The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud is a system of diacritics devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text. The system soon became used to vocalize other Hebrew texts, as well; the Tiberian vocalization marks vowels and stress, makes fine distinctions of consonant quality and length, serves as punctuation. While the Tiberian system was devised for Tiberian Hebrew, it has become the dominant system for vocalizing all forms of Hebrew and has long since eclipsed the Babylonian and Palestinian vocalization systems; the sin dot distinguishes between the two values of ש. A dagesh indicates a consonant is geminate or unspirantized, a raphe indicates spirantization; the mappiq indicates. The seven vowel qualities of Tiberian Hebrew are indicated straightforwardly by distinct diacritics: The diacritics qubutz and shuruq both represent /u/, but shuruq is used when the text uses full spelling; each of the vowel phonemes could be allophonically lengthened.
The ultrashort vowels are more complicated. There were two graphemes corresponding to the vowel /ă/, attested by alternations in manuscripts like ארֲריך~ארְריך, ואשמֳעָה~ואשמְעָה.. In addition, one of the graphemes could be silent: Shva was used both to indicate lack of a vowel and as another symbol to represent the phoneme /ă/, the latter represented by hataf patah; the phoneme /ă/ had a number of allophones. Before a laryngeal-pharyngeal, mobile šwa was pronounced as an ultrashort copy of the following vowel and as preceding /j/. Using ḥataf vowels was mandatory under gutturals but optional under other letters, there was considerable variation among manuscripts; that is referenced by medieval grammarians: If one argues that the dalet of'Mordecai' has hatef qames, tell him,'but this sign is only a device used by some scribes to warn that the consonants should be pronounced and not slurred over'. The names of the vowel diacritics are iconic and show some variation: The names of the vowels are taken from the form and action of the mouth in producing the various sounds, as פַּתַ֫ח opening.
קָ֫מֶץ denotes a slighter, as שׁוּרֶק and קִבּוּץ a firmer, compression or contraction of the mouth. Segôl takes its name from its form. So שָׁלֹשׁ נְקֻדּוֹת is another name for Qibbúṣ. Moreover the names were so formed, that the sound of each vowel is heard in the first syllable. Cantillation signs mark punctuation. Metheg may mark secondary stress, maqqaf conjoins words into one stress unit, which takes only one cantillation mark on the final word in the unit. Babylonian vocalization Cantillation Cardinal vowels Niqqud Palestinian vocalization Tiberian Hebrew Joshua Blau. Phonology and Morphology of Biblical Hebrew. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns. ISBN 1-57506-129-5. Sáenz-Badillos, Angel. A History of the Hebrew Language. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55634-1. Yeivin, Israel. Introduction to the Tiberian Masorah. Scholars Press. ISBN 0-89130-373-1
Ammon was an ancient Semitic-speaking nation occupying the east of the Jordan River, between the torrent valleys of Arnon and Jabbok, in present-day Jordan. The chief city of the country was Rabbah or Rabbath Ammon, site of the modern city of Amman, Jordan's capital. Milcom and Molech are named in the Hebrew Bible as the gods of Ammon; the people of this kingdom are called "Children of Ammon" or "Ammonites". The Ammonites occupied the northern Central Trans-Jordanian Plateau from the latter part of the second millennium BC to at least the second century CE. Ammon maintained its independence from the Neo-Assyrian Empire through tribute to the Assyrian king, at a time when nearby kingdoms were being raided or conquered; the Kurkh Monolith lists the Ammonite king Baasha ben Ruhubi's army as fighting alongside Ahab of Israel and Syrian allies against Shalmaneser III at the Battle of Qarqar in 853 BC as vassals of Hadadezer, the Aramaean king of Damascus. In 734 BC the Ammonite king Sanipu was a vassal of Tiglath-Pileser III, Sanipu's successor Pudu-ilu held the same position under Sennacherib and Esarhaddon.
