West Texas is a loosely defined part of the U. S. state of Texas encompassing the arid and semiarid lands west of a line drawn between the cities of Wichita Falls and Del Rio. There is no consensus on the boundary between West Texas. While most Texans understand these terms, no boundaries are recognized and any two individuals are to describe the boundaries of these regions differently. Walter Prescott Webb, the American historian and geographer, suggested that the 98th meridian separates East and West Texas. C. Greene proposed. West Texas is subdivided according to distinct physiographic features; the portion of West Texas that lies west of the Pecos River is referred to as "Far West Texas" or the "Trans-Pecos", a term first introduced in 1887 by Texas geologist Robert T. Hill; the Trans-Pecos lies within the most arid portion of the state. Another part of West Texas is the Llano Estacado, a vast region of high, level plains extending into Eastern New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle. To the east of the Llano Estacado lies the “redbed country” of the Rolling Plains and to the south of the Llano Estacado lies the Edwards Plateau.
The Rolling Plains and the Edwards Plateau subregions act as transitional zones between eastern and western Texas. The counties included in the West Texas region vary depending on the organization; the Texas Counties.net website acknowledges the variations, includes 70 counties in its definition, based on the five principal metropolitan areas it contains: El Paso, Abilene, Midland/Odessa, San Angelo. The counties included are Andrews, Borden, Brown, Castro, Coke, Comanche, Crane, Crosby, Dawson, Deaf Smith, Eastland, Ector, El Paso, Floyd, Garza, Hale, Hockley, Hudspeth, Jeff Davis, Kent, King, Lamb, Lubbock, Martin, Mason, McCulloch, Midland, Motley, Parmer, Pecos, Randall, Reeves, Schleicher, Shackelford, Sterling, Sutton, Terrell, Throckmorton, Tom Green, Val Verde, Ward and Yoakum; some of the smaller West Texas cities and towns include: Alpine, Anthony, Canutillo, Crane, Fort Davis, Fort Bliss, San Elizario, Fort Stockton, Hale Center, Kermit, Levelland, Marathon, Marfa, McCamey, Monahans, Pampa, Horizon City, Rankin, Slaton, Snyder and Van Horn.
West Texas receives much less rainfall than the rest of Texas and has an arid or semiarid climate, requiring most of its scant agriculture to be dependent on irrigation. This irrigation, water taken out farther north for the needs of El Paso and Juarez, has reduced the once mighty Rio Grande to a stream in some places dry at times. Much of West Texas has rugged terrain, including many small mountain ranges while there are none in other parts of the state. Except for the Trans-Pecos region, West Texas has become well known as a stronghold for conservative politics; some of the most Republican counties in the United States are located in the region. Former U. S. President George W. Bush spent most of his childhood in West Texas; the Panhandle and several counties in or west of Midland were one of the first areas of Texas to abandon the state’s “Solid South” Democratic roots. The Rolling Plains to the east remained Democratic for longer: Walter Mondale in 1984 when losing Texas by 27.50 percentage points carried five counties in this region.
However, since 2000 this region has swung rapidly towards the Republican Party due to its population’s intransigent opposition to the liberal social policies of the Democratic Party and by 2016 has become nearly so Republican as the Panhandle. Major industries include livestock and natural gas production, textiles such as cotton, and, because of large military installations such as Fort Bliss, the defense industry. West Texas has become notable for its numerous wind turbines producing clean, alternative electricity; as of 2018, the West Texan economy is in an economic period, described as the "West Texas oil boom". West Texas does not have major league sports teams. Instead the region has college teams such as Texas Tech Red Raiders and UTEP Miners, which play in NCAA Division I, NCAA Division II teams of the West Texas A&M Buffaloes, the Texas–Permian Basin Falcons, the Lubbock Christian Chaparrals and Lady Chaps. El Paso hosts the El Paso Chihuahuas, a AAA baseball team and Midland hosts the Midland RockHounds, a Double-A baseball team.
