South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
Clarendon County, South Carolina
Clarendon County is a county located below the fall line in the Coastal Plain region of U. S. state of South Carolina. As of 2010, its population was 34,971, its county seat is Manning. This area was developed including textile mills. Clarendon County boasts one of the largest man-made lakes in the United States, Lake Marion, completed in 1941 as a New Deal project, it was planned as part of a national rural electrification initiative. Since the late 20th century, the dam's generation of hydroelectric power has stimulated economic development and industry in the region; the South Carolina state legislature established racial segregation of public facilities by state law in the late 19th century. During the Civil Rights Movement, Clarendon County was the site of the Briggs v. Elliott trial challenging segregation of public schools; this case was one of five combined with what came to be known as Brown v. Board of Education, under which the United States Supreme Court ruled in 1954 that racial segregation of public schools was unconstitutional.
Clarendon County was established in 1785, shortly after the American Revolutionary War, when the legislature divided Camden District into seven counties. One was Clarendon County, it was named after Edward Hyde, a Lord Proprietor and earl of Clarendon. During the American Revolutionary War, the Battle of Half Way Swamp was fought in December 1780; that was one of the many Revolutionary battles. Others in this area were the following battles: Richbourg’s Mill, Nelson’s Ferry, Fort Watson/Santee Indian Mound, Tearcoat; the Swamp Fox Murals Trail has been established as an historical landmark depicting the American Revolution and General Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fox". The first European settlers in Clarendon County were ethnic French Huguenots, who traveled by boat up the Santee River, their ancestors had earlier settled in Charleston after leaving France in the late 17th century to escape religious persecution. Transportation of goods by land was difficult, so canals were constructed to carry boat traffic around rapids in the river.
The first notable canal was the Santee Canal, constructed in 1793. But due to the development of the railroads in the mid-1800s and construction linking major markets, the canal was superseded and ended operations some years later. In 1798, the state legislature combined three counties - Clarendon and Salem - to form Sumter District for ease of administration. On December 19, 1855, a legislative act was passed establishing the Clarendon District, with the same boundaries as defined for the county in 1785. During the antebellum period, the county was developed as large plantations to cultivate commodity crops short-staple cotton, by the labor of enslaved African Americans. Cultivation of this crop was made profitable by development of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney, which made processing more labor-efficient. By the time of the Civil War, the population of the county was majority black. In 1855, Captain Joseph C. Burgess was selected to determine the geographical center of the county, the preferred location for the county seat, so that a courthouse village could be built.
The commissioners decided on the site. Manning was developed as the county seat. Captain Burgess deeded six acres to the state, providing sites for the courthouse and jail, in addition to streets 75-feet-wide on four sides. In 1865, toward the end of the American Civil War, a body of General Sherman's Union troops under command of General Potter raided Clarendon county, they destroyed a large portion of Manning, including the court house. The raid took place a few days before Gen. Robert E. Lee´s surrender at Appomattox; the county recovered from the Civil War due to its reliance on agriculture, which suffered a long depression. The State Constitution of 1868 renamed the districts as counties. Agriculture continued as the mainstay of the economy through much of the 19th century, planters had to adjust to a free labor economy, they relied on a system of African-American tenant farmers and sharecroppers. Lumber and related mills and industries became important, with towns developed along railroad lines in the aarea.
Following Reconstruction, white Democrats regained control of the state legislature, passing laws for segregation of public facilities, Jim Crow and a new constitution of 1895 that disfranchised most blacks in the state. This exclusion from the political system was not ended until after decades of activism by African Americans, who gained passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s to enforce their constitutional rights. In November 1941, Lake Marion was created as a reservoir by construction of the Santee Dam by the United States Corps of Engineers; the dam was built across the Santee River to generate hydroelectric power for rural electrification, one of the major infrastructure projects initiated under President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal federal investments during the Great Depression. Lake Marion and the Santee Dam were part of the Santee-Cooper Navigation Project. Two notable court cases in Clarendon County in the mid-20th century were part of challenges by the Civil Rights Movement to racial segregation of public facilities.
