Sumidouro State Park
The Sumidouro State Park is a state park in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The remains of the first human inhabitants of Brazil were found in the park area in the early 19th century, along with bones of now-extinct megafauna; the main attraction is a large limestone cave. The Sumidouro State Park is in the municipalities of Lagoa Santa and Pedro Leopoldo to the north of the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, it is 50 kilometres from Belo Horizonte. The park is in the federal Carste de Lagoa Santa Environmental Protection Area, it has an area of 2,004 hectares. The unit was named after Sumidouro; the lagoon is drained by a network of galleries through which the water penetrates underground into the limestone basin. The Danish naturalist Peter Wilhelm Lund conducted research in the area now covered by the park in the first half of the 19th century, he found remains of the first inhabitants of Brazil, along with extinct megafauna. This coexistence of man with extinct species was quoted by Charles Darwin in On the Origin of Species.
The skeleton of "Luzia" found in Lagoa Santa in the 1970s was dated to 11,500 years ago, changing views of when the continent had been occupied. There are traces of stone age people who lived outside the caves in what may be the oldest open-air site of paleoindians; the Sumidouro State Park was created by state governor Francelino Pereira by decree 20.375 of 3 January 1980. It was called the Ecological Park of the Sumidouro Valley. Little was done to implement the park until 2006, when environmental compensation funding became available from the green line between Belo Horizonte and the Tancredo Neves International Airport in Confins. In October 2007 it was reported that the Sumidouro State Park was in the final stages of implementation, since August 2007 had a temporary headquarters at the Casa Fernão Dias; the State Forest Institute was to acquire 350 hectares by the end of the year and start construction of a visitor center, house for the manager and administrative structure, the goal was to complete implementation by the end of 2008.
The IEF was registering owners living in the park and checking their documentation so that compensation for expropriation could be calculated. The consultative council held its first meeting in October 2007 after an inauguration ceremony in the Gruta da Lapinha attended by councilors and representatives of the local community. Decree 44.935 of 3 November 2008 expanded the area of the park. Law 19.998 of 29 December 2011 defined the boundaries. It is a protected conservation unit with the objectives of promoting preservation of the environment and cultural heritage, while supporting research, environmental education and tourism. A study published in 2013 indicated that the local people were dissatisfied with the way the park was being managed. Residents said they had not been consulted in the park creation process, did not see the need for so many rules, if they had more information could help maintain the natural heritage while enjoying it as in the past; the park is in an area of carbonate rock formations, with springs, sink holes and caves rich in speleothems.
The climate is tropical humid, with rainy summers when there are periods of flooding and dry winters. The flora includes species from the Atlantic Forest biomes. Vegetation includes gallery forest and rocky meadows. Flora include ipê-amarelo, ipê-roxo, aroeirinha, jatobá-do-campo, manjoba and faveiro; the park is in the transition zone from cerrado to Atlantic Forest, has dry forest. Trees with heights of 5 to 8 metres predominate in the cerrado, in the northeast and east regions of the Sumidouro lagoon; these include pequi, pau-terra, cagaita and sucupira. Deciduous trees predominate in limestone areas; these include aroeira, angico, catiguá, embiruçu, paineira and maria-pobre. There are species typical of the caatinga such as cactos mandacaru and figo-da-barbária, shrubs such as pimentinha-do-mato. Around the Gruta da Lapinha the predominant trees are semi-deciduous, losing about half their leaves in the dry season, growing to 15 to 20 metres; these include angico-branco, jequitibá-branco and paineira.