Oddly in the heat ravaged climate of West Texas, the winter sport of ice hockey can be found in the city of Odessa through a Tier II junior ice hockey team playing out of the North American Hockey League called the Odessa Jackalopes. In 2019, The San Antonio Missions will move to continue play at the Double-A level. "West of the Pecos" has become a metaphor for the universe of westerns. "Fastest draw west of the Pecos" and similar superlatives are a cliche, the title character of Chisum observed ”There’s no law west of Dodge, no God west of the Pecos”. See West of the Pecos. Photos of West Texas West Texas Vacation Guide - Texas Outside
Pecos is the largest city in and the county seat of Reeves County, United States. It is in the valley on the west bank of the Pecos River at the eastern edge of the Chihuahuan Desert, in the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas and just below New Mexico's border; the population was 8,780 at the 2010 census. On January 24, 2012, Pecos City appeared on the Forbes 400 as the second fastest-growing small town in the United States; the city is a regional commercial center for ranching and gas production and agriculture. The city is most recognized for its association with the local cultivation of cantaloupes. Pecos claims to be the site of the world's first rodeo on July 4, 1883. Pecos is one of the numerous towns in western Texas organized around a train depot during the construction of the Texas and Pacific Railway; these towns were subsequently linked by the construction of U. S. Highway 80 and Interstate 20. Prior to the arrival of the railroad, a permanent camp existed nearby where cattle drives crossed the Pecos River.
With the introduction of irrigation from underground aquifers, the city became a center of commerce for extensive local agricultural production of cotton and cantaloupes. The introduction of large-scale sulfur mining in adjacent Culberson County during the 1960s led to significant economic and population growth; the growth was reversed after mining operations ceased in the 1990s. In 1962 Pecos resident and tycoon Billie Sol Estes was indicted for fraud by a federal grand jury. Estes extensive machinations caused a national level scandal, a resultant shakeup at the Department of Agriculture. Oscar Griffin, Jr. of the Pecos Independent and Enterprise newspaper won a Pulitzer Prize for breaking the story. Pecos is the site of the largest private prison in the world, the Reeves County Detention Complex, operated by the GEO Group. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,501 people, 3,168 households, 2,455 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,300.1 people per square mile. There were 3,681 housing units at an average density of 503.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 2.45% African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 18.06% from other races, 22% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 79.57% of the population. There were 3,168 households out of which 39.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.0% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.5% were non-families. 20.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.97 and the average family size was 3.47. In the city, the population was spread out with 32.5% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.3 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,943, the median income for a family was $26,376. Males had a median income of $25,867 versus $13,874 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,857. About 23.4% of families and 27.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.0% of those under age 18 and 15.6% of those age 65 or over. The City of Pecos is served by the Pecos-Barstow-Toyah Independent School District, which has five schools: Pecos Kindergarten Austin Elementary - 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade Bessie Haynes Elementary - 4th and 5th grade Crockett Middle School - 6th, 7th and 8th grade Pecos High School - 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th grade Pecos experiences a semiarid to desert climate with hot summers and mild winters. Pecos' aridity results in a substantial diurnal temperature variation, resulting in cool nights after hot summer days. Oscar Griffin, Jr. winner 1963 Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting Roger Mobley child actor, resided in Pecos in the 1950s.
Paul Patterson, western author spent his years in both Pecos and Crane, Texas. Billie Sol Estes, financier convicted of fraud Abel Talamantez of the Kumbia Kings Pecos, Texas - Official Site Pecos, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online Pecos Area Chamber of Commerce
Tipi rings are circular patterns of stones left from an encampment of Post-Archaic and historic Native Americans. They are found throughout the Plains of the United States and Canada, in the foothills and parks of the Rocky Mountains. Clusters of stones circles are found in favorable camp-sites, near water and good hunting grounds. In many cases the clusters are organized in patterns, such as circles or v-shapes; the stones were used to hold down the tipis to keep the lodge dry. In some cases elaborate walls or defensive structures were built, they are found in the Great Plains of the United States and Canada, but are found in the foothills and mountains, near good areas for hunting, supplies of water and fuel, main routes of travel. The rings are 6 to 25 feet in diameter and occur in groupings; the rings of stone held down the edges of animal skin hides of the cone-shaped tipis, to keep them snug against the ground. The general pattern of a tipi ring is an east-facing entrance, where there are no stones, a anchored side with extra stones for protection against prevailing winds on the northwestern side of the ring.
