William Fisher of the 78th Regiment and Lt. Albert Watson of the 58th Regiment, who'discovered' the plateau.
Stone tools dating back to Balangoda culture have been found here. The local population who resided in the lowlands ascended the mountains to mine gems, extract iron ore, construct an irrigational canal and fell trees for timber. A 6-metre pollen core extracted from a mire revealed that in the late quaternary period the area had a semi-arid climate and a species-restricted plant community. Since Sri Lanka has a long non-written history,there is a significant and logical folk story,which goes with the book,'Ramayana' by Walmiki with some deviations, it is believed that Thotupala mountain in Horton plain to be the place where King Rawana landed his aircraft,'Dandumonaraya'. According to the story King Rawana kidnapped Sitha,who was the wife of Rama as a revenge for cutting King Rawana's sister,Suparnika's nose, it provoked Rama in India and he lead an army consisted of monkey like humans,whose leader was Hanuman. As the story, Hanuman set fire to Horton plains and that fire lasted for a long time.
The original name,Maha Eliya Thenna carries the meaning,'The hugely lighten ground'. Now the upper layer of soil can be seem in a blackish grey colour. There had been some soil tests done by local universities,and it revealed that upper layer contains a high amount of Calcium Carbonate and Potash. For Sri Lankans,Horton Plains is significant in their History and Culture. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker had advised the British Government "to leave all Montane Forests above 5000 ft. undisturbed" and an administrative order to this effect had been issued in 1873 that prevented clearing and felling of forests in the region. Horton Plains was designated as a wildlife sanctuary on 5 December 1969, because of its biodiversity value, was elevated to a national park on 18 March 1988; the Peak Wilderness Sanctuary which lies in west is contiguous with the park. The land area covered by Horton Plains is 3,160 hectares. Horton Plains contains the most extensive area of cloud forest still existing in Sri Lanka. On July 2010, the Central Highlands of Sri Lanka which incorporates Horton Plains National Park, Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and Knuckles Mountain Range was inscribed on the World Heritage List.
The vegetation of the park is classified into two distinctive groups, 2,000 hectares of wet patana and 1,160 hectares of subtropical montane evergreen forests. Nearly 750 species of pla
Adam's Peak is a 2,243 m tall conical mountain located in central Sri Lanka. It is well known for the Sri Pada, i.e. "sacred footprint", a 1.8 m rock formation near the summit, which in Buddhist tradition is held to be the footprint of the Buddha, in Hindu tradition that of Shiva and in Islamic and Christian tradition that of Adam, or that of St. Thomas; the mountain is located in the southern reaches of the Central Highlands in the Ratnapura District and Nuwara Eliya district of the Sabaragamuwa Province and Central Province —lying about 40 km northeast of the city of Ratnapura and 32 km southwest of the city of Hatton. The surrounding region is forested hills, with no mountain of comparable size nearby; the region along the mountain is a wildlife reserve, housing many species varying from elephants to leopards, including many endemic species. Adam's Peak is important as a watershed; the districts to the south and the east of Adam's Peak yield precious stones—emeralds and sapphires, for which the island has been famous, which earned for its ancient name of Ratnadvipa.
Access to the mountain is possible by 6 trails: Ratnapura-Palabaddala, Hatton-Nallathanni, Kuruwita-Erathna, Murraywatte and Malimboda. The Nallathanni & Palabaddala routes are most favored by those undertaking the climb, while the Kuruwita-Erathna trail is used less often; the Murraywatte and Malimboda routes are hardly used, but do intersect with the Palabaddala road midway through the ascent. The usual route taken by most pilgrims is descent via Ratnapura. Once one of the starting'nodes' of Palabadalla, Nallathanni or Erathna are reached, the rest of the ascent is done on foot through the forested mountainside on the steps built into it; the greater part of the track leading from the base to the summit consists of thousands of steps built in cement or rough stones. The trails are illuminated with electric light, making night-time ascent possible and safe to do when accompanied by children. Rest stops and wayside shops along the trails serve supplies. Whilst there are many ancient monuments on the mountain, there is an important Peace Pagoda located halfway up, built by Nipponzan Myohoji in 1978.
