Feodosia called Theodosia, is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast. Feodosia serves as the administrative center of Feodosia Municipality, one of the regions into which Crimea is divided. During much of its history the city was known as Kaffa. Population: 69,145; the city was founded as Theodosia by Greek colonists from Miletos in the 6th century BC. Noted for its rich agricultural lands, on which its trade depended, it was destroyed by the Huns in the 4th century AD. Theodosia remained a minor village for much of the next nine hundred years, it was of the Byzantine Empire. Like the rest of Crimea, this place fell under the domination of the Kipchaks and was conquered by the Mongols in the 1230s. In the late 13th century, traders from the Republic of Genoa arrived and purchased the city from the ruling Golden Horde, they established a flourishing trading settlement called Kaffa, which monopolized trade in the Black Sea region and served as a major port and administrative center for the Genoese settlements around the Sea.
It came to house one of Europe's biggest slave markets. From 1266 and on, Kaffa was governed by a Genoese consul, who since 1316 was in charge of all Genoese Black Sea colonies. Between 1204–1261 and again in 1296–1307, the city of Kaffa was ruled by Republic of Genoa's chief rival, the Republic of Venice. Ibn Battuta visited the city, noting it was a "great city along the sea coast inhabited by Christians, most of them Genoese." He further stated, "We went down to its port, where we saw a wonderful harbor with about two hundred vessels in it, both ships of war and trading vessels and large, for it is one of the world's celebrated ports."In early 1318 Pope John XXII established a Latin Church diocese of Kaffa, as a suffragan of Genoa. The papal bull of appointment of the first bishop attributed to him a vast territory: "a villa de Varna in Bulgaria usque Sarey inclusive in longitudinem et a mari Pontico usque ad terram Ruthenorum in latitudinem"; the first bishop was Fra' Gerolamo, consecrated seven years before as a missionary bishop ad partes Tartarorum.
The diocese ended as a residential bishopric with the capture of the city by the Ottomans in 1475. Accordingly, Kaffa is today listed by the Catholic Church, it is believed that the devastating pandemic the Black Death entered Europe for the first time via Kaffa in 1347, through the movements of the Golden Horde. After a protracted siege during which the Mongol army under Janibeg was withering from the disease, they catapulted the infected corpses over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants, in one of the first cases of biological warfare. Fleeing inhabitants may have carried the disease back to Italy. However, the plague appears to have spread in a stepwise fashion, taking over a year to reach Europe from Crimea. There were a number of Crimean ports under Mongol control, so it is unlikely that Kaffa was the only source of plague-infested ships heading to Europe. Additionally, there were overland caravan routes from the East that would have been carrying the disease into Europe as well. Kaffa recovered.
The thriving, culturally diverse city and its thronged slave market have been described by the Spanish traveler Pedro Tafur, there in the 1430s. In 1462 Caffa placed itself under the protection of King Casimir IV of Poland. However, Poland did not offer significant help due to reinforcements sent being massacred in Bar fortress by Duke Czartoryski after quarrel with locals. Following the fall of Constantinople and lastly Trebizond, the position of Caffa had become untenable and attracted the attention of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, he was at no loss for a pretext to extinguish this last Genoese colony on the Black sea. In 1473, the tudun of the Crimean Khanate died and a fight developed over the appointment of his successor; the Genoese involved themselves in the dispute, the Tatar notables who favored the losing candidate asked Mehmed to settle the dispute. Mehmed dispatched a fleet under the Ottoman commander Gedik Ahmet Pasha, which left Constantinople 19 May 1475, it anchored before the walls of the city on 1 June, started the bombardment the next day, on 6 June the inhabitants capitulated.
Over the next few days the Ottomans proceeded to extract the wealth of the inhabitants, abduct 1,500 youths for service in the Sultan's palace. On 8 July the final blow was struck when all inhabitants of Latin origin were ordered to relocate to Istanbul, where they founded a quarter, named after the town they had been forced to leave. Renamed Kefe, Caffa became one of the most important Turkish ports on the Black Sea. In 1615 Zaporozhian Cossacks under the leadership of Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny destroyed the Turkish fleet and captured Caffa. Having conquered the city, the cossacks released the men and children who were slaves. Ottoman control ceased when the expanding Russian Empire took over Crimea between 1774 and 1783, it was renamed Feodosiya, after the traditional Russian reading of the ancient Greek name. In 1900 Zibold constructed the first air well on mount Tepe-Oba near Feodosiya; the city was occupied by the forces of Nazi Germany during World
The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai is a peninsula in Egypt, the only part of the country located in Asia. It is situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the south, is a land bridge between Asia and Africa. Sinai has a land area of about 60,000 km2 and a population of 1,400,000 people. Administratively, the Sinai Peninsula is divided into two governorates: the South Sinai Governorate and the North Sinai Governorate. Three other governorates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez Governorate on the southern end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia Governorate in the center, Port Said Governorate in the north; the Sinai Peninsula has been a part of Egypt from the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt. This comes in stark contrast to the region north of it, the Levant, due to its strategic geopolitical location and cultural convergences, has been the center of conflict between Egypt and various states of Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. In periods of foreign occupation, the Sinai was, like the rest of Egypt occupied and controlled by foreign empires, in more recent history the Ottoman Empire and the United Kingdom.