Hearths found in the center of tipi rings suggest a winter encampment. In the summer, food was cooked in open-air hearths. There are few artifacts found at these sites. Stone circles, of which tipi rings are an example, may be assembled rocks placed in single or multiple courses. More elaborate circles have been constructed in walls of stone or with horizontal logs and stone for a fort or corral. Other stone circles – some more than 39 feet across – may be the remains of special ceremonial dance structures. A few cobble arrangements form the outlines of human figures, most of them male; the most intriguing cobble constructions, are the ones known as medicine wheels. Tipi rings are nearly all of the types of stone circles, except those that are medicine wheels or of small diameter. Stones were replaced by wooden pegs to hold down the tents after the introduction of axes by people of European ancestry. In the Crow language the word for precolonial times means "when we used stones to weigh down our lodges."
From a study of 137 sites on the 2,000 square mile Blackfeet Indian Reservation, tipis were arranged in a pattern, such as a single or double row, semi-circle, triangle, V-shape or a haphazard shape. Artifacts found were limited to tools or fragments of tools made of stone or bone, such as broken projectile points, grooved mauls and pieces of flint or imported obsidian; when horses were introduced after about A. D. 1730, camp materials were pulled by horses rather than dogs and the tipis became larger, from holding 6-8 people to up to 50 people. CanadaAlberta:In 1989 there were 4,290 tipi rings recorded in the provincial inventory of archaeological sites. Carmangay Tipi Ring Site Nose Hill Park Suffield Tipi Rings National Historical Site Writing-on-Stone Provincial Park Saskatchewan Grasslands National Park Wanuskewin Heritage ParkUnited StatesBetween Green River and Denver, Colorado, a 300 miles long corridor, there are 136 tipi ring sites. Colorado:During the protohistoric and historic periods, tipi rings were created in the mountains by the Ute people.
Sites on the plains belonged to Apache, Arapaho and Comanche people. Northern mountain and foothills: Indian Mountain near Boulder T-W Diamond site in the Rocky Mountain foothills near Fort Collins. Northeastern plains Biscuit Hill Site Keota Stone Circles Archaeological District Southeastern plains Carrizo Ranches Picture Canyon of the Comanche National Grassland. Montana: Blackfeet Indian Reservation has 210 tipi ring sites over a 2000 square mile area. Canyon Ferry Reservoir area has 16 tipi ring sites within a 500 square mile area, found along the Missouri River or its tributaries or mountain valleys. First Peoples Buffalo Jump State Park Texas: Squawteat Peak Wyoming: Basin Oil Field Tipi Rings Shoshone National Forest Images of Tipi Ring remains
The Legislature of the state of Texas is the state legislature of Texas. The legislature is a bicameral body composed of a 31-member Senate and a 150-member House of Representatives; the state legislature meets at the Capitol in Austin. It is a powerful arm of the Texas government not only because of its power of the purse to control and direct the activities of state government and the strong constitutional connections between it and the Lieutenant Governor of Texas, but due to Texas's plural executive; the Legislature is the constitutional successor of the Congress of the Republic of Texas since Texas's 1845 entrance into the Union. The Legislature held its first regular session from February 16 to May 13, 1846; the Texas Legislature meets in regular session on the second Tuesday in January of each odd-numbered year. The Texas Constitution limits the regular session to 140 calendar days; the lieutenant governor, elected statewide separately from the governor, presides over the Senate, while the Speaker of the House is elected from that body by its members.
Both have wide latitude in choosing committee membership in their respective houses and have a large impact on lawmaking in the state. Only the governor may call the Legislature into special sessions, unlike other states where the legislature may call itself into session; the governor may call as many sessions as she desires. For example, Governor Rick Perry called three consecutive sessions to address the 2003 Texas congressional redistricting; the Texas Constitution limits the duration of each special session to 30 days. Any bill passed by the Legislature takes effect 90 days after its passage unless two-thirds of each house votes to give the bill either immediate effect or earlier effect; the Legislature may provide for an effective date, after the 90th day. Under current legislative practice, most bills are given an effective date of September 1 in odd-numbered years. Although members are elected on partisan ballots, both houses of the Legislature are organized on a nonpartisan basis, with members of both parties serving in leadership positions such as committee chairmanships.