The original forest has been damaged by man, causing impoverishment of the soil and invasion of cerrado species. The park's management plan includes restoration of some of the areas. There 13 species of mammals including 13 species of bats. There is a large bat population due to the many caves in the park area. Fauna include jaguar, gray brocket, coatis, crab-eating fox, black-tufted marmoset, gray four-eyed opossum, Brazilian squirrel, South American water rat, capybara pacas, common agoutis, Brazilian guinea pig and tapeti. Amphibians include pererequinha-de-banheiro, rãzinha, rã-cachorro, rã-manteiga, rã-assobiadeira, sapo-cururu, sapo-cururuzinho and sapo-bororó.132 species of birds have been recorded. These include pied-billed grebe, Neotropic cormorant, snowy egret, black-bellied whistling duck, southern lapwing, whistling heron, black-necked stilt and osprey (Pandion haliaetus
Fernão Dias Pais or Fernão Dias Pais Leme was a frontiersman from São Paulo. He was known as the "Emerald Hunter" and was one of the most prominent bandeirantes together with Antônio Raposo Tavares, he is the great-great-grandfather of the Saint Frei Galvão. The Casa Fernão Dias, run by the Sumidouro State Park, is in the Quinta do Sumidouro district of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, it is listed by the State Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage as a cultural heritage monument. The exhibits tell the history of Fernão Dias, who spent several years in the region with his followers in search of gold and precious stones
Bom Despacho, Minas Gerais
Bom Despacho is a Brazilian municipality located in the west of the state of Minas Gerais. The population is 49,236 in an area of 1213.55 km². The city belongs to the micro-region of Bom Despacho, it became a municipality in 1912. Bom Despacho is a statistical micro-region which includes 12 municipalities: Araújos, Bom Despacho, Dores do Indaiá, Estrela do Indaiá, Japaraíba, Lagoa da Prata, Leandro Ferreira, Martinho Campos, Quartel Geral, Serra da Saudade. In 2000 the area of this region was 7,515.50 km² and the population was 146,156 inhabitants. The city center of Bom Despahco is located at an elevation of 768 meters just off the major federal highway BR-262, which links Belo Horizonte to Uberaba. State highway MG-164 leads to Martinho Campos in the north; the São Francisco River forms the western municipal boundary. Neighboring municipalities are: Martinho Campos, Leandro Ferreira, Araújos and Luz, Dores do Indaiá. Distances to other cities Belo Horizonte/MG - 141 km Brasília/DF - 730 km Rio de Janeiro/RJ - 576 km São Paulo/SP - 580 km Martinho Campos/MG - 50 km Araújos/MG - 19 km Luz/MG - 49 km Moema/MG - 23 km Services, light industry, agriculture are the most important economic activities.
The GDP in 2005 was R$393 million, R$41 million from taxes, 223 million reais from services, 77 million reais from industry, 51 million reais from agriculture. There were 560 rural producers on 63,000 hectares of land. 179 farms had tractors. 2,000 persons were involved in agriculture. The main crops are watermelon, rice and corn. There were 78,000 head of cattle. Poultry raising was substantial with over one million head in 2006. There were 5 banks; the motor vehicle fleet had 8,354 automobiles, 1,049 pickup trucks, 2,520 motorcycles. The ratio of inhabitant per motor vehicle was 2/1. Working population by sector Transformation industries: 1,929 workers Commerce: 3,430 workers Lodging and restaurants: 302 workers Transport, communications: 450 workers Public administration: 1,000 workers Health and social services: 332 workers In the health sector there were 12 public health clinics and 2 private hospitals with 96 beds. Patients with more serious health conditions are transported to Belo Horizonte.
Educational needs of 9,700 students were met by 20 primary schools, 6 middle schools, 18 pre-primary schools. Municipal Human Development Index: 0.799 State ranking: 42 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000 National ranking: 584 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000 Literacy rate: 90% Life expectancy: 72 In 2000 the per capita monthly income of R$307.00 was above the state and national average of R$276.00 and R$297.00 respectively. Poços de Caldas had the highest per capita monthly income in 2000 with R$435.00. The lowest was Setubinha with R$73.00. The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568. Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha. In more recent statistics Manari in the state of Pernambuco has the lowest rating in the country—0,467—putting it in last place; the city of Bom Despacho has seen a significant influx of German settlers in the 1920s, their tradition has vanished and their history is forgotten.
Due to the efforts of the Brazilian politician Faustino Assunção the city of Bom Despacho was chosen to participate in the settlement program initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture during the Bernardes government. The aim of this program was to attract European settlers to cultivate the soil surrounding Bom Despacho. For this purpose, the city provided two large areas of farmland in the direct vicinity of Bom Despacho which were named after Brazilian politicians, Colônia David Campista and Colônia Álvaro da Silveira. At the beginning of the 1920s settlers from various European countries arrived in several waves. Most of them were from Germany as the country was in political and economical turmoil after the defeat in World War 1; the new settlers received agricultural plots, houses and seeds on a credit basis which they had to pay off from the proceeds of their crop. The German embassy established and operated a German school on Colonia David Campista; the school served the families of a known total of at least 54 families.
