The Dipodidae, or dipodids, are a family of rodents found across the Northern Hemisphere, the sole family in the superfamily Dipodoidea. This family includes over 50 species among the 16 genera, they include the jerboas, jumping mice, birch mice. Different species are found in grassland and forests, they are all capable of saltation, a feature, most evolved in the desert-dwelling jerboas. Dipodids are small to medium-sized rodents, ranging from 4 to 26 cm in body length, excluding the tail, they are all adapted for jumping. The jerboas have long hind legs which, in most species, include cannon bones, they move either by walking on their hind legs. The jumping mice have long feet, but lack the extreme adaptations of the jerboas, so that they move by crawling or making short hops, rather than long leaps. Both jerboas and jumping mice have long tails to aid their balance. Birch mice have shorter tails and feet, but they, move by jumping. Most dipodids are omnivorous, with a diet consisting of insects.
Some species of jerboa, such as Allactaga sibirica, are entirely insectivorous. Like other rodents, they have gnawing incisors separated from the grinding cheek teeth by a gap, or diastema; the dental formula for dipodids is: Jerboas and birch mice make their nests in burrows, which, in the case of jerboas, may be complex, with side-chambers for storage of food. In contrast, while jumping mice sometimes co-opt the burrows of other species, they do not dig their own, nest in thick vegetation. Most species hibernate for at least half the year, surviving on fat that they build up in the weeks prior to going to sleep. Dipodids give birth to litters of between two and seven young after a gestation period of between 17 and 42 days, they breed twice a year, depending on the species. Family Dipodidae Subfamily Sicistinae, birch mice Genus Sicista Armenian birch mouse, Sicista armenica Northern birch mouse, Sicista betulina Caucasian birch mouse, Sicista caucasica Long-tailed birch mouse, Sicista caudata Chinese birch mouse, Sicista concolor Kazbeg birch mouse, Sicista kazbegica Kluchor birch mouse, Sicista kluchorica Altai birch mouse, Sicista napaea Gray birch mouse, Sicista pseudonapaea Severtzov's birch mouse, Sicista severtzovi Strand's birch mouse, Sicista strandi Southern birch mouse, Sicista subtilis Tien Shan birch mouse, Sicista tianshanica Subfamily Zapodinae, jumping mice Genus Eozapus Chinese jumping mouse, Eozapus setchuanus Genus Napaeozapus Woodland jumping mouse, Napaeozapus insignis Genus Zapus Meadow jumping mouse, Zapus hudsonius Western jumping mouse, Zapus princeps Pacific jumping mouse, Zapus trinotatus Subfamily Allactaginae Genus Allactaga Subgenus Allactaga Small five-toed jerboa, Allactaga elater Iranian jerboa, Allactaga firouzi Hotson's jerboa, Allactaga hotsoni Great jerboa, Allactaga major Severtzov's jerboa, Allactaga severtzovi Vinogradov's jerboa, Allactaga vinogradovi Subgenus Orientallactaga Balikun jerboa, Allactaga balikunica Gobi jerboa, Allactaga bullata Mongolian five-toed jerboa, Allactaga sibirica Subgenus Paralactaga Euphrates jerboa, Allactaga euphratica Williams's jerboa, Allactaga williamsi Subgenus Scarturus Four-toed jerboa, Allactaga tetradactyla incertae sedis Allactaga toussi Genus Allactodipus Bobrinski's jerboa, Allactodipus bobrinskii Genus Pygeretmus, fat-tailed jerboas Lesser fat-tailed jerboa, Pygeretmus platyurus Dwarf fat-tailed jerboa, Pygeretmus pumilio Greater fat-tailed jerboa, Pygeretmus shitkovi Subfamily Cardiocraniinae Genus Cardiocranius Five-toed pygmy jerboa, Cardiocranius paradoxus Genus Salpingotulus Baluchistan pygmy jerboa, Salpingotulus michaelis Genus Salpingotus, pygmy jerboas Subgenus Anguistodontus Thick-tailed pygmy jerboa, Salpingotus crassicauda Subgenus Prosalpingotus Heptner's pygmy jerboa, Salpingotus heptneri Pale pygmy jerboa, Salpingotus pallidus Thomas's pygmy jerboa, Salpingotus thomasi Subgenus Salpingotus Kozlov's pygmy jerboa, Salpingotus kozlovi Subfamily Dipodinae Tribe Dipodini Genus Dipus Northern three-toed jerboa, Dipus sagitta Genus Eremodipus Lichtenstein's jerboa, Eremodipus lichtensteini Genus Jaculus Blanford's jerboa, Jaculus blanfordi Lesser Egyptian jerboa, Jaculus jaculus Greater Egyptian jerboa, Jaculus orientalis Genus Stylodipus, three-toed jerboas Andrews's three-toed jerboa, Stylodipus andrewsi Mongolian three-toed jerboa, Stylodipus sungorus Thick-tailed three-toed jerboa, Stylodipus telum Tribe Paradipodini Genus Paradipus Comb-toed jerboa, Paradipus ctenodactylus Subfamily Euchoreutinae Genus Euchoreutes, long-eared jerboa Long-eared jerboa, Euchoreutes naso Janson, S..