An Assyrian tribute-list exists from this period, showing that Ammon paid one-fifth as much tribute as Judah did. Somewhat the Ammonite king Amminadab I was among the tributaries who suffered in the course of the great Arabian campaign of Assurbanipal. Other kings attested to in contemporary sources are Barachel and Hissalel, the latter of whom reigned about 620 BCE. Hissalel is mentioned in an inscription on a bottle found at Tel Siran, Jordan along with his son, King Amminadab II, who reigned around 600 BCE. Archaeology and history indicate; this contradicts the view, dominant for decades, that Transjordan was either destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II, or suffered a rapid decline following Judah's destruction by that king. Newer evidence suggests. Little mention is made of the Ammonites through the Persian and early Hellenistic periods, their name appears, during the time of the Maccabees. The Ammonites, with some of the neighboring tribes, did their utmost to resist and check the revival of the Jewish power under Judas Maccabaeus.
The Hasmonean dynast Hyrcanus founded Qasr Al Abd, was a descendant of the Seleucid Tobiad dynasty of Tobiah, mentioned by Nehemiah as an Ammonite from the east-Jordanian district. The last notice of the Ammonites is in Justin Martyr's Dialogue with Trypho, in the second century, where it is affirmed that they were still a numerous people; the first mention of the Ammonites in the Bible is in Genesis 19:37-38. It is stated there that they descended from Ben-Ammi, a son of Lot through with his younger daughter who plotted with her sister to intoxicate Lot and in his inebriated state, have relations to become pregnant. Ben-Ammi means "son of my people". After the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the daughters of Lot wanted to have a child and carried out a plot to intoxicate him and had relations, resulting in Ammon and his half brother, being conceived and born; this narrative has traditionally been considered literal fact, but is now interpreted as recording a gross popular irony by which the Israelites expressed their loathing of the morality of the Moabites and Ammonites, although it is doubtful that the Israelites would have directed such irony to Lot himself.
The Ammonites settled to the east of the Jordan, invading the Rephaim lands east of Jordan, between the Jabbok and Arnon, dispossessing them and dwelling in their place. Their territory comprising all from the Jordan to the wilderness, from the River Jabbok south to the River Arnon, it was accounted a land of giants. Shortly before the Israelite Exodus, the Amorites west of Jordan, under King Sihon and occupied a large portion of the territory of Moab and Ammon; the Ammonites were driven from the rich lands near the Jordan and retreated to the mountains and valleys to the east. The invasion of the Amorites separated the two kingdoms of Ammon and Moab. Throughout the Bible, the Ammonites and Israelites are portrayed as mutual antagonists. During the Exodus, the Israelites were prohibited by the Ammonites from passing through their lands; the Ammonites soon allied themselves with Eglon of Moab in attacking Israel. The Ammonites maintained their claim to part of Transjordan, after it was occupied by the Israelites who obtained it from Sihon.
During the days of Jephthah, the Ammonites occupied the lands east of the River Jordan and started to invade Israelite lands west of the river. Jephthah became the leader in resisting these incursions; the constant harassment of the Israelite communities east of the Jordan by the Ammonites was the impetus behind the unification of the tribes under Saul. King Nahash of Ammon lay siege to Jabesh-Gilead; this led to an alliance with Saul and The Israelites, led by Saul relieved the siege and defeated the Ammonite king resulting in the formation of the Israelite Kingdom. During the reign of King David, the Ammonites humiliated David's messengers, hired the Aramean armies to attack Israel; this ended in a war and a year-long siege of Rabbah, the capital of Ammon. The war ended with all the Ammonite cities being conquered and plundered, the inhabitants being killed or put to forced labor at David's command; when the Arameans of Damascus city-state deprived the Kingdom of Israel of their possessions east of the Jordan, the Ammon
Moloch is the biblical name of a Canaanite god associated with child sacrifice. The name of this deity is sometimes spelled Molech, Milcom, or Malcam; the name Moloch results from a dysphemic vocalisation in the Second Temple period of a theonym based on the root mlk, "king". There are a number of Canaanite gods with names based on this root, which became summarily associated with Moloch, including biblical מַלְכָּם Malkam "Great King", which appears to refer to a god of the Ammonites, as well as Tyrian Melqart and others. Rabbinical tradition depicted Moloch as a bronze statue heated with fire into which the victims were thrown; this has been associated with reports by Greco-Roman authors on the child sacrifices in Carthage to Baal Hammon since archaeological excavations since the 1920s have produced evidence for child sacrifice in Carthage as well as inscriptions including the term MLK, either a theonym or a technical term associated with sacrifice. In interpretatio graeca, the Phoenician god was identified with Cronus, due to the parallel mytheme of Cronus devouring his children.