This was concluded in law by the United States Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, which declared that separate but equal schools were unconstitutional; the court learned that the separate school were underfunded in most Southern states and equal. These cases were Levi Pearson v. Clarendon County Board of Education, Briggs v. Elliott. Clarendon
Hartsville, South Carolina
Hartsville is the largest city in Darlington County, South Carolina, United States. It was chartered on December 11, 1891; the population was 7,768 at the 2016 census. Hartsville was chosen as an All-America City in 1996 and again in 2016. Hartsville has been a National Arbor Day Foundation Tree City since 1986. Hartsville is home of a branch of Florence -- Darlington Technical College, it is the home of the South Carolina Governor's School for Science and Mathematics, a public boarding high school. The city is served by the Hartsville Regional Airport. Hartsville is home to several major corporations including Sonoco Products Company, Duke Energy's H. B. Robinson Nuclear Generating Station and Stingray Boats; the area surrounding Hartsville was once home to several Native American tribes, including the Pee Dee, Chicora, Edisto and Chicora-Waccamaw, who inhabited the region until European settlers arrived. Hartsville's first settlement began around 1760; the town is named for Captain Thomas E. Hart, who owned most of the land in the community.
Hart started a successful mercantile business, but lost his business and his land during the economic depression of 1837–1838. In 1845, Thomas Hart's son, John Lide Hart, purchased 495 acres of land in what is now downtown Hartsville from Colonel Law. John Hart went on to establish a carriage factory, steam-powered saw mill, grist mill, general store, Hartsville Baptist Church. Caleb Coker purchased the carriage factory for his son James Lide Coker in 1855. James Lide Coker came to Hartsville in 1857 with plans to implement new farming methods he had learned at Harvard College; this was interrupted by the start of the Civil War. He returned to Hartsville found that his plantation was in shambles, he planned to bring prosperity to the town of Hartsville. Major Coker established Welsh Neck High School, which became Coker College, he established a seed company, oil mill, fertilizer plant, the Coker and Company General Store, a bank, the Southern Novelty Company, now known as Sonoco Products Company.
With his own successes in business and his family were unable to convince other business owners in the area to build a railroad spur, so they decided to build their own, which became the Hartsville Railroad, completed in 1889. The Town of Hartsville received its first charter on December 11, 1891, during a period of bustling economic activity and growth; the railroad became part of the South Carolina Central Railroad, the Southern Novelty Company and Carolina Fiber Company merged to form Sonoco Products Company. Sonoco expanded to a global scale and became a Fortune 500 company. Locations listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Center Theater Coker College Hartsville Museum Kalmia Gardens Sonoco Products Hartsville is located in northwestern Darlington County at 34°22′10″N 80°4′51″W. U. S. Route 15 bypasses the city to the southeast. South Carolina Highway 151 bypasses the city to the southwest. Columbia, the state capital, is 70 miles to the southwest. According to the United States Census Bureau, Hartsville has a total area of 6.2 square miles, of which 5.7 square miles is land and 0.4 square miles, or 7.11%, is water.
Prestwood Lake, an impoundment on Black Creek, is on the northern border of the city. Black Creek is part of the Pee Dee River watershed. Hartsville enjoys a mild climate year-round, it experiences 213 sunny days on average. The number of days with measurable precipitation is 106, the city receives about 46 inches of rainfall per year; the average low is 31 °F in January, the average high is 92 °F in July. During the winter months, Hartsville can receive snowfall. According to the United States Census Bureau, the population of Hartsville in 2010 was 7,764; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,225 households residing in the city. The population density was 1356.6 people per square mile. There were 3,704 housing units; the racial makeup of the city was 51% White, 46.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.5% Hispanic or Latino, 1% two or more races. There were 3,225 households, of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.5% were married couples living together, 22.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.2% were non-families.
38.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 20 to 24, 10.7% from 25 to 34, 11.6% from 35 to 44, 14.4% from 45 to 54, 6.8% from 55–59, 3.1% from 60–64, 18.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years; the population is made up of 4,166 females. The median income for a household in the city was $39,242, the median income for a family was $48,594. Full-time, year-round working males had a median income of $35,333 versus $30,013 for full-time, year-round working females; the per capita income for the city was $21,815. About 15.3% of families and 22.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.8% of those under age 18 and 15.8% of those age 65 or over. Major employers in the area include Sonoco Products Company, Nucor Corporation, Car
An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes. A theme park is a type of amusement park that bases its structures and attractions around a central theme featuring multiple areas with different themes. Unlike temporary and mobile funfairs and carnivals, amusement parks are stationary and built for long-lasting operation, they are more elaborate than city parks and playgrounds providing attractions that cater to a variety of age groups. While amusement parks contain themed areas, theme parks place a heavier focus with more intricately-designed themes that revolve around a particular subject or group of subjects. Amusement parks evolved from European fairs, pleasure gardens and large picnic areas, which were created for people's recreation. World's fairs and other types of international expositions influenced the emergence of the amusement park industry. Lake Compounce opened in 1846 and is considered the oldest continuously-operating amusement park in North America.
