Second Triumvirate (Argentina)
The Second Triumvirate was the governing body of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata that followed the First Triumvirate in 1812, shortly after the May Revolution, lasted 2 years. The second triumvirate is the result of the Revolution of October 8, 1812, when the generals José de San Martín and Carlos María de Alvear joined forces with former supporters of Mariano Moreno and deposed the First Triumvirate; when the members of the First Triumvirate were deposed, the Cabildo appointed new ones. Nicolás Rodríguez Peña was appointed by 172 votes against 12, Antonio Álvarez Jonte by 147 against 35, Juan José Paso by 96 against 87; the new triumvirate called the Assembly of Year XIII, a popular request that the First Triumvirate avoided to follow. The Triumvirate started its functions on October 8, 1812; the second triumvirate took measures against the members of the former ones. Pueyrredón was vanished to San Luis, Rivadavia was imprisoned and trialed. Chiclana was trialed, but found innocent, appointed as governor of Salta.
Sarratea, under protection of the British diplomacy, did not face any reprisals. The main actions of the Triumvirate were: Established a commission on December 4, 1812 for the creation of the Constitution of Argentina Called for the Asamblea del Año XIII on January 31, 1813. Disposed the creation of the Province of Cuyo on November 14, 1813; as the 1813 Assembly decided to replace the Triumvirate for a unipersonal Supreme Directorship, it ceased its functions on January 22, 1814, Gervasio Antonio de Posadas assumed as the first Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. One year on January 31, 1815, he was to be replaced in office by his nephew Carlos María de Alvear, who counted on the support of the powerful Logia Lautaro. Segreti, Carlos. La aurora de la Independencia. Memorial de la Patria. Tomo II. Buenos Aires: Editorial La Bastilla. Ternavasio, Marcela. Gobernar la Revolución. Buenos Aires: Editorial Siglo Veintiuno. Galasso, Norberto. Seamos Libres y lo demás no importa nada.
Buenos Aires: Colihue. ISBN 978-950-581-779-5
A military is a heavily-armed, highly-organised force intended for warfare known collectively as armed forces. It is officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform, it may consist of one or more military branches such as an Army, Air Force and in certain countries and Coast Guard. The main task of the military is defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats. Beyond warfare, the military may be employed in additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within the state, including internal security threats, population control, the promotion of a political agenda, emergency services and reconstruction, protecting corporate economic interests, social ceremonies and national honor guards. A nation's military may function as a discrete social subculture, with dedicated infrastructure such as military housing, utilities, hospitals, legal services, food production and banking services.
In broad usage, the terms "armed forces" and "military" are treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. There are various forms of irregular military forces; the profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself. Some of the most enduring images of classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders; the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramses II's reign, his monuments commemorate it in bas-relief. A thousand years the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he had himself buried with an army of terracotta soldiers; the Romans paid considerable attention to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings on the subject, as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and victory columns.
Issue: Possibly cognate with Thousand, cf. Latin and Romance language root word "mil-")The first recorded use of the word military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1582, it comes from the Latin militaris through French, but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- – going in a body or mass. The word is now identified as denoting someone, skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service, or in warfare; as a noun, the military refers to a country's armed forces, or sometimes, more to the senior officers who command them. In general, it refers to the physicality of armed forces, their personnel and the physical area which they occupy; as an adjective, military referred only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general, anything to do with their profession. The names of both the Royal Military Academy and United States Military Academy reflect this. However, at about the time of the Napoleonic Wars,'military' began to be used in reference to armed forces as a whole, in the 21st century expressions like'military service','military intelligence', and'military history' encompass naval and air force aspects.
As such, it now connotes any activity performed by armed force personnel. Military history is considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of the state militaries, it differs somewhat from the history of war, with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making, while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology and geography. Military history has a number of facets. One main facet is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes, so as to more wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of military tradition, used to create cohesive military forces. Still, another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively. Human knowledge about the military is based on both recorded and oral history of military conflicts, their participating armies and navies and, more air forces. There are two types of military history, although all texts have elements of both: descriptive history, that serves to chronicle conflicts without offering any statements about the causes, nature of conduct, the ending, effects of a conflict.
