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Pectoral (Ancient Egypt)

The pectorals of ancient Egypt were a form of jewelry represented as a brooch. These were worn by richer people and the pharaoh. One type is attached with a nah necklace, meant to be suspended from the neck but to lie upon the breast. Statuary from the Old Kingdom onwards shows this form. A form was attached as a brooch, with the thematic, iconographic function and statement outweighing its actual use as a piece of jewellery for adornment; the thematic statements were about the pharaoh or statements of ancient Egyptian mythology and culture. They are of gold with cloisonné inlays of gemstones; the basic definition of a brooch is as a wide piece of jewellery. Therefore, one form of the'pectoral' word listings uses the word for "breadth, broad", "to be wide or spacious", the Egyptian word usekh. Though Gardiner lists only the "broad collar", S11, the following listing of words for "pectoral" shows the other types of pectoral jewellery forms that have a Gardiner-unlisted type of pectoral hieroglyph sign:The list of Gardiner-unlisted determinatives for pectoral: ari aui- usekh- utcha- babaa-{Gard-unl.

13) beb-{Gard-unl. 13) menqebit- hebner-{Gard-unl. 2 ) heter-t- sheb-{Gard-unl. 15)'None' may have an alternate determinative used to define the word. From the above definitions, it can be seen that the collar, pectoral, etc. can include amulets inclusive into the pectoral's iconography. The above listed words are refenced in E. A. Wallis Budge's "dictionary" to 200 works: steles, Egyptian literature, personal literature, etc. or the approximate 120 authors referenced. Standing statues, or others were sometimes represented with various forms of jewellery, including the pectorals. Statements in Egyptian language hieroglyhs were the theme of famous pectorals, regardless of their actual use for adornment. One famous complex pectoral for Amenemhat III has a statement of his rulership; the Pectoral of Amenemhat III states the following: Lord Heaven, God-Good, Lord of the Two Lands,'Ny-Maat-Ra', Lord Lands. Pt-nb, ntr-nft, nb-tawy, n-maat-a-t-Ra, nb-hastw. Kamrin's modern hieroglyph primer for Egyptian artifacts uses Amenemhat III's pectoral for Exercise 22, Object 3.

The discussion explains that the extended wings of the Vulture Goddess relate to "Lord of the Sky"-, the Vulture Goddess. Her translation: "Lord of the sky Nimaatre, the good god, lord of the Two Lands and of all foreign Lands." Gardiner's Sign List#S. Crowns, Staves, etc. Gardiner's Sign List List of ancient Egyptian statuary with amulet necklaces, Budge. An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, E. A. Wallace Budge, © 1978, Dover edition, 1978. Kamrin, 2004. Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs: A Practical Guide, Janice Kamrin, © 2004, Harry N. Abrams, Lambelet. Orbis Terrae Aegiptiae, Museum Aegiptium, Illustrated Guide of the Egyptian Museum, Edouard Lambelet, © 1981, Lehnert & Landrock & Co

Americans for a Free Syria

Americans for a Free Syria is a nonpartisan American nonprofit organization that campaigns for human rights in Syria and advocates for humane treatment of Syrian refugees. This organization coordinates with Syrian Emergency Task Force and Syrian American Council. Americans for Free Syria promotes US bills: Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act, No Assistance for Assad Act and Stop UN Support for Assad Act; these bills intend to impose further financial restrictions on the Assad regime for committing war crimes against the Syrian civilian population. This organization considers sanctions of Caesar Syria Civilian Protection Act of 2019 as a way of bringing a form of accountability to Assad's regime. Amos, Deborah. "Nearly 7,000 Syrians Are Waiting To See If Their Protected Status Will Be Renewed". NPR. Touré, Saliho. "Like Syrians now, my family fled Liberia as refugees. Unlike Syrians, America welcomed us". USA Today. Harris, Bryant. "Congress sounds alarm on weaponization of Syrian aid". AL Monitor. Pregent, Michael.