Otto Eissfeldt in 1935 argued that mlk was not to be taken as a theonym at all but as a term for a type of fire sacrifice, that *lĕmōlek "as a molk-sacrifice" had been reinterpreted as the name of a Canaanite idol following the Deuteronomic reform under Josiah. According to Eissfeldt, this 7th-century reform abolished the child sacrifice, happening. Moloch has been used figuratively in English literature from John Milton's Paradise Lost to Allen Ginsberg's "Howl", to refer to a person or thing demanding or requiring a costly sacrifice. Biblical Hebrew מלך stands for מֶלֶךְ melek "king", but when vocalized as מֹלֶךְ mōlek in the Masoretic Text, it has been traditionally understood as a proper name. While the received Masoretic text dates to the Middle Ages, the existence of the form Ancient Greek: Μολοχ in the Septuagint establishes that the distinction dates to the Second Temple period. Moloch has been traditionally interpreted as the name of a god a god surnamed "the king", but pejoratively mispronounced as Molek instead of Melek, using the vocalisation of Hebrew בּשֶׁת bosheth "shame", distinguishing it from the title of melek "king", written identically in the consonantal text, frequently given to Yahweh.
Thus, in Psalm 5:3, the מלכי mlk-y of the Hebrew text is vocalized מַלְכִּי malk-ī and translated ὁ βασιλεύς μου in the Septuagint. The name of the god of the Ammonites is given as מַלְכָּם malkam,) rendered as Milcom in KJV. In 1 Kings 11:7, לְמֹלֶךְ שִׁקֻּץ בְּנֵי עַמֹּֽון, the Septuagint has τῷ βασιλεῖ αὐτῶν εἰδώλῳ υἱῶν Αμμων, while in 1 Kings 11:33 לְמִלְכֹּם אֱלֹהֵי בְנֵֽי־עַמֹּון is translated τῷ βασιλεῖ αὐτῶν προσοχθίσματι υἱῶν Αμμων; the vocalization Molek occurs eight times in the Masoretic Text, predominantly in Leviticus: Leviticus 18:21 "And thou shalt not let any of thy seed pass through the fire to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." Leviticus 20:2: "Again, thou shalt say to the children of Israel, Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth any of his seed unto Molech. Leviticus 20:3: "And I will set my face against that man, will cut him off from among his people. Leviticus 20:4: "And if the people of the land do any ways hide their eyes from the man, when he giveth of his seed unto Molech, kill him not" Leviticus 20:5: "Then I will set my face against that man, against his family, will cut him off, all that go a whoring after him, to commit whoredom with Molech, from among their people."Two further occurrences connect the practice with Tophet, a place of sacrifice in the Valley of Hinnom: 2 Kings 23:10: "And he defiled Topheth, in the valley of the children of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter to pass through the fire to Molech."
Jeremiah 32:35: "And they built the high places of Baal, which are in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to cause their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire unto Molech which I commanded them not, neither came it into my mind, that they should do this abomination, to cause Judah to sin."The practice of "passing through fire" associated with the name Moloch in the citations above occurs without reference to Moloch in Deuteronomy 18:10–13, 2 Kings 16:3 and 21:6 and Ezekiel 20:26,31 and 23:37. Isaiah 30:33 has the vocalization melek, but this is accepted as an omission of the Masoretic correctors: "For Tophet is ordained of old. On the other hand, while 1 Kings 11:7 has the vocalization Molek, in "Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon", this is accepted as an error for Malkam, the Ammonite idol; the Septuagint uses Μολοχ three times, rendere
Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda. These molluscs referred to as ammonites, are more related to living coleoids than they are to shelled nautiloids such as the living Nautilus species; the earliest ammonites appear during the Devonian, the last species died out in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Ammonites are excellent index fossils, it is possible to link the rock layer in which a particular species or genus is found to specific geologic time periods, their fossil shells take the form of planispirals, although there were some helically spiraled and nonspiraled forms. The name "ammonite", from which the scientific term is derived, was inspired by the spiral shape of their fossilized shells, which somewhat resemble coiled rams' horns. Pliny the Elder called fossils of these animals ammonis cornua because the Egyptian god Ammon was depicted wearing ram's horns; the name of an ammonite genus ends in -ceras, Greek for "horn".