Despite the growing importance of military technology, military activity depends above all on people. For example, in 2000 the British Army declared: "Man is still the first weapon of war." The military organization is characterized by a strict hierarchy divided by military rank, with ranks grouped as officers, non-commissioned officers, personnel at the lowest rank. While senior officers make strategic decisions, subordinated military personnel fulfil them. Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. In addition to their rank, personnel occupy one of many trade roles, which are grouped according to
Bernardino de la Trinidad González Rivadavia y Rivadavia was the first President of Argentina called the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, from February 8, 1826 to June 27, 1827. He was left without finishing his studies. During the British Invasions he served as Third Lieutenant of the Galicia Volunteers, he participated in the open Cabildo on May 1810 voting for the deposition of the viceroy. He had a strong influence on the First Triumvirate and shortly after he served as Minister of Government and Foreign Affairs of the Province of Buenos Aires. Although there was a General Congress intended to draft a constitution, the beginning of the War with Brazil led to the immediate establishment of the office of President of Argentina. Argentina's Constitution of 1826 was promulgated but was rejected by the provinces. Contested by his political party, Rivadavia resigned and was succeeded by Vicente López y Planes. Rivadavia retired to Spain, where he died in 1845, his remains were repatriated to Argentina in 1857.
Today his remains rest in a mausoleum located in Plaza Miserere, adjacent to Rivadavia Avenue, named after him. Rivadavia was born in Buenos Aires on May 20, 1780, the fourth son of Benito Bernardino González de Rivadavia, a wealthy Spanish lawyer, his first wife María Josefa de Jesús Rodríguez de Rivadeneyra. On December 14, 1809, he married Juana del Pino y Vera Mujica, daughter of the viceroy of the Río de la Plata, Joaquín del Pino and his second wife, the vicereine Rafaela Francisca de Vera Mujica y López Pintado, his military appointment was rejected by Mariano Moreno. Rivadavia was active in both the Argentine resistance to the British invasion of 1806 and in the May Revolution movement for Argentine Independence in 1810. In 1811, Rivadavia became the dominant member of the governing triumvirate as Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of War; until its fall in October 1812, this government focused on creating a strong central government, moderating relations with Spain, organizing an army.
By 1814 the Spanish King Ferdinand VII had returned to the throne and started the Absolutist Restoration, which had grave consequences for the governments in the Americas. Manuel Belgrano and Rivadavia were sent to Europe to seek support for the United Provinces from both Spain and Britain, they sought to promote the crowning of Francisco de Paula, son of Charles IV of Spain, as regent of the United Provinces, but in the end he refused to act against the interests of the King of Spain. The diplomatic mission was a failure, both in Britain, he visited France as well, returned to Buenos Aires in 1821, at their friends' request. During his stay in Britain, Rivadavia saw the growing development of the Industrial Revolution, the rise of Romanticism, he sought to promote a similar development in Buenos Aires, invited many people to move to the city. He convinced Aimé Bonpland to visit the country. In June 1821, he was named minister of government to Buenos Aires by governor Martín Rodríguez. Over the next five years, he exerted a strong influence, focused on improving the city of Buenos Aires at the expense of greater Argentina.
To make the former look more European, Rivadavia constructed large avenues, schools and lighted streets. He founded the University of Buenos Aires, as well as the Theatre and Medicine Academies and the continent's first museum of natural science, he persuaded the legislature to authorize a one-million pound loan for public works that were never undertaken. The provincial bonds were sold in London through the Baring Brothers Bank and Buenos Aires-based British traders acting as financial intermediaries; the borrowed money was in turn lent to these businessmen. Of the original million pounds the Buenos Aires government received only £552,700; the province's foreign debt was transferred to the nation in 1825, its final repayment being made in 1904. A strong supporter of a powerful, centralized government in Argentina, Rivadavia faced violent resistance from the opposition federalists. In 1826, Rivadavia was elected the first President of Argentina. During his term he founded many museums, expanded the national library.