Due to its significance to the various people that inhabit the country, the mountain is referred to by a variety of names. The used Sri Pada is derived from Sanskrit, used by the Sinhalese people in a religious context, it refers to the footprint-shaped mark at the summit, believed by Buddhists to be that of the Buddha. Christian and Islamic traditions assert that it is the footprint of Adam, left when first setting foot on Earth after having been cast out of paradise, giving it the name "Adam's Peak". Hindu tradition refers to the footprint as that of the Hindu deity Shiva, thus names the mountain Shiva padam in Tamil. Tamils may use the name Shivanolipatha Malai to refer to the mountain. Another Sinhala name for the mountain is Samanalakanda, which refers either to the deity Saman, said to live upon the mountain, or to the butterflies that frequent the mountain during their annual migrations to the region; the name Sri Paada, however, is the more used. Other local and historic names include Ratnagiri, Svargarohanam, Mount Rohana and other variations on the root Rohana.
Sri Pada is first mentioned in the Deepawamsa, the earliest Pali chronicle, in the 5th century chronicle Mahawamsa, where it is stated that the Buddha visited the mountain peak. The chronicle Rajavaliya states that the King Valagamba had taken refuge in the forests of Adam's Peak against invaders from India, returned to Anuradhapura; the Mahawamsa again mentions the visit of King Vijayabahu I to the mountain. The famous Chinese pilgrim and Buddhist traveler Fa Hien stayed in Sri Lanka in 411–12 CE and mentions Sri Pada although it is not made clear whether he visited it; the Italian merchant Marco Polo in his Travels of 1298 CE noted that Adam's Peak was an important place of pilgrimage but did not mention a footprint in the rock. The Arab traveler Ibn Battuta climbed to the summit of the mountain which he called Sarandīb in 1344 CE. In his description he mentions a iron stanchions with chains to help the pilgrims. John Davy brother of the noted chemist Sir Humphry Davy visited the peak in 1817.
He recorded observing an oversized foot print carved in stone and ornamented with a single margin of brass and studded with gems. It is revered as a holy site by Buddhists, some Muslims and Christians, it has specific qualities that cause it to be noticed. As the 1910, Encyclopædia Britannica notes "For a long period Sri Pada was supposed to be the highest mountain in Ceylon, but actual survey makes it only 7353 ft. above sea-level. This elevation is chiefly remarkable as the resort of pilgrims from all parts of the East; the hollow in the lofty rock that crowns the summit is said by the Buddhists of Buddha, by the Hindus to be the footstep of Siva, by some Muslims of Adam, whilst the Portuguese Christians were divided between the conflicting claims of St Thomas and the eunuch of Candace, queen of Ethiopia. The footstep is covered by a handsome roof, is guar
Central Highlands of Sri Lanka
Central Highlands of Sri Lanka is a recognised world Heritage Site in Sri Lanka. On 31 July 2010, the World Heritage Committee holding its 34th session in Brasília inscribed Central Highlands of Sri Lanka and Papahānaumokuākea of Hawaii as new World Heritage Sites; the site comprises the Peak Wilderness Protected Area, the Horton Plains National Park and the Knuckles Conservation Forest. These are rain forests; the region harbors a variety of mammal species including the bear monkey, Trachypithecus vetulus monticola, the Horton Plains slender loris, Loris tardigradus nycticeboides. This is the first Sri Lankan World Heritage site to be designated in 22 years, since the Sinharaja Forest Reserve was enlisted in 1988. Submitted for inscription as a mixed cultural and natural site, the Committee recognized only the natural values of the site; the Sri Lanka montane rain forests represent the montane and submontane moist forests above 1,000 metres in the central highlands and in the Knuckles mountain range.