However, the German immigrants on these two settlements dispersed within the next two decades. Unfrugal soil and tropical diseases let many settlers to abandon their lot and seek work in the big cities, such as Belo Horzionte; some German families returned to Germany. When Brazil joined World War 2 on the side of the Allies in 1942, the German school was closed and it was forbidden to speak German; as a result, many more settlers left their plots. Today, there are only few descendants of the original German settlers still living on Colonia David Campista and on Colonia Alvaro Da Silveira. However, some of them still speak German; the cemetery belonging to the two farmlands is called German cemetery by the locals. Its official inscription on the gate reads Imigrantes da Colonia. List of municipalities in Minas Gerais Colônia Álvaro da Silveira Colônia David Campista 5. Information pertaining German immigration to Bom Despacho, in Portuguese http://www.bomdespachomg.com.br/colonia_alemaes.php
Mediumship is the practice of purportedly mediating communication between spirits of the dead and living human beings. Practitioners are known as "mediums." There are different types including spirit channeling and ouija. Humans have been fascinated with contacting the dead since the beginning of human existence. Cave paintings by indigenous Australians date back 28,000 years, some depicting skulls, bones and the afterlife. Other cave paintings in Indonesia date back a further 10,000 years. Mediumship gained popularity during the nineteenth century, when ouija boards were used by the upper classes as a source of entertainment. Investigations during this period revealed widespread fraud—with some practitioners employing techniques used by stage magicians—and the practice began to lose credibility. Fraud is still rife in the medium/psychic industry, with cases of deception and trickery being discovered to this day. Scientific researchers have attempted to ascertain the validity of claims of mediumship.
An experiment undertaken by the British Psychological Society led to the conclusion that the test subjects demonstrated no mediumistic ability. Several different variants of mediumship exist. Other forms involve materializations of the spirit or the presence of a voice, telekinetic activity; the practice is associated with several religious-belief systems such as Vodun, Spiritism, Candomblé, Voodoo and some New Age groups. In Spiritism and Spiritualism the medium has the role of an intermediary between the world of the living and the world of spirit. Mediums claim that they can listen to and relay messages from spirits, or that they can allow a spirit to control their body and speak through it directly or by using automatic writing or drawing. Spiritualists classify types of mediumship into two main categories: "mental" and "physical": Mental mediums purportedly "tune in" to the spirit world by listening, sensing, or seeing spirits or symbols. Physical mediums are believed to produce materialization of spirits, apports of objects, other effects such as knocking, bell-ringing, etc. by using "ectoplasm" created from the cells of their bodies and those of séance attendees.
During seances, mediums are said to go into trances, varying from light to deep, that permit spirits to control their minds. Channeling can be seen as the modern form of the old mediumship, where the "channel" purportedly receives messages from "teaching-spirit", an "Ascended master", from God, or from an angelic entity, but through the filter of his own waking consciousness. Attempts to communicate with the dead and other living human beings, aka spirits, have been documented back to early human history; the story of the Witch of Endor tells of one who raised the spirit of the deceased prophet Samuel to allow the Hebrew king Saul to question his former mentor about an upcoming battle, as related in the Books of Samuel in the Jewish Tanakh. Mediumship became quite popular in the 19th-century United States and the United Kingdom after the rise of Spiritualism as a religious movement. Modern Spiritualism is said to date from practices and lectures of the Fox sisters in New York State in 1848.
The trance mediums Paschal Beverly Randolph and Emma Hardinge Britten were among the most celebrated lecturers and authors on the subject in the mid-19th century. Allan Kardec coined the term Spiritism around 1860. Kardec claimed that conversations with spirits by selected mediums were the basis of his The Spirits' Book and his five-book collection, Spiritist Codification; some scientists of the period who investigated spiritualism became converts. They included chemist Robert Hare, physicist William Crookes and evolutionary biologist Alfred Russel Wallace. Nobel laureate Pierre Curie took a serious scientific interest in the work of medium Eusapia Palladino. Other prominent adherents included journalist and pacifist William T. Stead and physician and author Arthur Conan Doyle. After the exposure of the fraudulent use of stage magic tricks by physical mediums such as the Davenport Brothers and the Bangs Sisters, mediumship fell into disrepute. However, the religion and its beliefs continue in spite of this, with physical mediumship and seances falling out of practice and platform mediumship coming to the fore.