The first theme parks emerged in the mid-twentieth century with the opening of Santa Claus Land in 1946, Santa's Workshop in 1949, Disneyland in 1955. The amusement park evolved from three earlier traditions: traveling or periodic fairs, pleasure gardens and exhibitions such as world fairs; the oldest influence was the periodic fair of the Middle Ages - one of the earliest was the Bartholomew Fair in England from 1133. By the 18th and 19th centuries, they had evolved into places of entertainment for the masses, where the public could view freak shows, acrobatics and juggling, take part in competitions and walk through menageries. A wave of innovation in the 1860s and 1870s created mechanical rides, such as the steam-powered carousel, its derivatives, notably from Frederick Savage of King's Lynn, Norfolk whose fairground machinery was exported all over the world; this inaugurated the era of the modern funfair ride, as the working classes were able to spend their surplus wages on entertainment.
The second influence was the pleasure garden. An example of this is the world's oldest amusement park, opened in mainland Europe in 1583, it is located north of Copenhagen in Denmark. Another early garden was the Vauxhall Gardens, founded in 1661 in London. By the late 18th century, the site had an admission fee for its many attractions, it drew enormous crowds, with its paths noted for romantic assignations. Although the gardens were designed for the elites, they soon became places of great social diversity. Public firework displays were put on at Marylebone Gardens, Cremorne Gardens offered music and animal acrobatics displays. Prater in Vienna, began as a royal hunting ground, opened in 1766 for public enjoyment. There followed coffee-houses and cafés, which led to the beginnings of the Wurstelprater as an amusement park; the concept of a fixed park for amusement was further developed with the beginning of the world's fairs. The first World fair began in 1851 with the construction of the landmark Crystal Palace in London, England.
The purpose of the exposition was to celebrate the industrial achievement of the nations of the world and it was designed to educate and entertain the visitors. American cities and business saw the world's fair as a way of demonstrating economic and industrial success; the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago, Illinois was an early precursor to the modern amusement park. The fair was an enclosed site, that merged entertainment and education to entertain the masses, it set out to bedazzle the visitors, did so with a blaze of lights from the "White City." To make sure that the fair was a financial success, the planners included a dedicated amusement concessions area called the Midway Plaisance. Rides from this fair captured the imagination of the visitors and of amusement parks around the world, such as the first steel Ferris wheel, found in many other amusement areas, such as the Prater by 1896; the experience of the enclosed ideal city with wonder, rides and progress, was based on the creation of an illusory place.
The "midway" introduced at the Columbian Exposition would become a standard part of most amusement parks, fairs and circuses. The midway contained not only the rides, but other concessions and entertainments such as shooting galleries, penny arcades, games of chance and shows. Many modern amusement parks evolved from earlier pleasure resorts that had become popular with the public for day-trips or weekend holidays, for example, seaside areas such as Blackpool, United Kingdom and Coney Island, United States. In the United States, some amusement parks grew from picnic groves established along rivers and lakes that provided bathing and water sports, such as Lake Compounce in Connecticut, first established as a picturesque picnic park in 1846, Riverside Park in Massachusetts, founded in the 1870s along the Connecticut River; the trick was getting the public to the resort location. For Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, on the Atlantic Ocean, a horse-drawn streetcar line brought pleasure seekers to the beach beginning in 1829.
In 1875, a million passengers rode the Coney Island Railroad, in 1876 two million visited Coney Island. Hotels and amusements were built to accommodate both the upper classes and the working class at the beach; the first carousel was installed in the 1870s, the first roller coaster, the "Switchback Railway", in 1884. In England, Blackpo
Taxodium distichum is a deciduous conifer in the family Cupressaceae. It is native to the southeastern United States. Hardy and tough, this tree adapts to swampy, it is noted for the russet-red fall color of its lacy needles. This plant has some cultivated varieties and is used in groupings in public spaces. Common names include bald cypress, swamp cypress, white cypress, tidewater red cypress, gulf cypress and red cypress. Taxodium distichum is a large, slow-growing, long-lived tree, it grows to heights of 35–120 feet and has a trunk diameter of 3–6 feet. The main trunk is surrounded by cypress knees; the bark is grayish brown to reddish brown and fibrous with a stringy texture. The needle-like leaves are 1⁄2 to 3⁄4 inch long and are simple, alternate and linear, with entire margins. In autumn, the leaves turn yellow or copper red; the bald cypress drops its needles each winter and grows a new set in spring. This species is monoecious, with male and female flowers on a single plant forming on slender, tassel-like structures near the edge of branchlets.