"Animal Diversity Web: Dipodidae". Retrieved 2007-12-02
Kangaroo rats, small rodents of genus Dipodomys, are native to western North America. The common name derives from their bipedal form, they hop in a manner similar to the much larger kangaroo, but developed this mode of locomotion independently, like several other clades of rodents. Kangaroo rats are four-toed heteromyid rodents with big hind legs, small front legs and large heads. Adults weigh between 70 and 170 g; the tails of kangaroo rats are longer than both their heads. Another notable feature of kangaroo rats are their fur-lined cheek pouches, which are used for storing food; the coloration of kangaroo rats varies from cinnamon buff depending on the species. There is some variation in length with one of the largest species, the banner-tailed kangaroo rat being six inches in body length and a tail length of eight inches. Sexual dimorphism exists with males being larger than females. Kangaroo rats move bipedally. Kangaroo rats leap a distance of 6 feet, up to 9 feet at speeds up to 10 feet/sec, or 10 kph.
They can change direction between jumps. The rapid locomotion of the banner-tailed kangaroo rat may minimize predation risk, its use of a "move-freeze" mode may make it less conspicuous to nocturnal predators. Kangaroo rats live in arid and semi-arid areas on sandy or soft soils which are suitable for burrowing, they can, vary in both geographic range and habitat. In particular, Merriam's kangaroo rats live in areas of low rainfall and humidity, high summer temperature and evaporation rates, they can be found in areas of varying elevation, ranging from below sea level to about 4,500 feet. They live in areas of stony soils, including clays and rocks, which are harder than soils preferred by some other species like banner-tail kangaroo rats. Merriam's kangaroo rats so must conserve water, they do this in part by lowering their metabolic rate, which reduces loss of water through their skin and respiratory system. They obtain enough water from the metabolic oxidation of the seeds they eat to survive and do not need to drink water at all.
Banner-tailed kangaroo rats live in grasslands and scrublands. They have more water available to them than Merriam's kangaroo rats. All kangaroo rat species are sensitive to extreme temperatures and remain in their burrows during rain storms and other forms of inclement weather. Kangaroo rats are preyed on by coyotes, badgers, weasels and snakes. Kangaroo rats are seed eaters, they will, sometimes eat vegetation at some times of the year and some insects, too. They have been seen storing the seeds of mesquite, bush, purslane and grama grass in their cheek pouches. Kangaroo rats will store extra seeds in seed caches; this caching behavior affects the range-land and croplands. Kangaroo rats must harvest as much seed as possible in as little time as possible. To conserve energy and water, they minimize their time away from their dry burrows. In addition, maximizing time in their burrows minimizes their exposure to predators; when on foraging trips, kangaroo rats hoard the seeds. It is important for a kangaroo rat to encounter more food items than are consumed, at least at one point in the year, as well as defend or rediscover food caches and remain within the same areas long enough to utilize food resources.