As of 2017, a majority of the members of each chamber are members of the Republican Party. The Texas Constitution sets the qualifications for election to each house as follows: A senator must be at least 26 years of age, a citizen of Texas five years prior to election and a resident of the district from which elected one year prior to election; each senator serves a four-year term and one-half of the Senate membership is elected every two years in even-numbered years, with the exception that all the Senate seats are up for election for the first legislature following the decennial census in order to reflect the newly redrawn districts. After the initial election, the Senate is divided by lot into two classes, with one class having a re-election after two years and the other having a re-election after four years. A representative must be at least 21 years of age, a citizen of Texas for two years prior to election and a resident of the district from which elected one year prior to election, they are elected for two-year terms.
State legislators in Texas make $600 per month, or $7,200 per year, plus a per diem of $190 for every day the Legislature is in session. That adds up to $33,800 a year for a regular session, with the total pay for a two-year term being $41,000. Legislators receive a pension after eight years of service, starting at age 60; the Texas Legislature has five support agencies that are within the legislative branch of state government. Those five agencies are as follows: Texas Legislative Budget Board Texas Legislative Council Texas Legislative Reference Library Texas State Auditor Texas Sunset Advisory Commission On May 14, 2007, CBS Austin affiliate KEYE reported on the rampant multiple voting by members of the Texas House of Representatives during a voting session; the report noted how representatives would race to the nearest empty seats to register votes for absent members on the legislature's automated voting machines. Each representative would vote for the nearest absent members regardless of party affiliation.
This practice was in direct violation of a Rule of the Texas Legislature. The then-Speaker of the House Tom Craddick, responsible for enforcement of the rule, issued a statement that discipline for violations of the rule is left to the individual house members. Subsequent similar violations under House Speaker Joe Straus have been unenforced. Sunset Advisory Commission "Citizen Handbook"; the Senate of Texas. Retrieved 13 September 2009. Texas Legislature from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 13 April 2005. Stanley K. Young, Texas Legislative Handbook. Univ. of Tex. The Legislative Branch in Texas Politics. See also: Texas Government Newsletter Texas Legislature Online Texas House of Representatives Texas Senate Reference Library of Texas Open Government Texas from the Sunlight Foundation Texas at Project Vote Smart Texas Politics – The Legislative Branch Texas Government Newsletter and Voter's Guide to the Texas Legislature Billhop – Texas Legislative Wiki
U.S. Route 190
U. S. Route 190 is an east -- west United States Highway in Texas. Segments of US 190 will be upgraded to Interstate 14, the first 24.8-mile segment was opened on January 26, 2017. The western terminus is at a point where US 190 intersects with I-10, a few miles east of Bakersfield and 20 mi west of the town of Iraan, in the middle of Pecos County, it runs east through Texas Hill Country speckled with sage brush, intersecting with State Highway 305, crossing into Schleicher County, intersecting with US 277 in Eldorado. Just outside Eldorado was. US 190 continues east into Menard County, intersecting State Highway 864, passing a few miles north of Fort McKavett State Historic Site, entering Menard and intersecting with US 83 north a short distance. Continuing on a northeastward route US 190 enters McCulloch County and into Brady; as the closest city to the geographical center of Texas, the city proclaims itself the "True Heart of Texas", "where five major highways meet, making it a major gateway to all regions of the state".
US 190 enters Brady from the south merging and running concurrently with north US 377 and US 87 through town, intersecting Farm to Market Road 2028, FM 2309 splitting with US 87 and US 377, before exiting the city heading east. US 190 goes through Rochelle, enters San Saba County, through Richland Springs where it intersects FM 45, the communities Algerita, Harkeyville, into San Saba, the birthplace of actor Tommy Lee Jones, an intersection with SH 16. Continuing east US 190 enters Lampasas County, entering Lometa and running concurrently with US 183 south into the city of Lampasas. Splitting from US 183 and continuing east, US 190 runs through Kempner and into the extreme southern corner of Coryell County and Copperas Cove, located on the southwestern edge of Fort Hood. On the east side of Copperas Cove, a concurrency with I-14 begins. US 190 traverses through part of Fort Hood, into Bell County and Killeen. Being directly adjacent to the main cantonment of Fort Hood, both Killeen and Copperas Cove depend on the fort and those stationed there.
