University of Valencia
The University of Valencia is a university located in the Spanish city of Valencia. It is one of the oldest surviving universities in Spain, the oldest in the Valencian Community, is regarded as one of Spain's leading academic institutions; the University was founded in 1499, has around 55,000 students. Most of the courses are given through the medium of Spanish, but the university has promised to increase the number of courses available in Valencian. Moreover, in some degrees part of the teaching is in English, it is located in the Mediterranean Spanish baseline, in the city of Valencia, the capital and most populous city of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third largest city in Spain, with a population of 829,705 in 2014. One of its campuses is located in the metropolitan area of Valencia, in the municipalities of Burjassot and Paterna. There are three campuses: The Burjassot Campus houses the colleges of Biology, Physics, Chemistry and the School of Engineering. On the Avenida de Blasco Ibañez Campus the Schools of Medicine and Dentistry and Educational Sciences, Psychology and History, Physical Education and Nursing.
The third campus, houses the Schools of Law and Business, Social Sciences, the School of Elementary Teacher Training, which moved from its previous location near the Blasco Ibañez Campus. The current chancellor is Esteban Morcillo Sánchez. At the request of James I the Conqueror, Pope Innocent IV in 1246, authorized by a Bull the establishment of estudis generals in Valencia; the University Statutes were passed by the municipal magistrates of Valencia on April 30, 1499. In 1501, Pope Alexander VI signed the bill of approval and one year Ferdinand II the Catholic proclaimed the Royal Mandatory Concession, its foundation was due to the zeal of St. Vincent Ferrer and to the donation of a building by Mosen Pedro Vilaragut. Only meagre accounts have been preserved of the practical workings of the university. From the time of its foundation the courses included Latin, Hebrew, philosophy and physics, Canon law, medicine; the closing years of the seventeenth, the whole of the eighteenth century, witnessed the most prosperous era of the university, Latin and medicine being specially cultivated.
Among the names of illustrious students that of Tosca, Evangelista Torricelli's friend, noted physicist and author of important mathematical works, stands out prominently. Escolano says that it was the leading university in mathematics, the humanities and medicine. Large anatomical drawings were made by the students. Valencia was the first university of Spain to found a course for the study of herbs. Many of the Valencian graduates of medicine became famous. Pedro Ximeno discovered the third small bone of the ear, he had for a pupil the celebrated Vallés. Luis Collado, professor of botany, made some valuable discoveries and carried on exhaustive studies of the plants of the Levant. In the seventeenth century the university divided into two factions, the Thomists and the anti-Thomists; the discussions were aroused partisan feelings throughout the entire Kingdom of Valencia. The university possessed a library of 27,000 volumes, destroyed by the soldiers under the command of General Suchet. Among the most noted professors of the university was D.
Francisco Pérez Bayer, a man of wide culture and great influence in the reign of Charles III of Spain. Around the university several colleges for poor students sprang up: the first was founded by St. Thomas of Villanova in 1561 and followed those founded by Doña Angela Alonsar, Mosen Pedro Martín; the most famous, called Corpus Christi, was founded by Blessed Juan de Ribera. During the Spanish Civil War, in 1938, a fire badly damaged the library. Nowadays it is a modern European public university open to every branch of teaching and learning in humanities, basic sciences and technology, health sciences, social sciences, education; the University of Valencia has three main urban campuses located in Valencia city and in Burjassot-Paterna, some other buildings and facilities in the hearth of Valencia town, such as the Historic Building, Botanical Garden, Cerveró Palace, the Rectorate and others. The University of Valencia has 18 Faculties located in its three main campuses; each one allocates different academic departments and offers undergraduate, official masters and PhD programs.