Different species of kangaroo rat may have different seed caching strategies to coexist with each other, as is the case for the banner-tailed kangaroo rat and Merriam's kangaroo rat which have overlapping ranges. Merriam's kangaroo rats scatterhoard small caches of seeds in numerous small, shallow holes they dig; this is done close to the food source, maximizing harvest rates and reducing travel costs, but redistributed more minimizing theft by other rodents. Banner-tailed kangaroo rats larderhoard a sizable cache of seeds within the large mounds they occupy; this could decrease their energy expenses. Being larger and more sedentary, they are better able to defend these larders from depredations by other rodents. Kangaroo rats inhabit overlapping home ranges; these home ranges tend to be small with most activities within 200–300 ft and 600 ft. Home range size can vary within species with Merriam's kangaroo rats having larger home ranges than banner-tailed kangaroo rats. Weaned kangaroo rats move into new areas not occupied by adults.
Within its home range, a kangaroo rat has a defended territory consisting of its burrowing system. Kangaroo rats live in complex burrow systems; the burrows have separate chambers used for specific purposes like sleeping and food storage. The spacing of the burrows depends on the abundance of food. Kangaroo rats live in colonies that range from six to several hundred dens; the burrow of a kangaroo rat is important in providing protection from the harsh desert environment. To maintain a constant temperature and relative humidity in their burrows, kangaroo rats plug the entrances with soil during the day; when the outside temperature is too hot, a kangaroo rat stays in its cool, humid burrow and leaves it only at night. To reduce loss of moisture through respiration when sleeping, a kangaroo rat buries its nose in its fur to accumulate a small pocket of moist air; the burrows of Merriam's kangaroo rats are simpler and shallower than those of banner-tailed kangaroo rats. Banner-tailed kangaroo rats mate in their burrows, unlike Merriam's kangaroo rats.
Kangaroo rats are general
The Pedetidae are a family of mammals from the rodent order. The two living species, the springhares, are distributed throughout much of southern Africa and around Kenya and Uganda. Fossils have been found as far north as Turkey. Together with the anomalures, Pedetidae forms the suborder Anomaluromorpha; the fossil genus Parapedetes is related. The family includes three extinct genera; the Asian fossil Diatomys was included, but is now classified in the family Diatomyidae with the Laotian rock rat. Family Pedetidae Genus PedetesSouth African springhare, P. capensis †Pedetes gracilis †Pedetes hagenstadti †Pedetes laetoliensis East African springhare, P. surdaster Genus †Megapedetes†Megapedetes aegaeus †Megapedetes gariepensis †Megapedetes pentadactylus †Megapedetes pickfordi Genus †Oldrichpedetes†Oldrichpedetes brigitteae †Oldrichpedetes fejfari †Oldrichpedetes pickfordi †Oldrichpedetes praecursor Genus †Propedetes †Propedetes efeldensis †Propedetes laetoliensis Genus †Rusingapedetes†Rusingapedetes tsujikawai Incisor enamel microstructure and phylogenetic interrelationships of Pedetidae and Ctenodactyloidea.
Einiges zur Haltung und Zucht Hornchenartiger im Zoologischen Garten. Postcranial morphology and springing adaptations in Pedetidae from Arrisdrift, Middle Miocene. Pelvic shape in gliding rodents: implications for the launch. Tracking genome organization in rodents by Zoo-FISH. Feldhamer, G. A. L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. Xii+563pp. McLaughlin, C. A. 1984. Protrogomorph, castorimorph, myomorph rodents. Pp. 267–288 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr.. Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N. Y. xii+686 pp. Paradiso, J. L. 1975. Walker's Mammals of Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Savage, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide. Facts of File Publications, New York. 259 pp. Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. Third Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. Vii+576 pp. Vaughan, T. A. J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition.
Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. Vii+565pp. Wilson, D. E. and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. Xviii+1206 pp
A hopping mouse is any of about ten different Australian native mice in the genus Notomys. They are rodents, not marsupials, their ancestors are thought to have arrived from Asia about 5 million years ago. All are brown or fawn, fading to pale grey or white underneath, have long tails and, as the common name implies, well-developed hind legs. Half of the hopping mouse species have become extinct since European colonisation; the primary cause is predation from introduced foxes or cats, coupled with competition for food from introduced rabbits and cattle. A hopping mouse's primary diet is seeds. An Australian hopping mouse can concentrate urine to as high as 10,000 mOsm/L; this allows it to survive in the desert without drinking water. The spinifex hopping mouse occurs throughout the central and western Australian arid zones, occupying both spinifex-covered sand flats and stabilised sand dunes, loamy mulga and melaleuca flats; the extinct short-tailed hopping mouse was the largest species at around 100 g.