The tree flowers in April and the seeds ripen in October. The male and female strobili are produced from buds formed in late autumn, with pollination in early winter, mature in about 12 months. Male cones emerge on panicles. Female cones are round and green while young, they turn hard and brown as the tree matures. They are 2.0 -- 3.5 cm in diameter. They have from 20 to 30 spirally arranged, four-sided scales, each bearing one, two, or three triangular seeds; each cone contains 20 to 40 large seeds. The cones disintegrate at maturity to release the seeds; the seeds are 5–10 mm long, the largest of any species of Cupressaceae, are produced every year, with heavy crops every 3–5 years. The seedlings have three to nine, but six, cotyledons each; the bald cypress grows in full sunlight to partial shade. This species can tolerate dry soil, it is moderately able to grow in aerosols of salt water. The cones are consumed by wildlife; this tree is suitable for cultivation in light and heavy soils. It does well in acid and alkaline soils and can grow in alkaline and saline soils.
It can grow in no shade. It can grow in water, it can tolerate atmospheric pollution. The tallest known specimen, near Williamsburg, Virginia, is 44.11 m tall, the stoutest known, in the Real County near Leaky, has a diameter at breast height of 475 in. The oldest known living specimen, in Bladen County, North Carolina, is over 1,620 years old, rendering it one of the oldest living plants in North America. Although there are specimens estimated to be nearly 2,000 years old at Sky Lake in Humphreys County, Mississippi determining their age is difficult because older trees become hollow; the related Taxodium ascendens is treated by some botanists as a distinct species, while others classify it as a variety of bald cypress, as Taxodium distichum var. imbricatum Croom. It differs in shorter leaves borne on erect shoots, in ecology, being confined to low-nutrient blackwater habitats. A few authors treat Taxodium mucronatum as a variety of bald cypress, as T. distichum var. mexicanum Gordon, thereby considering the genus as comprising only one species.
The native range extends from southeastern New Jersey south to Florida and west to East Texas and southeastern Oklahoma, inland up the Mississippi River. Ancient bald cypress forests, with some trees more than 1,700 years old, once dominated swamps in the Southeast; the range had been believed to extended north only as far as Delaware, but researchers have now found a natural forest on the Cape May Peninsula in southern New Jersey. The species can be found growing outside its natural native range; the largest remaining old-growth stands are at Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, near Naples, in the Three Sisters tract along eastern North Carolina's Black River. The Corkscrew trees are around 500 years of age, some exceed 40 m in height; the Black River trees were cored by dendrochronologist David Stahle from the University of Arkansas. He found that some began growing as early as 364 AD; this species is native to humid climates where annual precipitation ranges from about 760 mm or 30 inches in Texas to 1,630 mm or 64 inches along the Gulf Coast.
Although it grows best in warm climates, the natural northern limit of the species is not due to a lack of cold tolerance, but to specific reproductive requirements: further north, regeneration is prevented by ice damage to seedlings. Larger trees are able to tolerate lower humidity. In 2012 scuba divers discovered an underwater cypress forest several miles off the coast of Mobile, Alabama, in 60 feet of water; the forest contains trees that could not be dated with radiocarbon methods, indicating that they are more than 50,000 years old and thus most lived in the early glacial interval of the last ice age. The cypress forest is well preserved, when samples are cut they still smell like fresh cypress. A team, which has not yet published its results in a peer-reviewed journal, is studying the site. One possibility is that hurricane Katrina exposed the grove of bald cypress, protected under ocean floor sediments; the bald cypress is monoecious. Male and female strobili mature in one growing season from buds formed t
Georgetown, South Carolina
Georgetown is the third oldest city in the U. S. state of South Carolina and the county seat of Georgetown County, in the Lowcountry. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 9,163. Located on Winyah Bay at the confluence of the Black, Great Pee Dee and Sampit rivers, Georgetown is the second largest seaport in South Carolina, handling over 960,000 tons of materials a year. Georgetown was the commercial center of an indigo- and rice-producing area, it is the birthplace of Fraser Robinson. Many of Michelle Obama's Robinson relatives still reside in Georgetown. Georgetown is located at 33°22′3″N 79°17′38″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.5 square miles, of which 6.9 square miles are land and 0.62 square miles, or 8.06%, is water. Winyah Bay formed from drowned coastline; the original rivers had a lower baseline, but either the ocean rose or the land sank, flooding the river valleys and making a good location for a harbor. U. S. Routes 17, 17A, 521, 701 meet in the center of Georgetown.
