click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pedophilia

Pedophilia is a psychiatric disorder in which an adult or older adolescent experiences a primary or exclusive sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Although girls begin the process of puberty at age 10 or 11, boys at age 11 or 12, criteria for pedophilia extend the cut-off point for prepubescence to age 13. A person must be at least 16 years old, at least five years older than the prepubescent child, for the attraction to be diagnosed as pedophilia. Pedophilia is termed pedophilic disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the manual defines it as a paraphilia involving intense and recurrent sexual urges towards and fantasies about prepubescent children that have either been acted upon or which cause the person with the attraction distress or interpersonal difficulty; the International Classification of Diseases defines it as a "sustained and intense pattern of sexual arousal—as manifested by persistent sexual thoughts, urges, or behaviours—involving pre-pubertal children."In popular usage, the word pedophilia is applied to any sexual interest in children or the act of child sexual abuse.

This use conflates the sexual attraction to prepubescent children with the act of child sexual abuse and fails to distinguish between attraction to prepubescent and pubescent or post-pubescent minors. Researchers recommend that these imprecise uses be avoided, because although some people who commit child sexual abuse are pedophiles, child sexual abuse offenders are not pedophiles unless they have a primary or exclusive sexual interest in prepubescent children, some pedophiles do not molest children. Pedophilia was first formally named in the late 19th century. A significant amount of research in the area has taken place since the 1980s. Although documented in men, there are women who exhibit the disorder, researchers assume available estimates underrepresent the true number of female pedophiles. No cure for pedophilia has been developed, but there are therapies that can reduce the incidence of a person committing child sexual abuse; the exact causes of pedophilia have not been conclusively established.

Some studies of pedophilia in child sex offenders have correlated it with various neurological abnormalities and psychological pathologies. In the United States, following Kansas v. Hendricks in 1997, sex offenders who are diagnosed with certain mental disorders pedophilia, can be subject to indefinite involuntary commitment; the word pedophilia comes from the Greek παῖς, παιδός, meaning "child", φιλία, "friendly love" or "friendship". Pedophilia is used for individuals with a primary or exclusive sexual interest in prepubescent children aged 13 or younger. Infantophilia is a sub-type of pedophilia; this is sometimes referred to as nepiophilia, though this term is used in academic sources. Hebephilia is defined as individuals with a primary or exclusive sexual interest in 11- to 14-year-old pubescents; the DSM-5 does not list hebephilia among the diagnoses. In addition to hebephilia, some clinicians have proposed other categories that are somewhat or distinguished from pedophilia. Pedophilia emerges before or during puberty, is stable over time.

It is self-discovered, not chosen. For these reasons, pedophilia has been described as a disorder of sexual preference, phenomenologically similar to a heterosexual or homosexual orientation; these observations, however, do not exclude pedophilia from the group of mental disorders because pedophilic acts cause harm, mental health professionals can sometimes help pedophiles to refrain from harming children. In response to misinterpretations that the American Psychiatric Association considers pedophilia a sexual orientation because of wording in its printed DSM-5 manual, which distinguishes between paraphilia and what it calls "paraphilic disorder", subsequently forming a division of "pedophilia" and "pedophilic disorder", the association commented: "'exual orientation' is not a term used in the diagnostic criteria for pedophilic disorder and its use in the DSM-5 text discussion is an error and should read'sexual interest.'" They added, "In fact, APA considers pedophilic disorder a'paraphilia,' not a'sexual orientation.'

This error will be corrected in the electronic version of DSM-5 and the next printing of the manual." They said they support efforts to criminally prosecute those who sexually abuse and exploit children and adolescents, "also support continued efforts to develop treatments for those with pedophilic disorder with the goal of preventing future acts of abuse." Studies of pedophilia in child sex offenders report that it co-occurs with other psychopathologies, such as low self-esteem, depression and personality problems. It is not clear whether these are features of the disorder itself, artifacts of sampling bias, or consequences of being identified as a sex offender. One review of the literature concluded that research on personality correlates and psychopathology in pedophiles is methodologically correct, in part owing to confusion between pedophiles and child sex offenders, a