Ammonites can be distinguished by their septa, the dividing walls that separate the chambers in the phragmocone, by the nature of their sutures where the septa joint the outer shell wall, in general by their siphuncles. Ammonoid septa characteristically have bulges and indentations and are to varying degrees convex from the front, distinguishing them from nautiloid septa which are simple concave dish-shaped structures; the topology of the septa around the rim, results in the various suture patterns found. Three major types of suture patterns are found in the Ammonoidea: Goniatitic - numerous undivided lobes and saddles; this pattern is characteristic of the Paleozoic ammonoids. Ceratitic - lobes have subdivided tips, giving them a saw-toothed appearance, rounded undivided saddles; this suture pattern is characteristic of Triassic ammonoids and appears again in the Cretaceous "pseudoceratites". Ammonitic - lobes and saddles are much subdivided. Ammonoids of this type are the most important species from a biostratigraphical point of view.
This suture type is characteristic of Jurassic and Cretaceous ammonoids, but extends back all the way to the Permian. The siphuncle in most ammonoids is a narrow tubular structure that runs along the shell's outer rim, known as the venter, connecting the chambers of the phragmocone to the body or living chamber; this distinguishes them from living nautiloides and typical Nautilida, in which the siphuncle runs through the center of each chamber. However the earliest nautiloids from the Late Cambrian and Ordovician had ventral siphuncles like ammonites, although proportionally larger and more internally structured; the word "siphuncle" comes from the New Latin siphunculus, meaning "little siphon". Originating from within the bactritoid nautiloids, the ammonoid cephalopods first appeared in the Devonian and became extinct at the close of the Cretaceous along with the dinosaurs; the classification of ammonoids is based in part on the ornamentation and structure of the septa comprising their shells' gas chambers.
While nearly all nautiloids show curving sutures, the ammonoid suture line is variably folded, forming saddles and lobes. The Ammonoidea can be divided into six orders, listed here starting with the most primitive and going to the more derived: Agoniatitida, Lower Devonian - Middle Devonian Clymeniida, Upper Devonian Goniatitida, Middle Devonian - Upper Permian Prolecanitida, Upper Devonian - Upper Triassic Ceratitida, Upper Permian - Upper Triassic Ammonitida, Lower Jurassic - Upper CretaceousIn some classifications, these are left as suborders, included in only three orders: Goniatitida and Ammonitida; the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology divides the Ammonoidea, regarded as an order, into eight suborders, the Anarcestina, Clymeniina and Prolecanitina from the Paleozoic. In subsequent taxonomies, these are sometimes regarded as orders within the subclass Ammonoidea; because ammonites and their close relatives are extinct, little is known about their way of life. Their soft body parts are rarely preserved in any detail.
Nonetheless, much has been worked out by examining ammonoid shells and by using models of these shells in water tanks. Many ammonoids lived in the open water of ancient seas, rather than at the sea bottom, because their fossils are found in rocks laid down under conditions where no bottom-dwelling life is found. Many of them are thought to have been good swimmers, with flattened, discus-shaped, streamlined shells, although some ammonoids were less effective swimmers and were to have been slow-swimming bottom-dwellers. Synchrotron analysis of an aptychophoran ammonite revealed remains of isopod and mollusc larvae in its buccal cavity, indicating at least this kind of ammonite fed on plankton, they may have avoided predation by squirting ink, much like modern cephalopods. The soft body of the creature occupied the largest segments of the shell at the end of the coil; the smaller earlier segments were walled off and the animal could maintain its buoyancy by filling them with gas. Thus, the smaller sections of the coil would have floated ab
Sennacherib was the king of Assyria from 705 BCE to 681 BCE. He is principally remembered for his military campaigns against Babylon and Judah, for his building programs – most notably at the Akkadian capital of Nineveh, he was assassinated in obscure circumstances in 681 BCE by his eldest son. The primary preoccupation of his reign was the so-called "Babylonian problem", the refusal of the people of Babylon to accept Assyrian rule, culminating in his destruction of the city in 689 BCE. Further campaigns were carried out in Syria, in the mountains east of Assyria, against the kingdoms of Anatolia, against the Arabs in the northern Arabian deserts, his campaigns in Syria are recorded in the Second Book of Kings in the Hebrew Bible. His death was welcomed in Babylon as divine punishment for the destruction of that city, he was a notable builder: it was under him that Assyrian art reached its peak. His building projects included the beautification of Nineveh, a canal 50 km long to bring water to the city, the "Palace Without Rival", which included what may have been the prototype of the legendary Hanging Gardens of Babylon, or the actual Hanging Gardens.