The northern hopping mouse is found only in coastal northern Australia, from Arnhem Land to the Cobourg Peninsula. The fawn hopping mouse is found on the sparsely vegetated arid gibber plains and claypans of the Lake Eyre Basin. Small at around 30 to 50 g, light in colour, it is gregarious and feeds at night on seeds and green shoots, not needing to drink water, it is classed as near threatened. Some small dusky hopping mouse populations retain a slender hold on existence in the Strzelecki Desert, they feed on seeds, at night and shelter in deep vertical burrows. The long-tailed hopping mouse is an extinct species, widespread in the drier regions of southern and central Australia, it dug burrows in clay soils. It was not a pest to the stores of settlers. Only a handful of specimens were collected and the last record dates from 1901, although skull fragments were found in an owl pellet in 1977; the extinct big-eared hopping mouse lived in the Moore River area of south-western Australia. The last record dates from 19 July 1843.
Mitchell's hopping mouse is the largest extant member of the genus. It occurs throughout much of semi-arid Southern Australia and is considered to be unthreatened, although its range has been reduced through habitat disturbance and destruction; the Darling Downs hopping mouse is certainly extinct and is known only from a single skull collected somewhere on the Darling Downs of south-east Queensland in the 1840s from a creature similar to Mitchell's hopping-mouse. The introduction of cattle to the Darling Downs has changed the ecology of the region, seen several other species exterminated or threatened; the great hopping mouse is extinct. It is known only from skulls found in owl pellets in the Flinders Ranges; some pellets include bones of the introduced house mouse—indicating that it survived into historic times the second half of the 19th century. From the skull, it appears to have been large and to have escaped collection by early 19th century naturalists by chance. From the location of the deposits it is assumed.
It is notable that few of the clay-living hopping mice have survived European settlement, sand dunes providing a more secure refuge from competitors and predators. Known as the broad-cheeked hopping-mouse. Jerboa - a similar dipodid rodent native to northern Africa and Asia. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-07-27. Retrieved 2008-10-10. "Australian Terrestrial Biodiversity Assesement 2002 - 6. Mammals". 2002. Archived from the original on 2008-08-11. Retrieved 2008-10-10. IUCN. "IUCN Red List - Search Results". Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-10-10
Fossilworks is a portal which provides query and analysis tools to facilitate access to the Paleobiology Database, a large relational database assembled by hundreds of paleontologists from around the world. Fossilworks is housed at Macquarie University, it includes many analysis and data visualization tools included in the Paleobiology Database. "Fossilworks". Retrieved 2010-04-08
East African springhare
The East African springhare, is not related to the hare,which are lagomorphs, but is a member of the Pedetidae, a rodent family. Pedetes surdaster was recognised by Matthee and Robinson in 1997 as a species distinct from the southern African springhare based on genetic and ethological differences. P. capensis from South Africa has fewer chromosomes than does P. surdaster which has and some other genetic variations. The species was confirmed by Dieterlen in 2005; this species is found in most of Tanzania. A single specimen has been recorded in Uganda at Mount Moroto, it is found from sea level up to an altitude over 2,000 m. The East African springhare is about the size of a rabbit, it is mid-brown, has large erect ears short fore legs, long powerful hind legs. It has a long tail fringed with black hairs which provides balance, it can sit up on its haunches like a squirrel. The East African springhare spends the day in an extensive system of burrows, it lives in semiarid grassland habitats. The diet is the green parts of plants and other vegetable matter, insects
The kultarr is a small insectivorous nocturnal marsupial inhabiting the arid interior of Australia. Preferred habitat includes stony deserts, woodland and open plains; the kultarr has a range of adaptations to help cope with Australia’s harsh arid environment including torpor similar to hibernation that helps conserve energy The species has declined across its former range since European settlement due to changes in land management practices and introduced predators. The kultarr is a small carnivorous marsupial of the family Dasyuridae with unique morphological features, it is nocturnal, hunting a variety of invertebrates including spiders and cockroaches. During the day it shelters in a burrows in hollow logs, beneath grass tussocks, at the base of shrubs and trees or cracks in the soil. Males weigh between 80 -- 100 mm in length. Females are smaller between 14–29 grams and 70–95 mm in length, they have a fawn-sandy color, with a white underside. The kultarr has a long tail with a distinctive dark brush-like tip.