Israel invaded and occupied Sinai during the Suez Crisis of 1956, during the Six-Day War of 1967. On 6 October 1973, Egypt launched the Yom Kippur War to retake the peninsula, unsuccessful. In 1982, as a result of the Israel–Egypt Peace Treaty of 1979, Israel withdrew from all of the Sinai Peninsula except the contentious territory of Taba, returned after a ruling by a commission of arbitration in 1989. Today, Sinai has become a tourist destination due to its natural setting, rich coral reefs, biblical history. Mount Sinai is one of the most religiously significant places in the Abrahamic faiths; the name Sinai may have been derived from the ancient moon-god Sin or from the Hebrew word Seneh The peninsula acquired the name due to the assumption that a mountain near Saint Catherine's Monastery is the Biblical Mount Sinai. However this assumption is contested, its modern Arabic name is سِينَاء Sīnāʼ. The modern Arabic is an adoption of the biblical name, the 19th-century Arabic designation of Sinai was Jebel el-Tûr.
In addition to its formal name, Egyptians refer to it as Arḍ ul-Fairūz. The ancient Egyptians called it Ta Mefkat, or'land of turquoise'. In English, the name is now pronounced; the traditional pronunciation is or. Sinai is triangular in shape, with northern shore lying on the southern Mediterranean Sea, southwest and southeast shores on Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba of the Red Sea, it is linked to the African continent by the Isthmus of Suez, 125 kilometres wide strip of land, containing the Suez Canal. The eastern isthmus, linking it to the Asian mainland, is around 200 kilometres wide; the peninsula's eastern shore separates the Arabian plate from the African plate. The southernmost tip is the Ras Muhammad National Park. Most of the Sinai Peninsula is divided among the two governorates of Egypt: South Sinai and North Sinai. Together, they comprise around 60,000 square kilometres and have a population of 597,000. Three more governates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez is on the southern end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia in the centre, Port Said in the north.
The largest city of Sinai is capital of the North Sinai, with around 160,000 residents. Other larger settlements include Sharm El-Tor, on the southern coast. Inland Sinai is arid and sparsely populated, the largest settlements being Saint Catherine and Nekhel. Sinai is one of the coldest provinces in Egypt because of its high altitudes and mountainous topographies. Winter temperatures in some of Sinai's cities and towns reach −16 °C. Sinai was called Mafkat by the ancient Egyptians From the time of the First Dynasty or before, the Egyptians mined turquoise in Sinai at two locations, now called by their Egyptian Arabic names Wadi Magharah and Serabit El Khadim; the mines were worked intermittently and on a seasonal basis for thousands of years. Modern attempts to exploit; these may be the first attested mines. The fortress Tjaru in western Sinai was a place of banishment for Egyptian criminals; the Way of Horus connected it across northern Sinai with ancient Canaan. At the end of the time of Darius I, the Great Sinai was part of the Persian province of Abar-Nahra, which means'beyond the river'.