His government had many problems an ongoing war with Brazil over territory in modern Uruguay and resistance from provincial authorities. Faced with the rising power of the Federalist Party and with several provinces in open revolt, Rivadavia submitted his resignation on June 27, 1827, he was succeeded by Vicente López y Planes. At first he returned to private life, but fled to exile in Europe in 1829. Rivadavia returned to Argentina in 1834 to confront his political enemies, but was sentenced again to exile, he went first to Brazil and to Spain, where he died on September 2, 1845. He asked. Rivadavia is recognized as the first president of Argentina though his rule was accepted only in Buenos Aires, he did not complete a full mandate, there was no constitution for more than half of his rule, did not start a presidential succession line; the chair of the President of Argentina is known as the "chair of Rivadavia", but only metaphorically: Rivadavia took everything when he left office, including the chair, which could never be retrieved.
Liberal historians praise Rivadavia as a great historical man, for his work improving education and separation of church and state. Revisionist authors condemn his Anglophilia, the weak customs barriers that allowed the entry of big British imports, harming the weak Argent
Antonio González de Balcarce
Antonio González de Balcarce was an Argentine military commander in the early 19th century. González de Balcarce was born in Buenos Aires, he joined the armed forces as a cadet in 1788. In the battle for Montevideo in 1807, he was taken to England. After his release, he fought in the service of Spain during the Peninsular War against the Emperor Napoleon. Returning to Buenos Aires, he participated in the May Revolution in 1810. Subsequently, he was named second commander for the military campaign of the independentist forces in the Viceroyalty of Perú, where he won the Battle of Suipacha on November 7, 1810, the first victory over the Spanish royal forces, he was called back and became the Governor of Buenos Aires Province in 1813. In 1816, he served as the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata ad interim, became the Major General of the armed forces the following year under the government of Juan Martín de Pueyrredón. According to historian William Denslow, Antonio Balcarce was a member of the well-known masonic lodge Lautaro.
He took part of the crossing of the Andes to Chile and was San Martin's second-in-command during the battles of Cancha Rayada and Maipu. He fell ill in Chile and had to return to Buenos Aires, where he died in 1819
Juan José Viamonte
Juan José Viamonte González was an Argentine general in the early 19th century. Viamonte was born in Buenos Aires and entered the army in his youth following in his father's footsteps, he fought in the First British Invasion with the rank of lieutenant, after his participation in the Second Invasion, having distinguished himself in the defense of the Colegio de San Carlos, was promoted to captain. He took part on the Buenos Aires Cabildo of May 22, 1810 and after the revolution he fought at the battles of Suipacha and Huaqui. After this latter battle he was accused of not joining with the 1,500 men under his command, while he was doing military exercises nearby; this accusation led to a long court-martial which acquitted him and he remained in the army. In November 1814, when the civil war between Federales and Unitarians had started, he was named governor of Entre Ríos Province; the following year he took part in the revolution against Supreme Director Carlos María de Alvear, he was sent to Santa Fe Province to control the advance of the federalists.
The day after his arrival governor Francisco Candioti died, which gave Viamonte the opportunity to make the province depend again on Buenos Aires. The following year he was expelled in a rising organized by local caudillos Mariano Vera and Estanislao López, he was sent to be imprisoned at Artigas encampment. In May 1818 he was a deputy to the Congress of Tucumán, the following year he was named chief of the expeditionary army of Santa Fe, replacing Juan Ramón Balcarce. Estanislao López immobilized the army directed from Córdoba by Juan Bautista Bustos and captured Viamonte at Rosario, forcing him to sign the armistice of Santo Tomé, he was exiled to Montevideo after the Battle of Cepeda, but he returned a year in 1821 and was named governor of Buenos Aires Province due to the absence of Martín Rodríguez. He was a deputy to the General Congress of 1824 and he supported the unitarian constitution of 1826, but on he changed sides and joined Dorrego's Federal Party. After the failed unitarian experiment of Juan Lavalle, he was interim governor in 1829, a post in which he did nothing but ensure the ascent to power of Juan Manuel de Rosas.