US enters Temple, where I-14 ends. The highway merges and runs concurrently with SH 36 south. Continuing east and south, US 190 passes through Rogers and enters Milam County Cameron and merges with US 77 south for a distance. A few miles south of Cameron, US 190 runs concurrently with US 79 north. In Hearne, US 190 splits with US 79 and merges to run concurrently with SH 6 south, entering Brazos County, through Benchley, into Bryan, considered the heart of the Brazos Valley, is part of the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area. US 190 splits with SH 6, turning northeast and merging with SH 21 north, entering Kurten, entering Madison County passing through North Zulch and into Madisonville, before merging with I-45 south and into Walker County entering Huntsville, where US 190 splits heading into Eastern Texas. Continuing east, US 190 enters San Jacinto County, passing north of Oakhurst and Point Blank, crossing Lake Livingston, entering Polk County and into Onalaska. US 190 from the west makes a semi-loop up over Lake Livingston and down to Livingston, intersecting US 59 and Business US 59 and through Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation, entering Tyler County, merging with FM 256 and into Woodville.
East of Woodville, FM 256 splits north and US 190 crosses BA Steinhagen Lake, into Jasper County, intersecting with SH 63 east, in the center of Jasper intersecting with US 96. Continuing east, US 190 travels through Holly Springs and enters Newton County, proceeding into Newton. In Newton, US 190 turns south through Bon Wier, crosses the Louisiana line. In Newton County, US 190 has been designated one of the routes on the Great Texas Coastal Birding Trail. US 190 crosses the Sabine River and enters the western portion of Louisiana in swampy bayou terrain three miles west of Merryville, Louisiana. Merryville is the location of the old Coushatta Indian village. From Merryville the highway heads north by northeast to the community of Junction, Louisiana referred to as "The Junction". Junction is where Louisiana Highway 111 and US 190 intersect and is the site of a roadside marker and the joining of two Indian trails. From Junction, US 190 heads east to DeRidder, where it runs concurrently with US 171 south and passes several sites on the National Register of Historic Places, such as the Beauregard Parish Jail, Beauregard Parish Courthouse, the DeRidder Commercial Historic District.
US 190 runs concurrently with US 171 to Ragley. From Ragley, the two-lane highway heads nearly due east parallel to I-10 until Opelousas. US 190 crosses the northern reach of the Atchafalaya Basin near the Morganza Spillway en route to Baton Rouge. From Baton Rouge, US 190 passes, in places divided, through Denham Springs, Hammond, Goodbee, Mandeville, before reaching the eastern terminus at Slidell; the stretch between I-12 south of Covington and the intersection with LA 22 at Mandeville is multilane divided with controlled access. The highway's eastern terminus is in the bayous near Slidell, at an intersection with US 90; this junction was once known as the "White Kitchen" after a restaurant, once located there. Acadiana Trail / Evangeline Highway — US 190 in Louisiana Earl Rudder Freeway and Central Texas Expressway — US 190 in Texas In the original 1926 plan, US 190 served the purpose of modern-day I-12, as the road around the north side of Lake Pontchartrain
U.S. Route 285
U. S. Route 285 is a north–south United States highway, running 846 miles through the states of Texas, New Mexico and Colorado; the highway's southern terminus is in Sanderson, Texas at an intersection with U. S. Route 90. US 285 has always had an endpoint in Denver, although the original US 285 went north from Denver. Today the highway's northern terminus is in Denver, at exit 201 on Interstate 25. US 285 is a secondary route of US 85, which it crosses in metro Denver, crossed again in Santa Fe, New Mexico. US 285 intersects a sibling route, US 385, in Fort Stockton, Texas. Trucking makes up a large portion of the route's traffic, but along much of its route the road is used for local travel from one town to the next; the northern section of US 285, from Santa Fe to Denver, traverses rocky terrain. The southern terminus of US 285 is at US 90 in Sanderson. Proceeding north from there, it crosses I-10 at Fort Stockton, meets I-20 at Pecos on its way to New Mexico; as 285 traverses north on the eastern plains of New Mexico, it passes through Carlsbad and Roswell.