Cambyses managed the crossing of the hostile Sinai Desert, traditionally Egypt's first and strongest line of defence, brought the Egyptians under Psamtik III, son and successor of Ahmose, to battle at Pelusium. The Egyptians retired to Memphis. Rhinocorura and the eponymous region around it were used by Ptolemaid Egypt as a place of banishment for criminals. After the death of the last Nabatean king, Rabbel II Soter, in 106, the Roman emperor Trajan faced no resistance and conquered the kingdom on 22 March 106. With this conquest, the Roman Empire went on to control all shores of the Mediterranean Sea
Juan Tafur was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the Spanish conquest of the Muisca people. He was a cousin of fellow conquistadors Martín Yañéz Tafur, Hernán Venegas Carrillo and Pedro Fernández de Valenzuela. Juan Tafur was five times encomendero of Santa Fe de Bogotá, he received the encomiendas of Pasca and Usaquén. The encomienda of Suesca was shared between Gonzalo García Zorro. Knowledge of the life of Juan Tafur has been provided by the work El Carnero, by chronicler Juan Rodríguez Freyle. Juan Tafur was born in the year 1500 in Spain, his parents were Isabel Díaz Tafur. Tafur took the surname of his mother. Other family members were conquistadors: Pedro Fernández de Valenzuela, Hernán Venegas Carrillo and Martín Yañés Tafur. In 1518 he left Spain for the New World under the command of Pedro de los Ríos, governor of Tierra Firme in Panama. De los Ríos sent Tafur with two ships to retrieve the dissatisfied members of the Pizarro expedition. In 1531 or 1533, Tafur left for Santa Marta, where he was sent to the Valle de Upar, together with conquistadors Antonio de Lebrija, Juan de Sanct Martín, Juan Muñoz de Collantes and Juan de Céspedes to force the submission the Chimila people to the Spanish.
In April 1536, Tafur was appointed cavalry leader in the expedition led by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada which left the Caribbean city of Santa Marta in search of El Dorado. Tafur participated in the Spanish conquest of the Muisca people and received the encomiendas of Pasca, Usaque and Chipaque, where he built the first church in 1538.. The encomienda of Suesca was shared between Gonzalo García Zorro. Juan Tafur was five times encomendero of Santa Fe de Bogotá: in 1541 succeeding Antonio Díaz de Cardoso and preceding Juan Díaz Hidalgo. In 1552, he requested 72 emeralds from Diego de Aguilar, he committed various atrocities against the indigenous people, including against the Panche people to the west of the Bogotá savanna. He mistreated the Cacique of Chita, whose body he threw at the dogs. In 1543, he was convicted for the mistreatment of the indigenous Muisca of Pasca. Juan Tafur was married three times: to an unnamed woman, he had a daughter named Isabel Tafur. List of conquistadors in Colombia Spanish conquest of the Muisca Hernán Pérez de Quesada, Juan de Céspedes Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada Acosta, Joaquín.
1848. Compendio histórico del descubrimiento y colonización de la Nueva Granada en el siglo décimo sexto - Historical overview of discovery and colonization of New Granada in the sixteenth century, 1-460. Beau Press. Accessed 2017-03-06. Rodríguez Freyle and Darío Achury Valenzuela. 1979. El Carnero - Conquista i descubrimiento del nuevo reino de Granada de las Indias Occidentales del mar oceano, i fundacion de la ciudad de Santa Fe de Bogota, 1-592. Fundacion Biblioteca Ayacuch. Accessed 2017-03-06. De Castellanos, Juan. 1857. Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias, 1–567. Accessed 2017-03-01. Fernández de Piedrahita, Lucas. 1676. VI. Historia general de las conquistas del Nuevo Reino de Granada. Accessed 2017-03-01. Jiménez de Quesada, Gonzalo. 1576. Memoria de los descubridores, que entraron conmigo a descubrir y conquistar el Reino de Granada. Accessed 2017-03-01. Ocampo López, Javier. 1996. Leyendas populares colombianas - Popular Colombian legends, 1-384. Plaza y Janes Editores. Accessed 2017-03-01. De Plaza, José Antonio.
1810. Memorias para la historia de la Nueva Granada desde su descubrimiento el 20 de julio de 1810, 1-464. Imprenta del Neo-Granadino. Accessed 2017-03-01. Simón, Pedro. 1892. Noticias historiales de las conquistas de Tierra Firme en las Indias occidentales vol.1-5. Accessed 2017-03-01. N, N. 1979. Epítome de la conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada, 81-97. Banco de la República. Accessed 2017-03-01
Tenedos, or Bozcaada in Turkish, is an island of Turkey in the northeastern part of the Aegean Sea. Administratively, the island constitutes the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province. With an area of 39.9 km2 it is the third largest Turkish island after Marmara. In 2011, the district had a population of 2,472; the main industries are wine production and fishing. The island has been famous for its grapes and red poppies for centuries, it is a former present Latin Catholic titular see. As Tenedos, it is mentioned in both the Iliad and the Aeneid, in the latter as the site where the Greeks hid their fleet near the end of the Trojan War in order to trick the Trojans into believing the war was over and into taking the Trojan Horse within their city walls; the island was important throughout classical antiquity despite its small size due to its strategic location at the entrance of the Dardanelles. In the following centuries, the island came under the control of a succession of regional powers, including the Achaemenid Persian Empire, the Delian League, the empire of Alexander the Great, the Kingdom of Pergamon, the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, before passing to the Republic of Venice.
