Guárico State is one of the 23 states of Venezuela. The state capital is San Juan de Los Morros. Guárico State covers a total surface area of 64,986 km2 and, in 2011, had a census population of 747,739, it is named for the Guárico River. During colonial Venezuela, the territory of Guárico State was part of the Venezuela Province; the province of Guárico was created as a province of Venezuela in 1848 by decree of President José Tadeo Monagas, following the Federal War, Guárico State was created as a state of Venezuela in 1864. In the late nineteenth century it was involved in a series of re-arrangements of Venezuelan states re-emerging as an independent state in 1899, its first capital was Calabozo, its second Ortiz, when the capital was moved to San Juan de los Morros. Camaguán Chaguaramas El Socorro Francisco de Miranda José Félix Ribas José Tadeo Monagas Juan Germán Roscio Julián Mellado Las Mercedes Leonardo Infante Ortiz Pedro Zaraza San Gerónimo de Guayabal San José de Guaribe Santa María de Ipire According to the 2011 Census, the racial composition of the population was: States of Venezuela John the Baptist Monument guarico.com.ve
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
El Nacional (Caracas)
El Nacional is a Venezuelan publishing company under the name C. A. Editorial El Nacional, most known for its El Nacional newspaper and website. It, along with Últimas Noticias and El Universal, are the most read and circulated daily national newspapers in the country, it has an average of more than 80,000 papers distributed daily and 170,000 copies on weekends, it has traditionally had a center-left ideology, but has moved to the center. The paper supported the candidacy of Hugo Chavez in 1998. Current editor and proprietor Miguel Henrique Otero founded the Movimiento 2D opposition movement, which supports the opposition electoral coalition Mesa de la Unidad Democrática. Since the increase of censorship in Venezuela during the presidencies of Hugo Chávez and Nicolás Maduro, El Nacional has been described as one of the last independent newspapers in Venezuela. El Nacional published its final print edition on 14 December 2018, joining in the dozens of anti-government newspapers in the nation that have stopped printing due to paper and toner shortages.
It will become an online newspaper after the date. El Nacional was founded in August 1943 in Caracas by Miguel Otero Silva and is directed by Chief Editorial Officer Miguel Henrique Otero, grandson of the founder, by Chief Executive Officer Manuel Sucre; the newspaper's first director was poet Antonio Arráiz. In the newspaper have contributed many of the most recognized Venezuelan writers. Arturo Úslar Pietri, one of the most important intellectuals of the country and its director, wrote for more than fifty years in an opinion column in the newspaper. Former editors include Miguel Otero Silva. In 1961 an advertising boycott in opposition to the paper's leftist views nearly forced the paper into bankruptcy; the newspaper received criticism by the governments under the AD and COPEI parties for it had tended to support the political beliefs of the moderate left and the middle class. In late 2007 editor and proprietor Miguel Henrique Otero founded the Movimiento 2D opposition movement, which supported the opposition electoral coalition Mesa de la Unidad Democrática in the September 2010 parliamentary election.
On 14 April 2018, colectivos attacked the headquarters of El Nacional, kidnapping security workers and a janitor. Weeks after the Venezuelan presidential election in 2018, the newspaper had their Hypertext Transfer Protocol momentarily censored by the state-run CANTV from 7 June to 11 June 2018; the newspaper has since had its website continuously censored in Venezuela, being described as one of the last independent media organizations in Venezuela. After the government pressed charges against El Nacional, proposing the payment of a fine of 1 billion bolívares, Bolivarian government official Diosdado Cabello replied to the newspaper's publishing of Venezuela's hyperinflation figures stating "if it was a billion bolívares, let's... put five zeros next to it". Cabello targeted the newspaper further, stating in late-September 2018 that he sought to acquire the newspaper's headquarters and convert it into a university. Official website Today's El Nacional front page at the Newseum website
Arturo Uslar Pietri
Arturo Uslar Pietri was a Venezuelan intellectual, writer, television producer and politician. Born on 16 May 1906 in Caracas, his parents were general Arturo Uslar Santamaría and Helena Pietri de Uslar; the last name Uslar is of German origin and can be traced back to Johann von Uslar, who fought for the rebel cause during Venezuela’s independence wars. As a young boy and teenager he lived in various cities in the comparatively urbanised central northern valleys of the country, he moved back to Caracas in 1924 to read political sciences at the Central University of Venezuela, where he graduated Doctor of Political Sciences in 1929. That same year he obtained a law degree. Uslar led a remarkably fruitful life, influential in Venezuelan politics, historical analysis and literature, as an educator, his period of activity spanned the last years of Venezuelan Caudillismo, the transition to democracy and most of the democratic era of 1958 - 1999. He held posts such as Secretary for the Venezuelan Delegation at the League of Nations, delegate at the International Labour Organization, minister of education, minister of finance, contributor to the Act of Constitution of the New Democratic Government, ambassador to the United States, professor of Latin American literature at Columbia University, professor of political economics at the Central University of Venezuela, chief editor of a main newspaper, candidate for the Presidency and member of the Royal Spanish Academy.