Half of Sri Lanka's endemic flowering plants and 51 percent of the endemic vertebrates are restricted to this ecoregion. This ecoregion is inhabited by eight near-endemics; the ecoregion harbors five strict endemic bird species and 20 near endemics. The site incorporates three protected areas. Horton Plains National Park adjoins the eastern boundary. Horton Plains National Park has been designated a nature reserve on 5 December 1969 elevated to the national park status on 16 March 1988. Knuckles mountain range is situated to the northeast and its relict, endemic flora and fauna is distinct from montane forest of central massif. List of World Heritage Sites by year of inscription
Central Province, Sri Lanka
The Central Province is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country. The Central Province is in the central mountainous terrain of Sri Lanka, it is home to 2.5 million people. It is bordered by North Central Province to the north, Uva Province to the east, North Western Province to the west and Sabaragamuwa Province to the south and west; the province's capital is Kandy. The cities of Matale and Nuwara Eliya are in the Central Province; the province is famous for its production of Ceylon tea, planted by the British in the 1860s after a devastating disease killed all the coffee plantations in the province. The Central Province attracts many tourists, with hill station towns such as Gampola and Nuwara Eliya. Though three successive European powers invaded Sri Lanka during the 16th to the 19th century, the Central Province maintained its independence until the early 19th century when the British conquered Kandy; the British established a colonial headman ranking system in 1824, which came into effect in 1832.
Colonial head mudaliyarsSir Christofel de-Silva Don William Gunawardene De-Saram III Sir Hendrick Ekanayake Sir Alexander-James Divakara Mohotti Don Agaris Divakara Mohotti The Mudaliyar Office was abolished in 1924 and the last of the colonial headman retired from their positions and gave up the rule to the British officers in 1926. All headman positions were passed down to the newly elected governor-general of Central Province; this was established in 1929 as a way for the British to directly rule the provinces. The historic Matale city, Temple of the Tooth, Dambulla cave temple, Aluwihare temple and the Sigiriya rock are in the Central Province; the province has an area of 5,674 km² and a population of 2,421,148. Major towns include Kandy, Dambulla, Nuwara Eliya and Hatton. Knuckles Mountain Range, Adam's Peak and Horton Plains are UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the Central Province; the climate is cool, many areas above 1,500 metres have chilly nights. The western slopes are wet, some places have 7,000 mm of rain per year.
The eastern slopes are parts of the mid-dry zone as it is receiving rain only from North-Eastern monsoon. The temperatures range from 24°C at Kandy to just 16°C in Nuwara Eliya, 1,889 m above sea level; the highest mountains in Sri Lanka are in the Central Province. The terrain is mountainous, with deep valleys cutting into it; the two main mountain regions are the Knuckles range to the east of Kandy. The population is a mixture of Sinhalese and the Moors. Many tea plantation workers are Indian Tamils, brought over to Sri Lanka by the British in the 19th century. Central Province is divided into 36 divisional secretariats; the districts of the Sri Lanka are divided into administrative sub-units known as divisional secretariats. These were based on the feudal counties, the korales and ratas, they were known as'D. R. O. Divisions' after the'Divisional Revenue Officer'; the D. R. O.s became'Assistant Government Agents' and the Divisions were known as'A. G. A. Divisions'; the divisions are administered by a'Divisional Secretary' and are known as a'D.
S. Divisions'. There are 36 divisional secretariats in Central Province. There are 11 in Matale District and 5 in Nuwara Eliya District. Provinces of Sri Lanka Districts of Sri Lanka Tea production in Sri Lanka Searchable Map of Sri Lanka Central Provincial Council Sri Lanka Office of the Council Secretary – Central Provincial Council Sri Lanka Cheief Secretary's Office – Central Provincial Council Sri Lanka Central Provincial Postal Codes Sri Lanka Cities in Central province