England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
President of Mexico
The President of Mexico known as the President of the United Mexican States, is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces; the current President is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on December 1, 2018. The office of the President is considered to be revolutionary, in that the powers of office are derived from the Revolutionary Constitution of 1917. Another legacy of the Revolution is its ban on re-election. Mexican presidents are limited to a single six-year term, called a sexenio. No one who has held the post on a caretaker basis, is allowed to run or serve again; the constitution and the office of the President follow the presidential system of government. Chapter III of Title III of the Constitution deals with the executive branch of government and sets forth the powers of the president, as well as the qualifications for the office, he is vested with the "supreme executive power of the Union".
To be eligible to serve as president, Article 82 of the Constitution specifies that the following requirements must be met: Be a natural-born citizen of Mexico able to exercise full citizenship rights, with at least one parent, a natural-born citizen of Mexico. Be a resident of Mexico for at least twenty years. Be thirty-five years of age or older at the time of the election. Be a resident of Mexico for the entire year prior to the election. Not be an official or minister of any church or religious denomination. Not be in active military service during the six months prior to the election. Not be a secretary of state or under-secretary of state, attorney general, governor of a State, or head of the government of Mexico City, unless "separated from the post" at least six months prior to the election. Not have been president even in a provisional capacity; the ban on any sort of presidential re-election dates back to the aftermath of the Porfiriato and the end of the Mexican Revolution. It is so entrenched in Mexican politics that it has remained in place as it was relaxed for other offices.
In 2014, the constitution was amended to allow Deputies and Senators to run for a second consecutive term. Deputies and Senators were barred from successive re-election. However, the president remained barred from re-election if it is nonsuccessive; the presidential term was set at four years from 1821 until 1904, when President Porfirio Díaz extended it to six years for the first time in Mexico's history, again from 1917 to 1928 after a new constitution reversed the change made by Diaz in 1904. The presidential term was set at six years in 1928 and has remained unchanged since then; the president is elected by direct, universal suffrage. Whoever wins a simple plurality of the national vote is elected. Former President Felipe Calderón won with 36.38% of the votes in the 2006 general election, finishing only 0.56 percent above his nearest rival, Andrés Manuel López Obrador. Former President Vicente Fox was elected with a plurality of 43% of the popular vote, Ernesto Zedillo won 48% of the vote, his predecessor Carlos Salinas won with a majority of 50%.
The most recent former president, Enrique Peña Nieto won 38% of the popular vote. The current President, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, was elected in 2018 with a modern-era record of 53% share of the popular vote; the history of Mexico has not been a peaceful one. After the fall of dictator Porfirio Díaz in 1910 because of the Mexican Revolution, there was no stable government until 1929, when all the revolutionary leaders united in one political party: the National Revolutionary Party, which changed its name to the Party of the Mexican Revolution, is now the Institutional Revolutionary Party. From until 1988, the PRI ruled Mexico as a virtual one-party state. Toward the end of his term, the incumbent president in consultation with party leaders, selected the PRI's candidate in the next election in a procedure known as "the tap of the finger"; until 1988, the PRI's candidate was assured of election, winning by margins well over 70 percent of the vote—results that were obtained by massive electoral fraud.