In 1833, when governor Balcarce was deposed in the Revolution of the Restorers, he returned to the governorship but Rosas forced him to resign in June 1834, a resignation, not accepted as nobody wanted to take the post. In October the legislature reached a compromise and its president Manuel Vicente Maza, was forced to take the governorship. Viamonte was exiled in Montevideo in 1839 for the last time where he died in 1843, his remains were transported back to Buenos Aires, were interred in the La Recoleta Cemetery. List of heads of state of Argentina Biography and history of General Juan José Viamonte. Biography
For much of history, humans have used some form of cavalry for war and, as a result, cavalry tactics have evolved over time. Tactically, the main advantages of cavalry over infantry troops were greater mobility, a larger impact, a higher position. Chariot tactics had been the basis for using the horse in war; the chariot's advantage of speed was outdone by the agility of riding on horseback. The ability of horsemen to pass more difficult terrain was crucial to this change. Horsemen supplanted most light chariots. In Celtic warfare, light chariots persisted among mounted troops, for their ability to transport armoured warriors and as mobile command platforms. At first it was not considered effective to use weapons on horseback, but rather to use the horse as transport. "Mounted infantry" would ride to battle, dismount to fight. For a long time and charioteers worked alongside each other in the cavalry; the first recorded instance of mounted warriors are the mounted archers of the Iranian tribes appearing in Assyrian records from the 9th century BC.
Mongolian troops had a Buryat bow, for showering the enemy with arrows from a safe distance. The aim on horseback was better than in a jiggling chariot, after it was discovered that the best time to shoot was while all the hooves of the horse were in the air. An archer in a chariot could shoot stronger infantry bows. Javelins were employed as a powerful ranged weapon by many cavalries, they were easy to handle on horseback. Two to ten javelins would be carried, depending on their weight. Thrown javelins have less range than composite bows, but prevailed in use nevertheless. Due to the mass of the weapon, there was a greater armour-piercing ability, they thus caused fatal wounds more frequently. Usage is reported for both light and heavy cavalry, for example, by Numidia and the Mongol's light cavalry and the heavy cataphracts, Celtic cavalry and the Mamluks during the Crusades; the Celtic horsemen's training was copied by the Roman equites. A significant element learned from the Celts was turning on horseback to throw javelins backwards, similar to the Parthian shot in archery.
Stirrups and spurs improved the ability of riders to act fast and securely in melées and manoeuvres demanding agility of the horse, but their employment was not unquestioned. Modern historical reenactors have shown that neither the stirrup nor the saddle are necessary for the effective use of the couched lance, refuting a widely held belief. Free movement of the rider on horseback were esteemed for light cavalry to shoot and fight in all directions, contemporaries regarded stirrups and spurs as inhibiting for this purpose. Andalusian light cavalry refused to employ them until the 12th century, nor were they used by the Baltic turcopoles of the Teutonic Order in the battle of Legnica. An example of combined arms and the efficiency of cavalry forces were the Medieval Mongols. Important for their horse archery was the use of stirrups for the archer to stand while shooting; this new position enabled them to use stronger cavalry bows than the enemy. Armies of horse archers could cover enemy troops with arrows from a distance and never had to engage in close combat.
Slower enemies without effective long range weapons had no chance against them. It was in this manner that the cavalry of the Parthian Empire destroyed the troops of Crassus in the Battle of Carrhae. During their raids in Central and Western Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries, Magyar mounted archers spread terror in West Francia and East Francia; the Sassanid Persians and the Mamluks were the chief proponents of the idea, although Muslim cavalry in India had been known to use it in battle. It involved a line of well-armoured cavalrymen standing in a massed static line, or advancing in an ordered formation at the walk while loosing their arrows as as possible, it was effective against unsteady enemies who could be unnerved by the sight of a vast cloud of arrows raining down upon them. A case in point is Procopius's accounts of Belisarius's wars against the Sassanids where he states how the Byzantine cavalry engaged in massed archery duels against their Persian counterparts; the Persians loosed their arrows with far greater frequency, but as their bows were much weaker, they did not do much damage compared to the stronger Roman bows.
The great weakness of mounted archers was their need of their light equipment. If they were forced to fight in close combat against better armoured enemies, they lost. Furthermore, they were not suited for participating in sieges. For example, although victorious in the field the Mongols had been unable to take the fortified Chinese cities until they managed to capture and enlist the services of Islamic siege engineers; the Mongols subsequently failed to retake Hungary in 1280 after the Hungarians became more focused on Western European heavy cavalry and castle building. Good cavalry troops needed lots of training and good horses. Many peoples who engaged in this form of classical cavalry, such as the Hungarians and Mongols lived on horseback; the Battle of Dorylaeum during the First Crusade shows the advantages and disadvantages of mounted archers.