"Countering Iran means sanctioning terrorist militias". The Hill. Lewis, Matt. "Can the World Survive Two More Years of Donald Trump?". Daily Beast. Yingst, Trey. "Syrian civil war has damaged more than 120 churches, report finds". Fox News. McKay, Hollie. "Syrian hospitals bombed by Assad, Russian troops after coordinates were shared with the UN". Fox News. McKay, Hollie. "Syrian doctor describes latest alleged chemical attack as US mulls response". Fox News. Kredo, Adam. "New Ad Urges Trump to Act Against Slaughter of Innocents in Syria". The Washington Free Beacon. Hanichak, Erica. "Congress Can Still Help Shape the Endgame in Syria". Washington Institute. "Syrian thugs try to intimidate the U. S. Media". Washington Post. "Assads Regime Killed an American, no One Seems to Care". Washington Post. "No more of the same in Syria - The Washington Post". Washington Post. Lake, Eli. "What Iran's Rouhani Doesn't Want to Talk About". Bloomberg. Official website

Pupia gens

The gens Pupia was a plebeian family at ancient Rome. Members of this gens are mentioned as early as 409 BC, when Publius Pupius was one of the first plebeian quaestors, but over the course of centuries they achieved little of significance, held any of the higher offices of the Roman state; the nomen Pupius seems to be derived from a child. From this it seems that the Pupii were Latins, Chase classifies them among those gentes that either originated at Rome, or cannot be shown to have come from anywhere else; the Pupii favoured the praenomina Gnaeus and Marcus, all of which were common throughout Roman history. The only other praenomina found among the Pupii occurring in history are Publius, belonging to the first of this family to appear, Aulus, appearing on coins; the only cognomen of the Pupii under the Republic is Rufus, red referring to someone with red hair. This surname appears on coins of the Pupii bearing Greek inscriptions; the surname Piso, belonging to Marcus Pupius Piso, consul in 61 BC, was the result of his adoption from the Calpurnia gens.

This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Publius Pupius, elected one of the first plebeian quaestors in 409 BC. Gnaeus Pupius, one of the duumvirs appointed to begin construction of the Temple of Concord in 217 BC. Lucius Pupius, aedile in 185 BC, praetor in 183, was assigned the province of Apulia, he was charged with investigating the celebration of the Bacchanalia, which had caused much panic at Rome. Marcus Pupius M. f. A senator in 129 BC, he was the same as the Marcus Pupius who adopted a Calpurnius Piso, since Cicero said he was "extremely old" when he did so. Marcus Pupius, an old man without living sons, adopted one of the Calpurnii Pisones, who became Marcus Pupius Piso Frugi Calpurnianus. Marcus Pupius Piso Frugi Calpurnianus, adopted by the elderly Marcus Pupius, was consul in 61 BC, reluctantly called for a special court to try Publius Clodius Pulcher for profaning the mysteries of the Bona Dea. During the Civil War, he recruited troops for Gnaeus Pompeius at Delos.

Gnaeus Pupius, a publican representing his comrades in Bithynia, received a recommendation from Cicero to his son-in-law, Furius Crassipes, quaestor in Bithynia in 51 BC. Lucius Pupius, a primus pilus captured by Caesar at the beginning of the Civil War in 49 BC. Caesar released him unharmed. Pupius, a Roman tragedian whose work has been lost. Horace mentions Pupius' "lachrymose poetry" in one of his letters. Aulus Pupius Rufus, known from his coins, appears to have been quaestor in Cyrene. List of Roman gentes De Domo Sua, Epistulae ad Familiares. Gaius Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Civili. Quintus Horatius Flaccus, Epistulae. Titus Livius, History of Rome. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Romaike Archaiologia. Flavius Josephus, Antiquitates Judaïcae. Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus, Roman History. Joseph Hilarius Eckhel, Doctrina Numorum Veterum. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, ed. Little and Company, Boston. George Davis Chase, "The Origin of Roman Praenomina", in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol.

VIII. T. Robert S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, American Philological Association. Robert K. Sherk, "The Text of the Senatus Consultum De Agro Pergameno", in Greek and Byzantine Studies, vol. 7, pp. 361–369