In 1988, the PRI ruptured and the dissidents formed the National Democratic Front with rival center-left parties. Discontent with the PRI, the popularity of the Front's candidate Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas led to worries that PRI candidate Carlos Salinas de Gortari would not come close to a majority, might be defeated. While the votes were being counted, the tabulation system mysteriously shut down; the government declared Salinas the winner, leading to stronger than allegations of electoral fraud. The PRI enacted a strict internal discipline and government presence in the country, electoral fraud became common. After the country regained its peace, this pattern of fraud continued, with the opposition losing every election until the part of the 20th century; the first presidential election broadly considered legitimate was the one held in 1994, when the PRI's Ernesto Zedillo took office, in his term several reforms were enacted to ensure fairness and transparency in elections. As a consequence of these reforms, the 1997 federal congressional election saw the first opposition Chamber of Deputies and the 2000 elections saw Vicente Fox of a P
Governor of Quintana Roo
Governors of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo since statehood in 1975: Governors of the Free and Sovereign State of Quintana RooNote: In 2001 Mario E. Villanueva was sentenced to prison due to corruption involving Mexican drug war during his time as governor, the length of his sentence has been extended multiple times as more of his past crimes emerged after his capture. Note: In June 5, 2017, he was the third ex-governor from the PRI, to be sentenced in 2017 following the captures of Tomas Yarrington and Javier Duarte. Pre-statehood Political Chiefs of the Federal Territory of Quintana Roo1902 – 1903: José María de la Vega 1903 – 1911: Ignacio A. Bravo 1911 – 1912: Manuel Sánchez Rivera 1912: Rafael Egealiz 1912 – 1913: Alfredo Cámara Vales 1913: Isidro Escobar Garrido 1913: Alfonso Carrera Carbó 1913: Víctor M. Morón 1913: Arturo Garcilazo Juárez 1913 – 1915: Annexed to Yucatán 1915 – 1916: Carlos Plank 1916 – 1917: Carlos A. VidalGovernors of the Federal Territory of Quintana Roo1917 – 1918: Carlos A. Vidal 1918 – 1921: Octaviano Solís Aguirre 1921: Pascual Coral Heredia 1921 – 1923: Librado Abitia 1923: Camilo E. Félix 1923 – 1924: Anastasio Rojas 1924: Librado Abitia 1924 – 1925: Enrique Barocio Barrios 1925: Amado Aguirre Santiago 1925: Enrique Barocio Barrios 1925 – 1926: Candelario Garza 1926: Malrubio de la Chapa 1926 – 1927: Antonio Ancona Albertos 1927 – 1930: José Siurob 1930 – 1931: Arturo Campillo Seyde 1931: J. Félix Bañuelos 1931 – 1935: Annexed to Yucatán and Campeche 1935 – 1940: Rafael E. Melgar 1940 – 1944: Gabriel R. Guevara 1944 – 1959: Margarito Ramírez 1959 – 1964: Aarón Merino Fernández 1965 – 1967: Rufo Figueroa Figueroa 1967 – 1970: Javier Rojo Gómez 1971 – 1974: David Gustavo Gutiérrez List of Mexican state governors Quintana Roo Territory
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Cuba the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet, it is east of the Yucatán Peninsula, south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is capital; the area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres. The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres, the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants; the territory, now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century. From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902.
As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba; the country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of few Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, it is a multiethnic country whose people and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country is a middle power in world affairs, it has one of the world's only planned economies, its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world, it ranks in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF. Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation unknown"; the exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as'where fertile land is abundant', or'great place'. Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Taíno, the Guanahatabey and the Ciboney people; the ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP. The Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D; when Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as hunter-gatherers. After first landing on an island called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492. Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital.
The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe. Within a century the indigenous people were wiped out due to multiple factors Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance, aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had survived smallpox. On 18 May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure and power. On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba, he arrived in Santiago, Cuba on 4 November 1549 and declared the liberty of all natives. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, he built Havana's first church made of maso
Chamber of Deputies (Mexico)
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico. The other chamber is the Senate; the structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the current constitution. The Chamber of Deputies is composed of one federal representative for every 200,000 citizens; the Chamber has 500 members, elected using the parallel voting system. Of these, 300 "majority deputies" are directly elected by plurality from single-member districts, the federal electoral districts; the remaining 200 "party deputies" are assigned through rules of proportional representation. These seats are not tied to districts; the 200 party deputies are intended to counterbalance the sectional interests of the district-based representatives. Substitutes are elected at the same time as each deputy, so special elections are rare. From 1917 to 2015, deputies were barred from serving consecutive terms in accordance with the Constitution's ban on immediate re-election to the legislature.