As a result of the War of Chioggia between Genoa and Venice the entire population was evacuated and the town was demolished. The Ottoman Empire established control over the deserted island in 1455. During Ottoman rule, it was resettled by both Turks. In 1807, the island was temporarily occupied by the Russians. During this invasion the town was burnt down and many Turkish residents left the island. Under Greek administration between 1912 and 1923, Tenedos was ceded according to the Treaty of Lausanne to the new Turkish republic that emerged with the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1923; the treaty called for a quasi-autonomous administration to accommodate the local Greek population and excluded the Greeks on the two islands from the wider population exchanges that took place between Greece and Turkey. Tenedos remained majority Greek until the late 1960s and early 1970s, when many Greeks emigrated because of systemic discrimination and better opportunities elsewhere. Starting with the second half of the 20th century, there has been immigration from mainland Anatolia from the town of Bayramiç.
The island is known in English as both Bozcaada. Over the centuries many other names have been used. Documented ancient Greek names for the island are Calydna and Lyrnessus; the official Turkish name for the island is Bozcaada,. The name Tenedos was derived, according to Apollodorus of Athens, from the Greek hero Tenes, who ruled the island at the time of the Trojan War and was killed by Achilles. Apollodorus writes that the island was known as Leocophrys until Tenes landed on the island and became the ruler; the island became known as Bozcaada. Tenedos remained a common name for the island along with Bozcaada after the Ottoman conquest of the island with Greek populations and Turkish populations using different names for the island. Tenedos is triangular in shape, its area is 39.9 km2. It is the third largest Turkish island after Marmara Imbros, it is surrounded by small islets, is situated close to the entrance of the Dardanelles. It is the only rural district of Turkey without any villages, has only one major settlement, the town center.
Geological evidence suggests that the island broke away from the mainland producing a terrain, plains in the west with hills in the Northeast, the highest point is 192 metres. The central part of the island is the most amenable to agricultural activities. There is a small pine forest in the Southwestern part of the island; the westernmost part of the island has large sandy areas not suitable for agriculture. The island has a Mediterranean climate with strong northern winds. Average temperature is 14 °C and average annual precipitation is 529 millimetres. There are a number of small streams running from north to south at the southwestern part of the island. Freshwater sources though are not enough for the island. Archeological findings indicate that the first human settlement on the island dates back to the Early Bronze Age II. Archaeological evidence suggests the culture on the island had elements in common with the cultures of northwestern Anatolia and the Cycladic Islands. Most settlement was on the small bays on the east side of the island.
Settlement archaeological work was done and thus did not find definitive evidence of grape cultivation on the island during this period. However, grape cultivation was common on neighboring islands and the nearby mainland during this time. According to a reconstruction, based on the myth of Tenes, Walter Leaf stated that the first inhabitants of the island could be Pelasgians, who were driven out of the Anatolian mainland by the Phrygians. According to the same author, there are possible traces of Minoan and Mycenaean Greek influence in the island. Ancient Tenedos is referred to in Greek and Roman mythology, archaeologists have uncovered evidence of its settlement from the Bronze Age, it would stay prominent through the age of classical Greece, fading by the time of the dominance of ancient Rome. Although a small island, Tenedos's position in the straits and its two harb
Cyprus the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, southeast of Greece. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia, Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC; as a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great. Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians, was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878.
Cyprus was placed under the UK's administration based on the Cyprus Convention in 1878 and was formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders and Turkey in the 1950s. Turkish leaders for a period advocated the annexation of Cyprus to Turkey as Cyprus was considered an "extension of Anatolia" by them. Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960; the crisis of 1963–64 brought further intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, which displaced more than 25,000 Turkish Cypriots into enclaves and brought the end of Turkish Cypriot representation in the republic. On 15 July 1974, a coup d'état was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta in an attempt at enosis, the incorporation of Cyprus into Greece; this action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July, which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus in the following month, after a ceasefire collapsed, the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots.
A separate Turkish Cypriot state in the north was established by unilateral declaration in 1983. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute; the Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone, with the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which remain under the UK's control according to the London and Zürich Agreements. However, the Republic of Cyprus is de facto partitioned into two main parts: the area under the effective control of the Republic, located in the south and west, comprising about 59% of the island's area. Another nearly 4% of the island's area is covered by the UN buffer zone; the international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union.
Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean. With an advanced, high-income economy and a high Human Development Index, the Republic of Cyprus has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1961 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone; the earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek, ku-pi-ri-jo, meaning "Cypriot", written in Linear B syllabic script. The classical Greek form of the name is Κύπρος; the etymology of the name is unknown. Suggestions include: the Greek word for the Mediterranean cypress tree, κυπάρισσος the Greek name of the henna tree, κύπρος an Eteocypriot word for copper, it has been suggested, for example, that it has roots in the Sumerian word for copper or for bronze, from the large deposits of copper ore found on the island. Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase aes Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus" shortened to Cuprum.
The standard demonym relating to Cyprus or its people or culture is Cypriot. The terms Cypriote and Cyprian are used, though less frequently; the earliest confirmed site of human activity on Cyprus is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BC, with settled village communities dating from 8200 BC. The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old. Remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with a human body at a separate Neolithic site in Cyprus; the grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating ancient Egyptian civilisation and pushing back the ear
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe. It is said to occupy continuous territory that are otherwise conventionally Western Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe; the concept of Central Europe is based on a common historical and cultural identity. Central Europe is going through a phase of "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the CEI, Centrope and the Visegrád Four. While the region's economy shows high disparities with regard to income, all Central European countries are listed by the Human Development Index as highly developed. Elements of unity for Western and Central Europe were Latin; however Eastern Europe, which remained Eastern Orthodox, was the area of Graeco-Byzantine cultural influence. According to Hungarian historian Jenő Szűcs, foundations of Central European history at the first millennium were in close connection with Western European development, he explained that between the 11th and 15th centuries not only Christianization and its cultural consequences were implemented, but well-defined social features emerged in Central Europe based on Western characteristics.
The keyword of Western social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe. These phenomena appeared in the middle of the 13th century in Central European countries. There were self-governments of towns and parliaments. In 1335, under the rule of the King Charles I of Hungary, the castle of Visegrád, the seat of the Hungarian monarchs was the scene of the royal summit of the Kings of Poland and Hungary, they agreed to cooperate in the field of politics and commerce, inspiring their post-Cold War successors to launch a successful Central European initiative. In the Middle Ages, countries in Central Europe adopted Magdeburg rights. Before 1870, the industrialization that had developed in Western and Central Europe and the United States did not extend in any significant way to the rest of the world. In Eastern Europe, industrialization lagged far behind. Russia, for example, remained rural and agricultural, its autocratic rulers kept the peasants in serfdom.
The concept of Central Europe was known at the beginning of the 19th century, but its real life began in the 20th century and became an object of intensive interest. However, the first concept mixed science and economy – it was connected with intensively growing German economy and its aspirations to dominate a part of European continent called Mitteleuropa; the German term denoting Central Europe was so fashionable that other languages started referring to it when indicating territories from Rhine to Vistula, or Dnieper, from the Baltic Sea to the Balkans. An example of that-time vision of Central Europe may be seen in J. Partsch's book of 1903. On 21 January 1904, Mitteleuropäischer Wirtschaftsverein was established in Berlin with economic integration of Germany and Austria–Hungary as its main aim. Another time, the term Central Europe became connected to the German plans of political and cultural domination; the "bible" of the concept was Friedrich Naumann's book Mitteleuropa in which he called for an economic federation to be established after the war.
Naumann's idea was that the federation would have at its centre Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire but would include all European nations outside the Anglo-French alliance, on one side, Russia, on the other. The concept failed after the German defeat in the dissolution of Austria -- Hungary; the revival of the idea may be observed during the Hitler era. According to Emmanuel de Martonne, in 1927 the Central European countries included: Austria, Germany, Poland and Switzerland; the author use both Human and Physical Geographical features to define Central Europe, but he doesn't care about the legal development, the social, economic, infrastructural developments in these countries. The interwar period brought new geopolitical system and economic and political problems, the concept of Central Europe took a different character; the centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have appeared on the map of Europe: Czechoslovakia and Poland. Central Europe ceased to be the area of German aspiration to lead or dominate and became a territory of various integration movements aiming at resolving political and national problems of "new" states, being a way to face German and Soviet pressures.
However, the conflict of interests was too big and neither Little Entente nor Intermarium ideas succeeded. The interwar period brought new elements to the concept of Central Europe. Before World War I, it embraced German states, non-German territories being an area of intended German penetration and domination – German leadership position was to be the natural result of economic dominance. After the war, the Eastern part of Central Europe was placed at the centre of the concept. At that time the scientists took an interest in the idea: the International Historical Congress in Brussels in 1923 was committed to Central Europe, the 1933 Congress continued the discussions. Hungarian scholar Magda Adam wrote in her study Versailles System and Central Europe: "Today we know that the bane of Central Europe was the Little Entente, military alliance of Czechoslovakia and Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes (later Yu