Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal
Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, 1st Count of Oeiras, popularly known as Marquis of Pombal, was an 18th-century Portuguese statesman. He was Secretary of the State of Internal Affairs of the Kingdom in the government of Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. Undoubtedly the most prominent minister in the government, he is considered to have been its de facto head. Pombal is notable for his swift and competent leadership in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, he implemented sweeping economic policies in Portugal to regulate commercial activity and standardise quality throughout the country, was instrumental in weakening the grip of the Inquisition. The term Pombaline is used to describe not only his tenure, but the architectural style adopted in Lisbon after the great earthquake. Pombal, considered an estrangeirado, introduced many fundamental administrative, educational and ecclesiastical reforms justified in the name of "reason" and instrumental in advancing secularisation in Portugal.
However, historians argue that Pombal's implementation of the ideas of the "Enlightenment", while far-reaching, was a mechanism for enhancing autocracy at the expense of individual liberty and an apparatus for crushing opposition, suppressing criticism, furthering colonial economic exploitation as well as intensifying print censorship and consolidating personal control and profit. He was the leading opponent of the Jesuits across Europe. Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo was born in Lisbon, the son of Manuel de Carvalho e Ataíde, a country squire with properties in the Leiria region, of his wife Teresa Luísa de Mendonça e Melo. During his youth he studied at the University of Coimbra and served in the army, he moved to Lisbon and eloped with Teresa de Mendonça e Almada, the niece of the Count of Arcos. The marriage was a turbulent one, her parents made life unbearable for the young couple. In 1738, Pombal received his first public appointment as the Portuguese ambassador to Great Britain, where, in 1740, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
In 1745, he served as the Portuguese ambassador to Austria. The Queen consort of Portugal, Archduchess Mary Anne Josepha of Austria, was fond of him; the King, John V, was not pleased and recalled him in 1749. John V died his son Joseph I of Portugal was crowned king. Joseph I was fond of Pombal; as the King's confidence in him increased, the King entrusted him with more control of the state. By 1755, the King appointed him Prime Minister. Impressed by English economic success which he had witnessed as ambassador, Pombal implemented similar economic policies in Portugal, he abolished slavery in Portugal and the Portuguese colonies in India, reorganised the army and the navy, abolished the Autos-de-fé and ended the Limpeza de Sangue civil statutes and their discrimination against New Christians, the Jews that had converted to Christianity, their descendants regardless of genealogical distance, to escape the Portuguese Inquisition. The Pombaline Reforms were a series of reforms intended to make Portugal an economically self-sufficient and commercially strong nation, by means of expanding Brazilian territory, streamlining the administration of colonial Brazil, fiscal and economic reforms both in the colony and in Portugal.
During the Age of Enlightenment Portugal was considered unprogressive. It was a country of three million people in 1750; the economy of Portugal before the reforms was a stable one, though it had become dependent on colonial Brazil for much of its economic support, England for much of its manufacturing support, based on the Methuen Treaty of 1703. Exports from Portugal went through expatriate merchants like the English port wine shippers and French businessmen like Jácome Ratton, whose memoirs are scathing about the efficiency of his Portuguese counterparts; the need to grow a manufacturing sector in Portugal was made more imperative by the excessive spending of the Portuguese crown, the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the expenditures on wars with Spain for South American territories, the exhaustion of gold mines and diamond mines in Brazil. His greatest reforms were, however and financial, with the creation of several companies and guilds to regulate every commercial activity, he created the Douro Wine Company which demarcated the Douro wine region for production of Port, to ensure the wine's quality.
He ruled with a heavy hand, imposing strict laws upon all classes of Portuguese society, from the high nobility to the poorest working class, via his widespread review of the country's tax system. These reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes among the high nobility, who despised him as a social upstart. Further important reforms were carried out in education by Pombal: he expelled the Jesuits in 1759, created the basis for secular public primary and secondary schools, introduced vocational training, created hundreds of new teaching posts, added departments of mathematics and natural sciences to the University of Coimbra, introduced new taxes
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Order of Christ (Portugal)
The Military Order of Christ the Order of the Knights of Our Lord Jesus Christ, is the former Knights Templar order as it was reconstituted in Portugal after the Templars were abolished on 22 March 1312 by the papal bull, Vox in excelso, issued by Pope Clement V. The Order of Christ was founded in 1319, with the protection of the Portuguese king, Denis I, who refused to pursue and persecute the former knights as had occurred in all the other sovereign states under the political influence of the Catholic Church. Swayed by Philip IV of France, Pope Clement had the Knights Templar annihilated throughout France and most of Europe on charges of heresy, but Denis revived the Templars of Tomar as the Order of Christ for their aid during the Reconquista and in the reconstruction of Portugal after the wars. Denis negotiated with Clement's successor, John XXII, for recognition of the new order and its right to inherit the Templar assets and property. There exists a parallel Supreme Order of Christ of the Holy See.