Kera Tamara

Tamara Hejtan was a Bulgarian princess, the daughter of the Bulgarian Emperor Ivan Alexander and his second wife Sarah-Theodora. Kera Tamara was a sister of Ivan Sratsimir, she was born around 1340 and originates from the Shishman dynasty. The first husband of Kera Tamara was despot Constantine. According to one theory he was the despot of Velbazhd Constantine Dragash whose daughter Helena Dragash married the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II and became mother of the last Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI. However, that theory has been dismissed by the historians because in 1371 Kera Tamara was a widow while Constantine Dragash died in 1395. Therefore, despot Constantine, depicted in the Tetraevangelia of Ivan Alexander next to the Bulgarian princess was another man; as early as 1371 when Ivan Alexander died and Ivan Shishman inherited the throne, in the capital Tarnovo arrived ambassadors from the Ottoman Sultan Murad I to arrange his relations with the new Emperor of Bulgaria. The Sultan, familiar with the beauty of Kera Tamara and the fact that she was a widow demanded her to become his wife as a guarantee for the peace between the two counties.

Ivan Shishman managed to prolonged his decision for seven years. On that occasion an anonymous Bulgarian chronicle from the 15th century records:... And on the throne came son of Alexander. Amorat sent to him men to ask for his sister, but he did not want to give his sister, Tsarina Kera Tamara... However, in 1378 when his attempts to stop the Turks failed, Ivan Shishman reluctantly sent Kera Tamara in the harem of the Sultan in the Ottoman capital Bursa, she kept her Christian faith. In the Boril Synadnik her fate was praised as a self-sacrifice:... For Kera Tamara, daughter of the great Emperor Ivan Alexander, great princess, wife of the great emir Amurat, to whom she was given for the sake of the Bulgarian people, and she, when she arrived there, kept her True faith, freed her people, lived well and pious and died in peace, may her memory live forever... The grave of Kera Tamara remains today in Bursa in the family tomb of the Ottoman dynasty next to the grave of Murad I and the visitor know it as the place of "the Bulgarian Empress Maria".

According to Kera Tamara's will, her tomb remained. Queens of Tarnovo, Plamen Pavlov, 2006

Forest Sale

Forest E. "Aggie" Sale was a standout American college basketball player at the University of Kentucky from 1930–31 to 1932–33. He was one of Rupp's first NCAA All-Americans. Sale attended Kavanaugh High School in Anderson County, Kentucky prior to matriculating at UK; as a 6 ft 4 in forward/center, he was a rather tall player for his era. Sale was noted as both a good scorer and rebounder. In his three seasons with the Wildcats team, Sale scored 657 points, he was twice named a consensus All-American, as a senior in 1932–33 Sale was selected as the Helms Athletic Foundation National Player of the Year. That year, Kentucky won the Southeastern Conference regular season and SEC Tournament titles, finished with a 21–3 overall record, were named the HAF National Champions. After college, Sale became a high school history teacher and basketball coach before joining the United States Navy and fighting in World War II for a year, he returned to being a teacher and coach, from 1964 to 1967 he ran his own Sale Sporting Goods Store.

He entered politics in 1971 as a Democrat and was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives from the 55th District. Sale was re-elected four times before ending his political career. Forest Sale died of a heart attack on December 4, 1985, at St. Joseph Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky. Honored Kentucky Wildcats men's basketball players

CastleVille

CastleVille is a defunct social network game made by Zynga's Dallas studio and was released on November 2011. It combined a number of elements from the company's other "Ville" range of games. On launch it had received a million "likes" on Facebook. By the end of its first month, it had become the fifth most popular game on Facebook with 26.5 million players. The game was a freemium game, meaning there is no cost to play but players have the option of purchasing premium content. Zynga created a sequel called CastleVille Legends in early 2013. CastleVille shut down on April 30, 2016. Set in a medieval world, the game allows players to build their land up with castle elements, craft armor and trade items; the objective is to explore the unknown land around the starting territory and expand the player's empire into it. The character's avatar can be customized, the world features peasants, pirates and Vikings. A new reputation system was developed to encourage players to be social within the game in order to unlock new items and actions such as trading.