Assyria began as a Bronze Age small kingdom on the middle-Tigris. The kingdom collapsed at the end of the Bronze Age, but was reconstituted at the beginning of the Iron Age, under Tiglath-Pileser III and his sons Shalmaneser V and Sargon II, Assyria extended its rule over Mesopotamia and Syria-Palestine, making its capital Nineveh, one of the richest cities of the ancient world; the empire's rise aroused the fear and hatred of its neighbours, notably Babylon and Egypt, the many smaller kingdoms of the region such as Judah. Any perceived weakness on the part of Assyria led to rebellion by the Babylonians. Solving the so-called "Babylonian problem" was Sennacherib's primary preoccupation. Sennacherib's grandfather Tiglath-pileser III had made himself king of Babylon, creating a dual monarchy in which the Babylonians retained a nominal independence; this arrangement was never accepted by powerful local leaders an important tribal chief named Marduk-apla-iddina. Marduk-apla-iddina paid tribute to Tiglath-pileser, but when Tiglath-pileser's successor Shalmaneser V was overthrown by Sargon II he seized the opportunity to crown himself king of Babylon.
The next thirty years saw a repeating pattern of renewed rebellion. Sargon dealt with the Babylonian problem by cultivating the Babylonians, his relations, were predominantly military, culminated in his complete destruction of Babylon in 689 BCE. He destroyed the temples and the images of the gods, except for that of Marduk, the creator-god and divine patron of Babylon, which he took to Assyria; this caused consternation in Assyria itself, where its gods were held in high esteem. Sennacherib attempted to justify his actions to his own countrymen through a campaign of religious propaganda. Among the elements of this campaign he commissioned a myth in which Marduk was put on trial before Ashur, the god of Assyria–the text is fragmentary but it seems Marduk is found guilty of some grave offense. In Babylon itself, Sennacherib's answer to the Babylonian problem sparked an intense hatred that would lead to a war for independence and the destruction of Assyria. Sennacherib was not the first-born son of Sargon II, but he was groomed for royal succession and entrusted with administrative duties from an early age.
Sargon died in battle, ancient sources give three different years for Sennacherib's first reign-year—705 BCE, 704 BCE, 703 BCE—suggesting that the succession was not smooth. The transition sparked uprisings in Syria-Palestine, where the Egyptians incited rebellion, more in Babylon, where Marduk-apla-iddina II assumed the throne and assembled a large army of Chaldeans, Aramaeans and Elamites. Sennacherib's first campaign began late in 703 BCE against Marduk-apla-iddina, who had once more taken the throne of Babylon; the rebellion was defeated, Marduk-apla-iddina fled, Babylon was taken and the palace plundered, although the citizens were not harmed. A puppet king named Bel-ibni was placed on the throne and for the next two years Babylon was left in peace. In 701 BCE, Sennacherib turned from Babylonia to the western part of the empire, where Hezekiah of Judah, incited by Egypt and Marduk-apla-iddina, had renounced Assyrian allegiance; the rebellion involved various small states in the area: Sidon and Ashkelon were taken by force and a string of other cities and states, including Byblos, Ammon and Edom paid tribute without resistance.