The order's origins lie in the Knights Templar, founded circa 1118. The Templars were persecuted by the king of France and disbanded by the pope in 1312. King Dinis I of Portugal created the Order of Christ in 1317 for those knights who survived their mass slaughter throughout Europe. In Portugal, the Order of Christ accumulated great riches and power during the Age of Discoveries. In 1789, Queen Maria I of Portugal secularized the order. In 1910, with the end of the Portuguese monarchy, the order was extinguished. However, in 1917, the order was revived, with its Grand Master; the Military Order of Christ, together with the Military Orders of Aviz and of St. James of the Sword, formed the group of the "Ancient Military Orders", governed by a chancellor and a council of eight members, appointed by the President of the Republic to assist him as Grand Master in all the order's administrative matters; the Order can be conferred for outstanding services to the Republic on military officers, despite its name, on civilians and on members of: Parliament or other branches of government, the diplomatic corps, the Courts of Justice, the Civil Service, other public authorities.
The Order of Christ, as awarded by the Portuguese government today, comes in five classes: Grand Cross, which wears the badge of the Order on a sash on the right shoulder, the star of the Order in gold on the left chest. The badge of the Order is a gilt cross with enamel, similar to the Order's emblem illustrated here, but with a longer lower arm. During the monarchy there were separate badges for civil and military knights: civil knights wore a badge similar to the modern version, but with the Sacred Heart of Christ above it; the star of the Order has 22 asymmetrical arms of rays, in gilt for Grand Cross and Grand Officer, in silver for Commander. The central disc is with a miniature of the modern badge in it. During the monarchy the Sacred Heart of Christ was placed at the top of the star; the ribbon of the Order is plain red. Henry the Navigator Manuel I Infante Ferdinand Sebastian of Portugal Vasco da Gama Pedro Álvares Cabral João Gonçalves Zarco Gonçalo Velho Cabral Bartolomeu Dias D. Beatrice Francisco de Almeida Miguel Corte-Real Gaspar Corte-Real Tristão da Cunha Martim Afonso de Sousa João de Castro Cristóvão da Gama Tomé de Sousa Fernão de Magalhães known as Ferdinand Magellan Vicente Sodré Damião de Góis Pedro Teixeira Alexandre de Gusmão Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira Henrique Dias António Filipe Camarão Jácome Ratton Albert Coyette Louis-Nicolas Davout Jean-Baptiste Bessières Castro Marim Convento de Cristo Belém Tower Castle of Almourol Castle of Monsanto Castle of Castelo Branco Sagres Brazilian Football Confederation Clube de Futebol Os Belenenses Futebol Clube Cesarense Madeira National Corps of Scouts - Portuguese Catholic Scouting Olympic Committee of Portugal Portuguese Air Force Portuguese Athletic Federation Portuguese Football Federation Portuguese Navy Portuguese Roller Sports Federation Principality of Pontinha Flag of the city of São Paulo Honorific orders of Portugal Order of Christ History of the Order of Christ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. GUIMARÃES, J. Vieira, A Ordem de Cristo, Lisboa, I. N. 1936 OLIVAL, The Military Orders and the Portuguese Expansion, Portuguese Studies Review Monographs, Vol. 3, Peterborough: Baywolf Press and The Portuguese Studies Review, 2018
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may be described as such by others. A poet may be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience; the work of a poet is one of communication, either expressing ideas in a literal sense, such as writing about a specific event or place, or metaphorically. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, have produced works that vary in different cultures and periods. Throughout each civilization and language, poets have used various styles that have changed through the course of literary history, resulting in a history of poets as diverse as the literature they have produced. In Ancient Rome, professional poets were sponsored by patrons, wealthy supporters including nobility and military officials. For instance, Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, friend to Caesar Augustus, was an important patron for the Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil. Poets held an important position in pre-Islamic Arabic society with the poet or sha'ir filling the role of historian and propagandist.
Words in praise of the tribe and lampoons denigrating other tribes seem to have been some of the most popular forms of early poetry. The sha'ir represented an individual tribe's prestige and importance in the Arabian peninsula, mock battles in poetry or zajal would stand in lieu of real wars.'Ukaz, a market town not far from Mecca, would play host to a regular poetry festival where the craft of the sha'irs would be exhibited. In the High Middle Ages, troubadors were an important class of poets and came from a variety of backgrounds, they lived and travelled in many different places and were looked upon as actors or musicians as much as poets. They were under patronage, but many travelled extensively; the Renaissance period saw a continuation of patronage of poets by royalty. Many poets, had other sources of income, including Italians like Dante Aligheri, Giovanni Boccaccio and Petrarch's works in a pharmacist's guild and William Shakespeare's work in the theater. In the Romantic period and onwards, many poets were independent writers who made their living through their work supplemented by income from other occupations or from family.