Energy = is vital to play the game because it helps you do actions in your Kingdom such as cutting grass or trees, mining rocks or taxing houses. The maximum limit is 25 energy, but you can increase it by crafting an Energy Totem with the Workshop. Consumable bottles of energy that increase the current amount of energy can be bought in the Market or gifted to friends. Energy regenerates one every five minutes, or 50 minutes for the entire energy bar to fill up. Coins = is the principal currency used on CastleVille, it helps you buy most items from the Market Crowns = is the special currency that helps you finish quests faster or use to buy items, clothes, or buildings that are only available with Crowns, or are locked due to your level. You gain one every time you level up. You could get Crowns by USD payment. Reputation Hearts = are points. It's another way to obtain clothes that coins can't buy. Experience Points = are the blue stars. You always receive at least one XP point by doing anything in your Kingdom, but you could increase that number to receive two XP points every time you do something by completing the Stonehenge Limited Time Quest.

Alliance Points = are the points that you gain every time you do any action on your neighbors' kingdoms to create alliances. This helps items. Castle Points = are the points. Increasing its number helps you open new land for your kingdom; the game was produced by Zynga Dallas, purchased by Zynga in October 2010 for an undisclosed sum. It is the Dallas studio's first release under Zynga management, the first social game to feature its own orchestral and choir soundtrack. Announced in October 2011, it was launched in seventeen languages, it was released a couple of weeks prior to Zynga's stock market launch. The production team's aim was to take the best elements of the other Zynga "Ville" games and combine them into one package. Storytelling features were brought from The Pioneer Trail, while CityVille and FarmVille provided the inspiration for city building and self-expression, respectively; the game's Creative Director, Bill Jackson, said that it was aimed to be a deep online game like World of Warcraft.

At launch in November 2011, an official page on Facebook for CastleVille had received a million "likes". It had gained five million players by 21 November, compared to the top rated game, CityVille, which had only reached 3.2 million players after five days. Within a month, CastleVille was ranked #5 on the most popular Facebook games, having accumulated 26.5 million players. Its entry into the top twenty games came at a cost to its own creators: CastleVille forced an older Zynga game, The Pioneer Trail, out of the list. Jon Swartz previewed the game for USA Today, thought the game had similarities in design to the Shrek franchise, but described it as Zynga's crown jewel. Andrew Webster, reviewing CastleVille for Gamezebo, said that the release wouldn't "revolutionize social gaming", but because of "arguably the best visual and audio experience on Facebook", it was still one of the best games on Facebook, he gave the game four and a half stars of five. CastleVille Website

Marko Zeljug

Marko Zeljug is a politician in Serbia. He has served in the National Assembly of Serbia since 2016 as a member of the Serbian Progressive Party. Zeljug is a veterinarian, he lives in the Belgrade municipality of Surčin. Zeljug was elected to the Assembly of the City of Belgrade in the 2008 city election on the electoral list of the far-right Serbian Radical Party; the results of this election were inconclusive, but the Radicals served in opposition. The party experienced a major split in the year, with several members joining the breakaway and more moderate Progressive Party under the leadership of Tomislav Nikolić and Aleksandar Vučić. Zeljug was among those, he appeared on the Progressive Party's list in the 2012 local elections, although he did not serve in the sitting of the municipal assembly that followed. The Progressive Party and its allies won majority in the 2014 Belgrade City Assembly election, Zeljug was afterwards appointed as a member of the city council, he resigned following his election to the National Assembly in 2016.

Zeljug received the eighty-eighth position on the Progressive Party's Aleksandar Vučić — Future We Believe In list in the 2016 Serbian parliamentary election and was elected when the list won a majority victory with 131 out of 250 mandates. He is a member of the assembly committee on administrative, budgetary and immunity issues.

Ghauri (missile)

The Ghauri–I is a land-based surface-to-surface medium-range ballistic missile, in current service with the Pakistan Army's Strategic Forces Command— a subordinate command of Strategic Plans Division. Influenced from the design of Nodong-1 of North Korea, its extensive modification and engineering took place in Kahuta Research Laboratories in 1990s with an objective of developing an electronic system that uses a single stage liquid fuel rocket motor to carry a payload of 700 kg to a range of 1,500 km; this is enough to reach most, if not all of India. Two variants of the Ghauri were produced under the secretive missile research programme started in 1987 and the development of a third variant was cancelled; the Ghauri-II uses increased motor assembly length and improved propellants for an increased range of 2,300 km. The missile is named after Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghauri, while the "Hatf" designation originates from the name of the sword or lance of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Upon its development, the missile was named after the 12th century Sultan Shahabuddin Ghauri, by a senior scientist who worked on the program with a keen interest in medieval history.