In the late 1920s and early 1930s there were around one quarter of a million practising Spiritualists and some two thousand Spiritualist societies in the UK in addition to flourishing microcultures of platform mediumship and'home circles'. Spiritualism continues to be practiced through various denominational spiritualist churches in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, over 340 spiritualist churches and centres open their doors to the public and free demonstrations of mediumship are performed. In 1958, the English-born Spiritualist C. Dorreen Phillips wrote of her experiences with a medium at Camp Chesterfield, Indiana: "In Rev. James Laughton's séances there are many Indians, they are noisy and appear to have great power. The little guides, or doorkeepers, are Indian boys and girls as messengers who help to locate the spirit friends who wish to speak with you." A spirit who uses a medium to manipulate psychic "energy" or "energy systems." In old-line Spiritualism, a portion of the services toward the end, is given over to demonstrations of mediumship throu
Barroso, Minas Gerais
Barroso is a Brazilian municipality located in the south of the state of Minas Gerais. Its population as of 2007 was 19,353 people living in an area of 83 km²; the elevation is 920 meters. The city belongs to the microregion of Barbacena. An important regional center, Barbacena, is located 27 km to the east and is connected by MG-265. List of municipalities in Minas Gerais
Chico Xavier or Francisco Cândido Xavier, born Francisco de Paula Cândido, was a popular philanthropist and medium in Spiritism. During a period of 60 years he wrote over 490 books and several thousand letters claiming to use a process known as "psychography and after his death many dozens of books were issued based on old letters and manuscripts which became public bringing the total number of books up to 496"; the books written by Chico covered a vast range of topics from religion, historical romances and novels, Portuguese Literature and science, as well as thousands of letters intended to inform and uplift the families of deceased persons during his psychographic sessions. His books sold an estimated 50 million copies and the revenue generated by it was channeled into charity work. Xavier was born in the city of Pedro Leopoldo, State of Minas Gerais and is popularly known as "Chico Xavier". Xavier called his spiritual guide Emmanuel, who according to Xavier, lived in ancient Rome as Senator Publius Lentulus, was reincarnated in Spain as Father Damien, as a professor at the Sorbonne.
Xavier claimed he was a channel for the work of the spirits and that he was not able to produce any miracle such as healing people. He mentioned he could not contact a deceased person unless the spirit was willing to be contacted, his appearances on TV talk shows in the late 1960s and early 1970s helped to establish Spiritism Doctrine as one of the major philosophies professed in Brazil with more than 5 million followers. Xavier's popularity remained unchanged in Brazil throughout his life. Despite his health problems he kept working up on June 30, 2002 in Uberaba. In 2010, a movie biography entitled Chico Xavier was released in Brazil. Directed by Daniel Filho, the film dramatized Xavier's life. On October 3, 2012, the SBT television TV show O Maior Brasileiro de Todos os Tempos named Chico Xavier "The Greatest Brazilian of all time", based on a viewer-supported survey, he was the son of João Cândido Xavier, a lottery ticket vendor, Maria João de Deus, a Catholic housewife. According to biographers, his mediunity first appeared.
His father was talking to a lady about pregnancy and he began stating facts about sciences. He claimed he could see spirits, his mother died. He claimed to talk with his mother's spirit for some years. People thought. Francisco's father got married again, Cidália Batista the second wife, demanded that the father should gather the nine children once for all. Francisco was seven years old; the couple had six more children. Francisco was enrolled in a public school. Within this period, the spirit of his mother stopped making contact with him. Francisco, started to work young in order to help with the expenses at home, he would sell vegetables produced at home. At school, as well as in church, Francisco's claimed paranormal power would put him into trouble. Once, while in his fourth year of primary school, he claimed to have seen a man who had dictated all his school essays, but no one seemed to have given him any credits. One of his memorial school compositions on the centenary of the independence of Brazil won an honorable mention in a state contest.
In 1922 he faced skepticism from colleagues and friends, who accused him of plagiarism, such accusation lasted all his life. Challenged to prove his gifts, Francisco was submitted to the challenge of improvising an essay about sand grain, the topic was chosen at that moment, in which, he succeeded. Cidália, his step mother, asked Francisco to ask the spirit of his late mother about how to prevent the neighbor from stealing her vegetables, the spirit said. Scared about the mediunity of the young boy, his father decides to hospitalize him. Father Scarzelli. Scarzelli advised the family to restrict his reading and put him to work. In 1924, he never went back to school, he was hired as a sales clerk working extended hours. Although his catholic devotion and uncountable penances, apart from all restrictions imposed by the priest he confessed with. In May 1927 his sister, Maria Xavier, was having mental disturbances, which many believed was caused by spiritual sources known as obsession; this episode allowed Francisco to support his sister with his mediumship capacities and introduced him to the Spiritism Doctrine as well.
He received a new message from his mother in which she recommended him to accomplish all his duties and study the books of Allan Kardec. In July, under the guidance of a so-called "benevolent spirit", he started to psychograph, writing seventeen pages. Xavier would claim that several deceased Poets had begun to manifest themselves through him, but they only started to identify them
Tiradentes, Minas Gerais
Tiradentes is a municipality in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. It is located at 21°06′37″S 44°12′41″W, has an area of 83.5 km², a maximum elevation above sea level of 927 m. Tiradentes had an estimated population of 6,364, as of 2004; the original village was established in 1702 and became a city on 19 January 1718. In 1889 the city was renamed from São José del Rey in honour of the national hero, born nearby, it has been acclaimed as an unspoiled example of Portuguese colonial architecture. A section of the Estrada de Ferro Oeste de Minas narrow gauge railway from São João del Rei to Tiradentes has been preserved as a tourist line