This included poets such as Robert Burns. Poets such as Virgil in the Aeneid and John Milton in Paradise Lost invoked the aid of a Muse. Poets of earlier times were well read and educated people while others were to a large extent self-educated. A few poets such as John Gower and John Milton were able to write poetry in more than one language; some Portuguese poets, as Francisco de Sá de Miranda, wrote not only in Portuguese but in Spanish. Jan Kochanowski wrote in Polish and in Latin, France Prešeren and Karel Hynek Mácha wrote some poems in German, although they were poets of Slovenian and Czech respectively. Adam Mickiewicz, the greatest poet of Polish language, wrote a Latin ode for emperor Napoleon III. Another example is a Polish poet; when he moved to Great Britain, he ceased to write poetry in Polish, but started writing novel in English. He translated poetry from English and into English. Many universities offer degrees in creative writing though these only came into existence in the 20th century.
While these courses are not necessary for a career as a poet, they can be helpful as training, for giving the student several years of time focused on their writing. List of poets Bard Lyricist Reginald Gibbons, The Poet's Work: 29 poets on the origins and practice of their art. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226290546 at Google Books Poets' Graves
University of Coimbra
The University of Coimbra is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal. Established in 1290 in Lisbon, it went through a number of relocations until it was moved permanently to its current city in 1537, being one of the oldest universities in continuous operation in the world, the oldest university of Portugal, one of the country's largest museums of higher education and research institutions; the university is organized into eight different faculties according to a wide range of fields, granting academic bachelor's, master's and doctorate degrees in nearly all major fields of knowledge, such as arts, humanities, natural sciences, social sciences, medicine and technologies. It is a founding member of the Coimbra Group, a group of leading European research universities, whose inaugural meeting it hosted; the University of Coimbra has over 20,000 students, hosts one of the largest communities of international students in Portugal, arguably being the most cosmopolitan Portuguese university.
On 22 June 2013, UNESCO added the university to its World Heritage List. The university was founded, or ratified, in 1290 by King Dinis, having begun its existence in Lisbon with the name Studium Generale. Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis, the royal charter announcing the institution of the University was dated 1 March of that year, although efforts had been made at least since 1288 to create this first University in Portugal; the Papal confirmation was given in 1290, during the Papacy of the Pope Nicholas IV. In accordance with the Papal Bull, all the "licit" Faculties, with the exception of that of Theology, could be established, thus the Faculties of Arts, Canon Law and Medicine were the first to be created. It was, not to remain in Lisbon for long. In 1308 due to problems of emancipation from the Church and conflicts between the inhabitants of the city and the students, the University moved to Coimbra; this town had old traditions in education, being home to the successful school of the Monastery of Santa Cruz.
The university was established on the site known as "Estudos Velhos", which corresponds to the area where the Main Library now stands. In 1338, during the reign of Afonso IV, it was once again transferred to Lisbon, from whence it returned in 1354, this time to the centre of the town, in full expansion. In 1377, during the reign of King Fernando, it was transferred yet again to Lisbon, where it would remain for over a century and a half; the authorization for a Faculty of Theology dates from this period – around 1380. In 1537, during the reign of João III, the university moved definitively to Coimbra, where it was installed in the Alcaçova Palace; the entire university institution, including the teaching staff and all the books from its library, were moved from Lisbon to Coimbra. At the same time, university colleges were created, a restructuring of the curricula was undertaken and new teachers, both Portuguese and foreign, were admitted. In the 18th century, the Marquis of Pombal, Minister of the kingdom, made radical reforms in the University regarding the teaching of sciences, in accordance to his Enlightenment and anticlerical creed.
During many decades it was the only university in Portugal, since its foundation in 1290 until 1559, again between 1759 and 1911. The long history and past predominance of the University of Coimbra made it an important focus of influence in Portugal, not only educational, but political and social. Initial steps towards some convergence of European higher education systems were taken with the signature of the Sorbonne declaration by the Ministers in charge of higher education in France, the United Kingdom and Germany, in 1998, in 1999, with the signature of the Bologna declaration; the Bologna process, aimed at creating a European Higher Education Area by implementing a comparable degree structure, common quality assurance standards and by promoting the mobility of students and faculty members, was a major revolution in Europe's higher education. Globalization, technological change and increased international competition for scarce high-skilled labor highlighted the importance of making European higher education institutions attractive and competitive worldwide.