Uslar Pietri had a lifetime involvement in the Venezuelan media as a cultural figure. He wrote regionally influential essays and novels, of which The Red Lances, an account of life during the Venezuelan War of Independence from various social perspectives is arguably the most famous. In his works he championed mestizaje, or miscegenation, as a valuable feature of Latin American culture, his literary output was recognised in 1990 with a Prince of Asturias Award. He was several times nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Uslar Pietri died on 26 February 2001 in Caracas, he had announced his retirement as an author in 1998 and last figured prominently in political debate in 1993. El Nacional Best Short Story Award National Prize for Literature National Journalism Award The Miguel de Cervantes Hispanic-American Journalism Award Prince of Asturias Award Légion d'honneur Grand-Croix Rómulo Gallegos Prize for Best Novel Uslar Pietri at Cervantes Virtual Sembrar el Petróleo, 1936 Essays by and about Uslar Pietri Fundación Casa Arturo Uslar Pietri
Venezuela the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas, it has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, 99,889 km2 of continental shelf; this marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species.
There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American territories to declare independence, not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia, it gained full independence as a country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993.
A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution. The revolution began with a 1999 Constituent Assembly, where a new Constitution of Venezuela was written; this new constitution changed the name of the country to Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District, federal dependencies. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, a 159,500-square-kilometre tract dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America. Oil was discovered in the early 20th century, today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil; the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil came to dominate exports and government revenues.
The 1980s oil glut led to a long-running economic crisis. Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995 as per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak; the recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave. The Venezuelan government under Hugo Chávez established populist social welfare policies that boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, temporarily reducing economic inequality and poverty in the early years of the regime. However, such populist policies became inadequate, causing the nation's collapse as their excesses—including a uniquely extreme fossil fuel subsidy—are blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy; the destabilized economy led to a crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression, shortages of basic goods and drastic increases in unemployment, disease, child mortality and crime. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan Migrant Crisis where more than three million people have fled the country.
By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies. In 2018, the country's economic policies led to extreme hyperinflation, with estimates expecting an inflation rate of 1,370,000% by the end of the year. Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, OAS, UNASUR, ALBA, Mercosur, LAIA and OEI. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, an expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast; the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, Italy, so he named the region Veneziola, or "Little Venice". The Spanish version of Veneziola is Venezuela. Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that the crew found indigenous people who called themselves the Veneciuela. Thus, the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from the native word; the official name was Estado de Venezuela, República de Venezuela, Estados Unidos de Venezuela, a
Generation of 1928
The Generation of 1928 was a group of Venezuelan students who led protests in Caracas in 1928 against the dictatorship of Juan Vicente Gómez. Many politicians prominent in Venezuela's transition to democracy took part in the protests, they include Rómulo Betancourt, Jóvito Villalba, Juan Oropeza, Joaquin Gabaldon Marquez, Raúl Leoni, Andrés Eloy Blanco, Miguel Otero Silva, Pedro Sotillo, Francisco Ignacio Romero, Isaac J Pardo, Juan Bautista Fuenmayor, Germán Suárez Flamerich, Gustavo Machado, Antonia Palacios. After the 1928 protests a number of the Generation of 1928 went into exile. Political organizations in exile included the founding of Agrupación Revolucionaria de Izquierda in Colombia in 1931 by Rómulo Betancourt and others; this became the Partido Democrático Nacional, a forerunner of Democratic Action. The Communist Party of Venezuela founded in 1931, was led by Francisco José "Kotepa"Delgado and Juan Bautista Fuenmayor. Miranda, Julio E.. Antología histórica de la poesía venezolana del siglo XX, 1907-1996.