US 17 leads southwest 60 miles to Charleston and northeast 34 miles to Myrtle Beach, US 701 leads north 36 miles to Conway, US 521 leads northwest 82 miles to Sumter, US 17A leads west 32 miles to Jamestown. As of the census of 2010, there were 9,163 people in Georgetown, an increase of 2.4 percent over the 2000 population of 8,950. In 2000, there were 3,411 households, 2,305 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,368.1 people per square mile. There were 3,856 housing units at an average density of 589.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 57.03% African American, 40.99% White, 0.12% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.84% from other races, 0.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.88% of the population. There were 3,411 households out of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.0% were married couples living together, 25.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families.
28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.14. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,424, the median income for a family was $34,747. Males had a median income of $27,545 versus $19,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,568. About 19.9% of families and 24.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.9% of those under age 18 and 16.9% of those age 65 or over. In 1526 a Spanish expedition under Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón founded a colony on Waccamaw Neck called San Miguel de Guadalupe; the settlers included enslaved Africans, was the first European settlement in North America with African slaves.
The colony failed for multiple reasons including a fever epidemic and a revolt of the slaves, who escaped to join the indigenous Cofitachiqui Indians in the area. Having failed as farmers, the surviving Spanish built a ship from local cypress and oak trees and sailed to the Spice Islands in Maritime Southeast Asia; the next settlement in the area was by English colonists. After settling Charles Town in 1670, the English established trade with regional Indian tribes. Trading posts in the outlying areas developed as settlements. By 1721 the colonial government granted the English residents' petition to found a new parish, Prince George, Winyah, on the Black River. In 1734, Prince George, Winyah was divided. Prince George Parish, Winyah encompassed the new town of Georgetown, developing on the Sampit River. In 1729, Elisha Screven laid the plan for Georgetown and developed the city in a four-by-eight block grid; the original grid city is listed as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places.
It bears the original street names, lot numbers, has many original homes. The Indian trade declined. Planters established large plantations and cultivated indigo as the cash commodity crop, with rice as a secondary crop. Both were labor-intensive and dependent on slave labor workers imported from Africa in the Atlantic slave trade. Agricultural profits were so great between 1735 and 1775 that in 1757 the Winyah Indigo Society, whose members paid dues in indigo and maintained the first public school for white children between Charles Town and Wilmington. Rice became the chief commodity crop by the early 19th century, a staple of regional diets as well. In the American Revolution, the father and son Georgetown planters, Thomas Lynch Sr. and Thomas Lynch Jr. signed the Declaration of Independence. During the final years of the conflict, Georgetown was the important port for supplying General Nathanael Greene's army. Francis Marion led many guerrilla actions in the vicinity. Following the American Revolution, rice surpassed indigo as the staple crop.
It was cultivated in the swampy lowlands along the rivers, where enslaved labor built large earthworks: dams and canals to irrigate and drain the rice fields during cultivation. Large rice plantations were established around Georgetown along its five ri
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and of the Solanaceae family. While more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is used around the world. Tobacco contains the alkaloid nicotine, a stimulant, harmala alkaloids. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking in cigarettes, pipe tobacco, flavored shisha tobacco, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. Tobacco use is a risk factor for many diseases. In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death; the English word "tobacco" originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word "tabaco". The precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves or to tabago, a kind of L-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke.
However coincidentally, similar words in Spanish and Italian were used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs believed to have originated from the Arabic طُبّاق ṭubbāq, a word dating to the 9th century, as a name for various herbs. Tobacco has long been used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400–1000 BC. Many Native American tribes have traditionally used tobacco. Eastern North American tribes carried tobacco in pouches as a accepted trade item, as well as smoking it, both and ceremonially, such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement. In some populations, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying one's thoughts and prayers to the Creator. Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring tobacco seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain; these seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more in an area known as "Los Cigarrales" named after the continuous plagues of cicadas.
Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. Small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah. Tobacco became so popular that the English colony of Jamestown used it as currency and began exporting it as a cash crop; the alleged benefits of tobacco account for its considerable success. The astronomer Thomas Harriot, who accompanied Sir Richard Grenville on his 1585 expedition to Roanoke Island, explains that the plant "openeth all the pores and passages of the body" so that the natives’ "bodies are notably preserved in health, know not many grievous diseases, wherewithal we in England are times afflicted." Tobacco smoking and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. Tobacco has been a major cash crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century. Cuban cigars are world-famous.
In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular. James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production; this increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late-20th century. Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1; this strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.
In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco; this led to the development of tobacco cessation products. Many species of tobacco are in the genus of herbs Nicotiana, it is part of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, south west Africa, the South Pacific. Most nightshades contain varying amounts of a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos tend to contain a much higher concentration of nicotine than the others. Unlike many other Solanaceae species, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are poisonous to humans and other animals. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids to deter most herbivores, a number of such animals have evolved