Ekron called on Egypt for help but the Egyptians were defeated. Sennacherib turned on Jerusalem, Hezekiah's capital, he besieged the city and gave its surrounding towns to Assyrian vassal rulers in Ekron and Ashdod. However, Sennacherib did not breach the city, Hezekiah remained on his throne as a vassal ruler. In 699 BCE, Bel-ibni, who had proved untrustworthy or incompetent as king of Babylon
Assyria called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant. It existed as a state from as early as the 25th century BC until its collapse between 612 BC and 609 BC - spanning the periods of the Early to Middle Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age. From the end of the seventh century BC to the mid-seventh century AD, it survived as a geopolitical entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers such as the Parthian and early Sasanian Empires between the mid-second century BC and late third century AD, the final part of which period saw Mesopotamia become a major centre of Syriac Christianity and the birthplace of the Church of the East. A Semitic-speaking realm, Assyria was centred on the Tigris in Upper Mesopotamia; the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires in several periods. Making up a substantial part of the greater Mesopotamian "cradle of civilization", which included Sumer, the Akkadian Empire, Babylonia, Assyria reached the height of technological and cultural achievements for its time.
At its peak, the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911 to 609 BC stretched from Cyprus and the East Mediterranean to Iran, from present-day Armenia and Azerbaijan in the Caucasus to the Arabian Peninsula and eastern Libya. The name "Assyria" originates with the Assyrian state's original capital, the ancient city of Aššur, which dates to c. 2600 BC - one of a number of Akkadian-speaking city-states in Mesopotamia. In the 25th and 24th centuries BC, Assyrian kings were pastoral leaders. From the late 24th century BC, the Assyrians became subject to Sargon of Akkad, who united all the Akkadian- and Sumerian-speaking peoples of Mesopotamia under the Akkadian Empire, which lasted from c. 2334 BC to 2154 BC. After the Assyrian Empire fell from power, the greater remaining part of Assyria formed a geopolitical region and province of other empires, although between the mid-2nd century BC and late 3rd century AD a patchwork of small independent Assyrian kingdoms arose in the form of Assur, Osroene, Beth Nuhadra, Beth Garmai and Hatra.
The region of Assyria fell under the successive control of the Median Empire of 678 to 549 BC, the Achaemenid Empire of 550 to 330 BC, the Macedonian Empire, the Seleucid Empire of 312 to 63 BC, the Parthian Empire of 247 BC to 224 AD, the Roman Empire and the Sasanian Empire of 224 to 651 AD. The Arab Islamic conquest of the area in the mid-seventh century dissolved Assyria as a single entity, after which the remnants of the Assyrian people became an ethnic, linguistic and religious minority in the Assyrian homeland, surviving there to this day as an indigenous people of the region. Assyria was sometimes known as Subartu and Azuhinum prior to the rise of the city-state of Ashur, after which it was Aššūrāyu, after its fall, from 605 BC through to the late seventh century AD variously as Achaemenid Assyria, referenced as Atouria, Ator and sometimes as Syria which etymologically derives from Assyria according to Strabo, Assyria and Asōristān. "Assyria" can refer to the geographic region or heartland where Assyria, its empires and the Assyrian people were centered.
The indigenous modern Eastern Aramaic-speaking Assyrian Christian ethnic minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, southeast Turkey and northwest Iran are the descendants of the ancient Assyrians. As Babylonia is called after the city of Babylon, Assyria means "land of Asshur"Etymologically, Assyria is connected to the name of Syria, with both being derived from the Akkadian Aššur. Theodor Nöldeke in 1881 was the first to give philological support to the assumption that Syria and Assyria have the same etymology, a suggestion going back to John Selden. A 21st-century discovery of the Çineköy inscription confirmed that Syria, being a Greek corruption of the name Assyria, is derived from the Assyrian term Aššūrāyu. In prehistoric times, the region, to become known as Assyria was home to a Neanderthal culture such as has been found at the Shanidar Cave; the earliest Neolithic sites in what will be Assyria were the Jarmo culture c. 7100 BC, the Halaf culture c. 6100 BC, the Hassuna culture c. 6000 BC.
The Akkadian-speaking people who would found Assyria appear to have entered Mesopotamia at some point during the latter 4th millennium BC intermingling with the earlier Sumerian-speaking population, who came from northern Mesopotamia, with Akkadian names appearing in written record from as early as the 29th century BC. During the 3rd millennium BC, a intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Akkadians throughout Mesopotamia, which included widespread bilingualism; the influence of Sumerian on Akkadian, vice versa, is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic and phonological convergence. This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium BC as a sprachbund. Akkadian replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere after the turn of the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BC, although Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD, as did use of the Akkadian cuneiform.
The cities of A