La Editorial, UPR. ISBN 978-0-8477-0121-6
Democratic Action (Venezuela)
Democratic Action is a Venezuelan social democratic political party established in 1941. The party and its antecedents played an important role in the early years of Venezuelan democracy and led the government during Venezuela's first democratic period. After an intervening decade of dictatorship saw AD excluded from power, four presidents came from Acción Democrática from the 1960s to the 1990s during the two-party system with Copei. By the end of the 1990s, the party's credibility was nonexistent because of the corruption and poverty that Venezuelans experienced during the last two full-term administrations of the party's time in power, namely those of Jaime Lusinchi and Carlos Andrés Pérez; the latter president was impeached for corruption in 1993 and spent several years in prison as a result. Since the 1998 election of Hugo Chávez, a range of newer parties have been more prominent in opposition to Chávez. In the 2015 legislative elections held on 6 December, AD backed the opposition electoral alliance Democratic Unity Roundtable which managed to grasp a supermajority.
AD won 26 constituency representatives out of 167 seats in the unicameral National Assembly: it is the second largest opposition party after Justice First. The current General Secretary Of Democratic Action is Henry Ramos Allup. In July 2018, AD left the Democratic Unity Roundtable opposition coalition; the party and its antecedents played an important role in the early years of Venezuelan democracy. The Agrupación Revolucionaria de Izquierda was founded in 1931 in Colombia by Rómulo Betancourt and other exile Venezuelans. In 1936 this became the Movimiento de Organización Venezolana, dissolved into the Partido Democrático Nacional. In 1941, after Isaías Medina Angarita legalized all political parties, Acción Democrática was founded by Betancourt and others; these included Rómulo Gallegos, Andrés Eloy Blanco, Luis Beltrán Prieto, Juan Oropeza, Luis Lander, Raúl Ramos, Medardo Medina, Enrique H. Marín, Rafael Padrón, Fernando Peñalver, Luis Augusto Dubuc, César Hernández, José V. Hernández and Ricardo Montilla.
Gallegos was a prestigious writer, the author of the iconic novel, Doña Bárbara, among several others, while Andrés Eloy Blanco was a celebrated Venezuelan poet and a witty humoristic writer. After the October 1945 revolution, Betancourt was President for a time, until Rómulo Gallegos won the Venezuelan presidential election, 1947. Gallegos governed; the 1945–48 period is known as the trienio. Many of its founders and early members went into exile during the dictatorship of Marcos Pérez Jiménez, returned for the restoration of democracy in 1958. After the restoration of democracy, Betancourt won the 1958 elections comfortably, AD joined the 1958 Punto Fijo Pact; the 1963 elections saw a solid victory for Raúl Leoni, AD won in 1973, 1983, 1988. From 1958 to 1999 only three presidential elections were lost and one of those was only lost due to a major split in AD; the 1968 presidential election was shaped by the split of Democratic Action, with a substantial leftist faction breaking away to form the Movimiento Electoral del Pueblo.
The split happened after Luis Beltrán Prieto Figueroa won the 1967 AD primary election, only to see his nomination overturned by the reformist-social democrat Rómulo Betancourt faction, in favour of Gonzalo Barrios, considering Prieto too far left. Prieto Figueroa, at the time President of the Venezuelan Senate as well as President of AD, split from AD over the affair along with a substantial number of his supporters; the result was that the 1968 election was the first time AD lost power through an election, when COPEI's Rafael Caldera won with less than 30% of the vote, just ahead of AD's Barrios. Prieto Figueroa attained nearly 20%, attaining fourth place behind the Unión Republicana Democrática's Miguel Ángel Burelli Rivas. An earlier split, in 1960, saw the Revolutionary Left Movement break away from AD, its engagement in armed struggle against the AD government meant the split posed rather less of an electoral problem than the MEP split. The Punto Fijo Pact collapsed in the early 1990s in the face of a severe economic and political crisis, culminating in the impeachment of the AD president Carlos Andrés Pérez for corruption, the election in 1993 of former COPEI leader Rafael Caldera on a National Convergence electoral coalition platform.
Caldera's failure to resolve the economic crisis created the political environment for the 1998 election of Hugo Chávez. At the 2000 elections for the new National Assembly of Venezuela, AD won 29 out of 165 seats. At the 2005 legislative elections Democratic Action staged an electoral boycott and did not win any seats. For the 2010 and 2015 elections, AD was part of the Democratic Unity Roundtable. In the 2015 elections where the Roundtable took the National Assembly, AD won 25 seats, which it contributed to the Roundtable's 109 seat majority; the Roundtable parties boycotted the 2017 elections to the Constituent Assembly and participated in an unofficial referendum against its formation. In July 2018, AD left the Democratic Unity Roundtable opposition coalition, citing "operative problems inside the organisation" and the difficulties to elect the new secretary general of the coalition; the trade union confederation CTV is linked to AD. AD is a member of the Socialist International, a member of COPPPA