Thus, the Chamber of Deputies was one of the few legislative bodies in the world, renewed at an election. However, this will change at the 2018 elections. Congressional elections held halfway into the president's six-year mandate are known as mid-term elections. After being drafted, one copy of the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire was given to the Provisional Governmental Board, put on display in the Chamber of Deputies until 1909, when fire destroyed the location. President of the Chamber of Deputies Directive Board Congress of Mexico Senate of Mexico Politics of Mexico Official website
The Ibero-American University is one of the most prestigious universities in Mexico and in Latin America. The private institution of higher education is sponsored by the Society of Jesus, it is recognized as having an international-grade level of excellence. In 2009, the UIA received the SEP-ANUIES Prize as the best private university in Mexico; the Ibero's flagship campus is located in the Santa Fe district of Mexico City. Its main library, Biblioteca Francisco Xavier Clavigero, holds more than 400,000 books and journals and as of 2007 is one of the largest university libraries in the country.. It has one of the largest law libraries in Mexico. Other institutions affiliated with, but independent from, Ibero in Mexico City are found in Guadalajara, León, Torreón, Playas de Tijuana, Jaltepec. Together, they form a network of Jesuit-run private universities; the university was founded in 1943 as a Jesuit institution by the Catholic hierarchy, but with significant aid of the rector of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Rodolfo Brito Foucher.
Brito Foucher, a lawyer and head of UNAM's law faculty before becoming rector, was of the opinion that this was not counter to the Constitution of 1917's prohibition of Catholic involvement in education, since the article did not specify higher education but only primary and secondary. A key group in the founding of Ibero was former student activists from the Jesuit-directed Unión Nacional de Estudiantes Católicos; the founding came at a time when church-state relations in Mexico had improved over the late 1920s during the Cristero War and the 1930s when the government attempted to implement education toward socialism in the Mexican universities. Called Centro Cultural Universitario, after ten years the Ibero grew into a full-scale university due to the patronage of the business community which donated funds for building the campus and for guaranteeing loans as the university was being established; when the Mexican economy expanded during the 1940s to 1960s, Ibero-trained professionals who entered the private sector, many of the former leaders of the UNEC served on the university's board of trustees.
Ibero had the aim of promoting Catholic culture and of training elites to take leading roles in Mexican society. Ibero has trained a number of successful businessmen and politicians, including the successful presidential candidate of the National Action Party, Vicente Fox; the Society of Jesus has from its start in the 16th century been a leader in humanistic education. When Jesuits reached New Spain in 1572, their religious and educational zeal led them to create renowned teaching and research centers – such as the colleges of St. Ildefonso, St. Peter and St. Paul, to mention a few of the prestigious institutions of that time; the Ibero is part of a network of 8 Jesuit universities located in various Mexican cities which, in turn, are part of 31 Jesuit universities and colleges in Latin American and some 200 worldwide. Universidad Iberoamericana moved to its modern 48-acre campus in 1988, in the Santa Fe area of Mexico City. Besides classrooms and workshops in physics, photography, engineering, architecture and nutrition, the university houses the Francisco Xavier Clavigero library, the FM 90.9 radio station, several auditoriums.
Other facilities on campus include sports fields and related conveniences, a medical center, three cafeterias, an on-campus bookstore, a stationery shop, bank branches, other university stores. Ibero-American University Tijuana in Playas de Tijuana, Mexico, was founded by the Jesuits in 1982, it is a part of the Mexican Jesuit University System. As one of the Universidad Iberoamericana Ciudad de México colleges. In 1982, Universidad Iberoamericana opened its campus in Tijuana at two sites, one rented and the other on the premises of Peace College. Space was rented in the Civil Hospital building. At first only high school studies and degrees in Architecture, Graphic Design, Law were offered. In 1985 the cornerstone was laid for the present building. Today the university's Mexico City Campus is made up of 19 academic departments, which offer a total of 36 academic programs. Luis E. Miramontes – Chemist, inventor of the first oral contraceptive. Guillermo Arriaga – Screenwriter of Amores perros, Babel, 21 Grams and other films.
Oscar Nominee. José Miguel Insulza – Chilean politician and Secretary General of the Organization of American States. Jorge González Torres – Founder of the Ecologist Green Party of Mexico Demetrio Sodi – Former congressman and senator. Rosario Green – Former Foreign Affairs Minister. Loretta Ortíz Ahlf. Rodolfo Barragán Schwarz – Architect Isaac Broid Zajman – Architect. Enrique Carral Icaza – Architect. Juan José Díaz Infante Núñez – Architect. Carlos Mijares Bracho – Architect. J. Francisco Serrano Cacho – Architect Sylvia Schmelkes – Sociologist and education researcher Leonardo Javier Torres Nafarrate.