Sultan Muhammad Ghauri, a Turk who campaigned in the northwestern region of India between 1176 and 1182, but was defeated in his first battle in northern India by Indian King Prithviraj Chauhan. He captured Delhi in 1199, but established his kingdom formally in 1206. However, the JS HQ has codenamed the missile "Hatf–5. According to the American intelligence estimates in 1999, the Ghauri–I is influenced and its design development is based on the Rodong-1 missile of North Korea. According to the American Federation of Atomic Scientists, the Ghauri–I is believed to inherit a warhead spin-up mechanism from the Rodong 1 and it is stated that this feature could improve accuracy up to 190m CEP— although this is still debatable; the mechanism involves using steering vanes to spin the missile after 100 seconds of flight time. After 110 seconds, the rocket motor stops and the warhead separates from the rocket motor; the warhead enters a more stable re-entry trajectory due to its spinning motion. Warhead accuracy would be further enhanced if the Ghauri's inertial navigation system is capable of being updated by GPS satellite signals.

By Pakistan's own unofficial admission, the technology transfer took place in 1990s in return of the instructions on enrichment methods for uranium Not much has been publicized as controversy surrounds the claim that North Korean nuclear efforts were well advanced before the instructions on enrichment methods uranium were provided. According to the Pakistani military reports, the original design of the missile was flawed and the missile's frontal conic nose section material burned up due to generated shock waves and hypersonic effect on re-entry during its first test flight in 1998. High stress and high temperature shift caused the material to melt during the re-entry while its vintage electronic systems, engine system, propellant had to be replaced; the conic nose section was redesigned by rounding the cone which allowed the missile to travel from subsonic flow to supersonic flow. The KRL, with assistance from the NESCOM, DESTO, NDC, engaged in heavy reengineering of much of the missile electronic system.

The liquid fuel systems are incapable of storing fuel for any long period of time. It is believed that this is why Pakistan has not pursued liquid fuel systems other than the Ghauri–I and Ghauri-II, it makes it less that the Ghaur-I would be armed with a nuclear warhead, although it has been stated that it is capable of being loaded with "all types" of warheads. Contrast to the Shaheen program that went under the joint conjecture of Pakistan's Air Force and the Army, the Ghauri program was designed for the Pakistan Army, setting to accuracy goal for a accurate missile designed to strike high-value targets; the solid-fueled Shaheen-IA is believed to be an alternative missile system for the Ghauri–I. However, it has been stated that the Ghauri–I has the advantage of lower cost than solid-fueled systems; this makes it useful in testing launch and control systems. It has been speculated that the Ghauri–I design may serve as a starting point for a future Pakistani space launch vehicle; the Ghauri–I was first test fired at 7:25hrs on 6 April 1998 from the Tilla Test Range near Malute, Jhelum Cantt, about 76mi south of the Islamabad.

It was fired from a transporter erector launcher and traveled 1,100 km in a flight lasting 9 minutes and 58 seconds. It climbed to a height of 350km before turning in the direction of its planned impact area in the desert of Balochistan where it hit the designated target at 7:33hrs. At the time, Pakistani military's information source, the ISPR stated that the missile hit its designated target in the desert of Balochistan. Official Pakistani military reports revealed that the first test was not successful because the missile's conic nose melted due to tremendous amount of heat during the re-entry phase of its flight. After redesigning nose by rounding it to avoid the hypersonic effect but traveling from subsonic to supersonic flow, Ghauri–I was test fired for second time as then-Prime Minister Zafarullah Jamali witnessed the test. On 21 December 2010, the Ghauri–I was again test fired for a third time. On 12 November 2012, the Ghauri–I was test fired for a fourth occasion by the Strategic Missile Group of the Army Strat