The University of Valencia offers degrees in all of the academic fields: arts and humanities, health sciences and social sciences. The exchange programs with foreign universities, as well as other programs of International Cooperation and Development Aid, allow students to study in other academic institutions from Europe, North America, Latin America, Asia. Regarding student mobility through Erasmus program, it is among the top ten universities in Europe; the university has partnered with International Studies Abroad, a study abroad provider based in Austin, Texas, to bring inbound students from the United States and Canada. Research is conducted through several ways; the Academic Departments within each School, the Research Institutes, the Science Park and some others. The Research Institutes are conceived as multi-disciplinary research structures beyond the
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
In modern medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations. There are surgeons in podiatry, dentistry maxillofacial surgeon and the veterinary fields; the first person to document a surgery was Sushruta. He specialized in cosmetic plastic surgery and had documented an operation of open rhinoplasty, his magnum opus Suśruta-saṃhitā is one of the most important surviving ancient treatises on medicine and is considered a foundational text of Ayurveda and surgery. The treatise addresses all aspects of general medicine, but the translator G. D. Singhal dubbed Suśruta "the father of surgical intervention" on account of the extraordinarily accurate and detailed accounts of surgery to be found in the work. After the eventual decline of the Sushruta School of Medicine in India, surgery had been ignored until the Islamic Golden Age surgeon Al-Zahrawi, reestablished surgery as an effective medical practice, he is considered the greatest medieval surgeon to have appeared from the Islamic World, has been described as the father of surgery.
His greatest contribution to medicine is the Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume encyclopedia of medical practices. He was the first physician to describe an ectopic pregnancy, the first physician to identify the hereditary nature of hæmophilia, his pioneering contributions to the field of surgical procedures and instruments had an enormous impact on surgery but it was not until the eighteenth century that surgery as a distinct medical discipline emerged in England. In Europe, surgery was associated with barber-surgeons who used their hair-cutting tools to undertake surgical procedures at the battlefield and for their employers. With advances in medicine and physiology, the professions of barbers and surgeons diverged. Surgeon continued, however, to be used as the title for military medical officers until the end of the 19th century, the title of Surgeon General continues to exist for both senior military medical officers and senior government public health officers. In 1950, the Royal College of Surgeons of England in London began to offer surgeons a formal status via RCS membership.
The title Mister became a badge of honour, today, in many Commonwealth countries, a qualified doctor who, after at least four years' training, obtains a surgical qualification is given the honour of being allowed to revert to calling themselves Mr, Mrs or Ms in the course of their professional practice, but this time the meaning is different. It is sometimes assumed that the change of title implies consultant status, but the length of postgraduate medical training outside North America is such that a qualified surgeon may be years away from obtaining such a post: many doctors obtained these qualifications in the senior house officer grade, remained in that grade when they began sub-specialty training; the distinction of Mr is used by surgeons in the Republic of Ireland, some states of Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and some other Commonwealth countries. In many English-speaking countries the military title of surgeon is applied to any medical practitioner, due to the historical evolution of the term.
The US Army Medical Corps retains various surgeon MOS' in the ranks of officer pay grades for military personnel dedicated to performing surgery on wounded soldiers. Some physicians who are general practitioners or specialists in family medicine or emergency medicine may perform limited ranges of minor, common, or emergency surgery. Anesthesia accompanies surgery, anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists may oversee this aspect of surgery. Surgeon's assistant, surgical nurses, surgical technologists are trained professionals who support surgeons. In the United States, the Department of Labor description of a surgeon is "a physician who treats diseases and deformities by invasive, minimally-invasive, or non-invasive surgical methods, such as using instruments, appliances, or by manual manipulation". Sushruta al-Zahrawi, regarded as one of the greatest medieval surgeons and a father of surgery. ) Charles Kelman William Stewart Halsted Alfred Blalock C. Walton Lillehei Christiaan Barnard Victor Chang Australian pioneer of heart transplantation John Hunter Sir Victor Horsley Lars Leksell Joseph Lister Harvey Cushing Paul Tessier Gholam A. Peyman Ioannis Pallikaris Nikolay Pirogov Valery Shumakov Svyatoslav Fyodorov Gazi Yasargil Rene Favaloro (first surgeon to perform bypass