In Artesia the route intersects with U. S. Route 82. In Roswell, the route intersects with U. S. Route 70 and U. S. Route 380; the route next heads northwest to Vaughn where it has a brief concurrency with U. S. Route 54 and U. S. Route 60; the route continues northwest and has a junction with Interstate 40 at Clines Corners. Heading north out of Clines Corners, the route continues towards the state capital. At the outskirts of Santa Fe, the route becomes concurrent with I-25, U. S. Route 84, its unsigned parent for several miles heading west through the foothills of the Sangre De Cristo Mountains to Santa Fe. After exiting I-25, US 285 follows Saint Francis Drive through Santa Fe; the route continues north by northwest to Española and Chamita, where the concurrency with US 84 ends. The route traverses the Carson National Forest where 285 now makes a long climb up to the Colorado Plateau, passing through Ojo Caliente as it ascends to the San Luis Valley. After crossing US 64, the highway passes through the village of Tres Piedras, New Mexico at the south end of the valley proceeds north to the Colorado border.
Heading north from the Colorado border, US 285 passes through the main part of the San Luis Valley reaching Alamosa. As the highway heads north, it begins to ascend to the northern end of the valley and climbs over Poncha Pass, elevation 9,012 feet, drops down the other side into the Arkansas River Valley; the highway brushes Salida and follows the Arkansas River north up the valley takes a sharp eastward turn just before the small town of Buena Vista. 285 climbs over Trout Creek Pass, elevation 9,346 feet, enters the high-altitude South Park basin. A few miles north, the highway passes through Fairplay and the historic South Park City site reaches its highest elevation: 10,051 feet, at the summit of Red Hill Pass. US 285 leaves the South Park basin and climbs over Kenosha Pass, elevation 10,001 feet, skirts the south side of the Mount Evans massif as it descends its way through the foothills range towards Denver; as the highway leaves the Rocky Mountains and reaches Denver's southwest suburbs, it becomes Hampden Avenue, an important artery in the Denver metro area reaches its northern terminus at I-25.
On March 14, 2008 both houses of the Colorado legislature, in a unanimous vote, named the section between Kenosha Pass and C-470 the Ralph Carr Memorial Highway. The short segment between US 50 at Salida and US 24 at Buena Vista parallels the original U. S. Route 650, designated in 1926, but eliminated in 1936 when US 285 was commissioned along its present extent from Sanderson to Denver replacing state-numbered highways. Between Denver and Como, US 285 follows the route of the Denver, South Park and Pacific Railroad, part of the original narrow gauge transcontinental railroad; the route skirts the south side of the Mount Evans massif descends into and crosses the South Park. Como in Colorado's South Park still houses one of the few remaining narrow gauge roundhouses; the transcontinental railroad route breaks away from US 285 at Como, going northwest over Boreas Pass en route to Breckenridge, the rich gold fields of Leadville, connecting to California. Texas US 90 in Sanderson US 385 in Fort Stockton.
The highways travel concurrently through Fort Stockton. I‑10 / US 67 in Fort Stockton I‑20 in Pecos New Mexico US 62 / US 180 in Carlsbad; the highways travel concurrently through Carlsbad. US 82 in Artesia US 70 / US 380 in Roswell. US 70/US 285 travels concurrently to north of Roswell. US 54 / US 60 southeast of Vaughn. US 54/US 285 travels concurrently to southwest of Vaughn. US 60/US 285 travels concurrently to Encino. I‑40 in Clines Corners I‑25 / US 84 / US 85 in Eldorado at Santa Fe. I-25/US 85/US 285 travels concurrently to south of Santa Fe. US 84/US 285 travels concurrently to north-northwest of Hernandez. US 64 in Tres Piedras Colorado US 160 in Alamosa; the highways travel concurrently to Monte Vista. US 50 in Poncha Springs; the highways travel concurrently through Poncha Springs. US 24 in Johnson Village; the highways travel concurrently to Antero Junction. US 85 in Sheridan and Englewood I‑25 / US 87 in Denver U. S. Roads portal Endpoints of US highway 285 Map index for photos taken along the entire length of US 285
Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro was a 2560 kilometer long trade route between Mexico City and San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico, from 1598 to 1882. In 2010, 55 sites and 5 existing World Heritage Sites along the Mexican section of the route became an entry on the Unesco World Heritage List; those sites include historic cities, bridges and other monuments along the 1,400 km route between the Historic Center of Mexico City and the town of Valle de Allende, Chihuahua. The 404 mile section of the route within the United States was proclaimed as a part of the National Historic Trail system on 13 October 2000. El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail is overseen by both the National Park Service and the U. S. Bureau of Land Management with aid from El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Assoc. known as CARTA. A portion of the trail near San Acacia, New Mexico was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014. Long before the Europeans arrived, the various indigenous tribes and kingdoms that had arisen throughout the northern central steppe of Mexico had established the route that would become the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro as a major hunting and trade route.