A more integrated European Higher Education Market enhanced competition between European universities—a necessary condition for producing leading-edge innovations and for catching up with the US economy. In Portugal, the University of Coimbra decided to defer the adoption of the new Bologna Process model from 2006 to 2007/2008 in order to make the transition maintaining the highest standards of quality and academic integrity. Only in the 2008/2009 school year did the entire university adopt the new programs within its 8 faculties, its governance is assured by the Rector, the Senate and the University Assembly, the last responsible for the election of the Rector and the Senate. The Rector has the main responsibility for the strategic direction and the overall administration of the university, together with the Senate and assisted by the Administrative Council; the university is divided into eight different faculties (Letters, Medicine, Sc
Coimbra is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of 319.40 square kilometres. The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal, it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra and the Centro Region. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities and extending into an area 4,336 square kilometres. Among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era, when Coimbra was the settlement of Aeminium, are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus. Buildings from the period when Coimbra was the capital of Portugal still remain. During the late Middle Ages, with its decline as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre; this was in large part helped by the establishment of the University of Coimbra in 1290, the oldest academic institution in the Portuguese-speaking world. Apart from attracting many European and international students, the university is visited by many tourists for its monuments and history.
Its historical buildings were classified as a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 2013: "Coimbra offers an outstanding example of an integrated university city with a specific urban typology as well as its own ceremonial and cultural traditions that have been kept alive through the ages." The city, located on a hill by the Mondego River, was called Aeminium in Roman times. It fell under the influence, administratively, of the larger Roman villa of Conímbriga, until the latter was sacked by the Sueves and Visigoths between 569 and 589 and abandoned, it became the seat of a diocesis. Although Conimbriga had been administratively important, Aeminium affirmed its position by being situated at the confluence of the north–south traffic that connected the Roman Bracara Augusta and Olisipo with its waterway, which enabled connections with the interior and coast; the limestone table on which the settlement grew has a dominant position overlooking the Mondego, circled by fertile lands irrigated by its waters.
Vestiges of this early history include the cryptoporticus of the former Roman forum. The move of the settlement and bishopric of Conimbriga to Aeminium resulted in the name change to Conimbriga, evolving to Colimbria. During the Visigothic era, the County of Coimbra was instituted by King Wittiza; the first Muslim campaigns that occupied the Iberian peninsula occurred between 711 and 715, with Coimbra capitulating to Musa bin Nusair in 714. Although it was not a large settlement, Qulumriyah, in the context of Al-Andalus, was the largest agglomerated centre along the northern Tagus valley, its principal city boasted a walled enclosure of 10 hectares, supporting between 3000 and 5000 inhabitants. Remnants of this period include the beginnings of the Almedina and the fortified palace used by the city's governor; the Christian Reconquista forced the Banu Dānis and the other Muslims to abandon the region temporarily. Successively the Moors retook the castle in 987–1064 and again in 1116, capturing two castles constructed to protect the territory: in Miranda da Beira and in Santa Eulália.
The reconquest of the territory was attained in 1064 by King Ferdinand I of León and Castile, who appointed Dom Sisnando Davides to reorganize the economy and administer the lands encircling the city. The County of Portucale and the County of Coimbra were integrated into one dominion under the stewardship of Henry of Burgundy by Alfonso VI of León and Castile in 1096, when Henry married Alfonso's illegitimate daughter Theresa. Henry expanded the frontiers of the County, confronting the Moorish forces, upon his death in 1112, Countess of Portucale and Coimbra, unified her possessions, their son, Afonso Henriques, who took up residence in the ancient seat of the Christian County of Coimbra, sent expeditions to the south and west, consolidating a network of castles that included Leiria, Rabaçal, Alvorge and Ansião. During the 12th century, Afonso Henriques administered an area of fertile lands with river access and protected by a fortified city, whose population exceeded 6000 inhabitants, including magnates and high clergy.
The young Infante encouraged the construction of his seat, funding the Santa Cruz Monastery, promoted the construction of the Old Cathedral, reconstructed the original Roman bridge in 1132, repaired and renovated fountains, kilns and stone pavements, as well as the walls of the old city. In order to confirm and reinforce the power of the concelho he conceded a formal foral in 1179. In the Middle Ages, Coimbra was divided into an upper city, where the aristocracy and the clergy lived, the merchant and labour centres in the lower city by the Mondego River, in addition to the old and new Jewish quarters; the city was encircled by a fortified wall, of which some remnants are still visible like the Almedina Gate. Meanwhile, on the periphery, the mu