The muzzle is pointed and the eyes and ears are large. It has distinguishing elongated hind legs having four toes similar to macropodids; the hind legs are designed for a bipedal or hopping style movement, used to evade predators and catch prey such as insects. Kultarrs have been recorded moving at speeds of 13.8 km/h in open country. The kultarr is the sole member of the genus Antechinomys of the family Dasyuridae. Collected by Sir Thomas Mitchell in New South Wales, it was subsequently described as Phascogale lanigera by John Gould in 1856, it was moved into its own genus, Antechinomys, by Krefft in 1867 and in 1888 the species was formally named Antechinomys laniger. In 1906 a second species of Antechinomys was described from specimens collected from an expedition to central Australia, classified as Antechinomys spenceri. Extensive discussion regarding the taxonomy of the genus followed. In 1981 it was proposed. A. laniger laniger and A. laniger spenceri are now accepted as being subspecies with minor morphological differences, both occurring in different geographic ranges.
A. laniger laniger occurs in eastern Australia while A. laniger spenceri is found in western and central Australia. Morphological differences include A. laniger spenceri being paler in colour and heavier compared to A. laniger laniger. The kultarr occurs across a vast area of semi-arid and arid Australia but has since declined from parts of its former range and is now uncommon with populations suffering seasonal fluctuations; the kultarr has disappeared from Victoria and southern New South Wales at the Murray-Darling junction. Populations in south-east South Australia, Cedar Bay in north Queensland and western Queensland have disappeared. Populations in the Northern Territory and Western Australia appear to be stable. Kultarr populations around Cobar in western New South Wales continue to persist, being regionally important for conservation of the species. Recent sightings of kultarrs occurred in 2015 at Nombinnie Nature Reserve in Central Western NSW; these sightings are significant. The lifespan of kultarrs in the wild is unknown however in captivity.
The kultarr has distinct geographical variations in breeding seasons. Breeding and the onset of estrus occurs in the second half of the year in eastern populations with western populations occurring later. Males are sexually mature at 9 -- 10 females at 11 -- 12 months. Female are polyestrous; the kultarr has a crescent shaped pouch consisting of small folds of skin with six to eight teats. The young are carried in the pouch for up to 20 days, after this they hold on to the mothers back whilst she forages or are left in the burrow. Both sub-species have different numbers of teats with A. laniger laniger having eight and A. laniger spenceri having six. This can be used to differentiate between the two sub-species. Captive breeding and rearing of kultarr is difficult. Kultarrs migrate between different locations throughout the year, meaning local populations numbers can vary depending on seasonal fluctuations. Populations can decline in response to good rain with kultarrs preferring drier seasons.
Movements and home ranges of kultarrs vary with movements of up to 1,700 m per night for males and 400 m per night for females. Kultarrs disperse and negotiate a variety of different habitat types to forage from vegetated areas and open bare ground; the kultarr is predominantly insectivorous, its diet consisting of species including spiders, cockroaches and beetles. Additionally, kultarrs are known to predate on other species of dasyurids; the kultarr occupies a range of different habitats preferring sparsely vegetated areas. Habitats include claypans, gibber plains, stony deserts, savannas and tussock grasslands and shrublands. Regional variation in habitat preference occurs with the western subspecies preferring stony, granite plains dominated by Acacia and Cassia species. Eastern subspecies prefer sparsely vegetated clay pans in acacia woodlands; the kultarr is an Endotherm having a high metabolic rate, to conserve energy the kultarr enters into a state of torpor where the body temperature is reduced similar to hibernation.
The body temperature drops to 11 °C reducing the metabolic rate by 30% conserving energy and reducing water loss. Torpor occurs in the evening-e