The route connected the peoples of the valley of Mexico with those of the north through the exchange of products such as turquoise, obsidian and feathers. By the year 1000, a flourishing trade network existed from Mesoamerica to the Rocky Mountains. Once the great Tenochtitlan was subdued, the conquistadors began a series of expeditions with the purpose of expanding their domains and obtaining greater wealth for the Spanish Crown, their initial efforts led them to follow the established trails of the natives who exchanged goods between the north and the south. In April 1598, a group of military scouts led by Juan de Oñate, the newly-appointed colonial governor of the province of Nuevo México, became lost in the desert south of Paso del Norte while seeking the best route to the Río del Norte. A local Indian they had captured named Mompil drew in the sand a map of the only safe passage to the river; this group arrived at the Río del Norte just south of present-day El Paso and Ciudad Juárez in late April, where they celebrated the Catholic day of Ascension on April 30, 1598 before crossing the river.
They mapped and extended the route to what is now Espaniola, where Oñate would establish the capital of the new province. This trail became the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, the northernmost of the four main "royal roads" - the Caminos Real - that linked Mexico City to its major tributaries in Acapulco, Veracruz and Santa Fe. After the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, which pushed the Spanish out of Nuevo México, the Spanish Crown decided not to abandon the province altogether but instead maintained a channel to the province so as not to abandon their remaining subjects in the province; the Viceroyalty organized a system, the so-called conducta, to supply the missions and northern ranchos. The conducta consisted of wagon caravans that departed every three years from Mexico City to Santa Fe along the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro; the trip required a long and difficult journey of six months, including 2–3 weeks of rest along the way. Many were the uncertainties that other travelers faced. River floods could force weeks of waiting on the banks.
At other times, prolonged droughts in the area could make water difficult to find. The most feared section of the journey was the crossing of the Jornada del Muerto beyond El Paso del Norte: A hundred kilometers of open desert without any oases to hydrate the men and beasts. Beyond the sustenance needs, the greatest danger to the caravan was that of local assaults. Groups of bandits roamed throughout the territory and threatened the caravan from the current state of Mexico to the state of Querétaro, seeking articles of value, and from the southern part of Zacatecas onward to the north, the greatest threat was the native Chichimecas, which would become more to attack as the caravan progressed further north. The main objective of the Chichimecas was horses, but they would often take women and children; the Presidios along the way would provide relays of troops to provide additional protection to the caravans. The Camino Real was used as a commercial route for 300 years, from the middle of the 16th century to the 19th century for the transport of silver extracted from the northern mines.
During this time, the road was continuously improved, over time the risks became smaller as haciendas and population centers emerged. During the 18th century, the sites along the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro increased significantly; the area between the villas of Durango and Santa Fe came to be known as "the Chihuahua Trail". The villa of San Felipe el Real, established in 1709 to support the surrounding mines, became the most important commercial center and financial area along this segment; the villa of San Felipe Neri de Alburquerque was founded in 1706 and it became an important terminal. Because of its defensive position on the Camino Real, the Villa de Alburquerque became the center of commercial exchange between Nuevo México and the rest of New Spain during the 18th century, trading cattle, textiles, animal skins and nuts; this exchange occurred with the mining cities of Chihuahua, Santa Bárbara and Parral. And of course, Paso del Norte became another major terminal on the route. In 1765 the population of E