Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist known for his work on child development. Piaget's theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology". Piaget placed great importance on the education of children; as the Director of the International Bureau of Education, he declared in 1934 that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual." His theory of child development is studied in pre-service education programs. Educators continue to incorporate constructivist-based strategies. Piaget created the International Center for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva in 1955 while on the faculty of the University of Geneva and directed the Center until his death in 1980; the number of collaborations that its founding made possible, their impact led to the Center being referred to in the scholarly literature as "Piaget's factory". According to Ernst von Glasersfeld, Jean Piaget was "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing."
However, his ideas did not become popularized until the 1960s. This led to the emergence of the study of development as a major sub-discipline in psychology. By the end of the 20th century, Piaget was second only to B. F. Skinner as the most cited psychologist of that era. Piaget was born in 1896 in the Francophone region of Switzerland, he was the oldest son of Arthur Piaget, a professor of medieval literature at the University of Neuchâtel, Rebecca Jackson. Piaget was a precocious child who developed an interest in the natural world, his early interest in zoology earned him a reputation among those in the field after he had published several articles on mollusks by the age of 15. When he was 15, his former nanny wrote to his parents to apologize for having once lied to them about fighting off a would-be kidnapper from baby Jean's pram. There never was a kidnapper. Piaget became fascinated that he had somehow formed a memory of this kidnapping incident, a memory that endured after he understood it to be false.
He developed an interest in epistemology due to his godfather's urgings to study the fields of philosophy and logic. He was educated at the University of Neuchâtel, studied at the University of Zürich. During this time, he published two philosophical papers that showed the direction of his thinking at the time, but which he dismissed as adolescent thought, his interest in psychoanalysis, at the time a burgeoning strain of psychology, can be dated to this period. Piaget moved from Switzerland to Paris, France after his graduation and he taught at the Grange-Aux-Belles Street School for Boys; the school was run by the developer of the Binet-Simon test. Piaget assisted in the marking of Binet's intelligence tests, it was while he was helping to mark some of these tests that Piaget noticed that young children gave wrong answers to certain questions. Piaget did not focus so much on the fact of the children's answers being wrong, but that young children made types of mistakes that older children and adults did not.
This led him to the theory that young children's cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults. He was to propose a global theory of cognitive developmental stages in which individuals exhibit certain common patterns of cognition in each period of development. In 1921, Piaget returned to Switzerland as director of the Rousseau Institute in Geneva. At this time, the institute was directed by Édouard Claparède. Piaget was familiar with many of Claparède's ideas including that of the psychological concept'groping', associated with "trials and errors" observed in human mental patterns. In 1923, he married Valentine Châtenay the couple had three children, whom Piaget studied from infancy. From 1925 to 1929, Piaget worked as a professor of psychology and the philosophy of science at the University of Neuchatel. In 1929, Jean Piaget accepted the post of Director of the International Bureau of Education and remained the head of this international organization until 1968; every year, he drafted his "Director's Speeches" for the IBE Council and for the International Conference on Public Education in which he explicitly addressed his educational credo.
Having taught at the University of Geneva and at the University of Paris, in 1964, Piaget was invited to serve as chief consultant at two conferences at Cornell University and University of California, Berkeley. The conferences addressed the relationship of cognitive studies and curriculum development and strived to conceive implications of recent investigations of children's cognitive development for curricula. In 1979 he was awarded the Balzan Prize for Political Sciences, he died in 1980 and was buried with his family in an unmarked grave in the Cimetière des Rois in Geneva. This was as per his request. Harry Beilin described Jean Piaget's theoretical research program as consisting of four phases: the sociological model of development, the biological model of intellectual development, the elaboration of the logical model of intellectual development, the study of figurative thought; the resulting theoretical frameworks are sufficiently different from each other that they have been characterized as representing different "Piagets."
More Jeremy Burman responded to Beilin and called for the addition of a phase before his turn to psychology: "the zeroeth Piaget." Before Piaget became a psychologist, he trained in natural philosophy. He received a doctorate in 1918 from
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development and the entire lifespan. Developmental psychologists aim to explain how thinking and behaviors change throughout life; this field examines change across three major dimensions: physical development, cognitive development, socioemotional development. Within these three dimensions are a broad range of topics including motor skills, executive functions, moral understanding, language acquisition, social change, emotional development, self-concept, identity formation. Developmental psychology examines the influences of nature and nurture on the process of human development, processes of change in context and across time. Many researchers are interested in the interactions among personal characteristics, the individual's behavior, environmental factors, including the social context and the built environment.
Ongoing debates include biological essentialism vs. neuroplasticity and stages of development vs. dynamic systems of development. Developmental psychology involves a range of fields, such as educational psychology, child psychopathology, forensic developmental psychology, child development, cognitive psychology, ecological psychology, cultural psychology. Influential developmental psychologists from the 20th century include Urie Bronfenbrenner, Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Barbara Rogoff, Esther Thelen, Lev Vygotsky. John B. Watson and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are cited as providing the foundations for modern developmental psychology. In the mid-18th century Jean Jacques Rousseau described three stages of development: infants and adolescence in Emile: Or, On Education. Rousseau's ideas were taken up by educators at the time, it focuses on how and why certain modifications throughout an individual’s life-cycle and human growth change over time. There are many theorists. For example, Erik Erikson developed a model of eight stages of psychological development.
He believed that humans developed in stages throughout their lifetimes and this would affect their behaviors In the late 19th century, psychologists familiar with the evolutionary theory of Darwin began seeking an evolutionary description of psychological development. James Mark Baldwin who wrote essays on topics that included Imitation: A Chapter in the Natural History of Consciousness and Mental Development in the Child and the Race: Methods and Processes. James Mark Baldwin was involved in the theory of developmental psychology. Sigmund Freud, whose concepts were developmental affected public perceptions. Sigmund Freud believed that we all had a conscious and unconscious level. In the conscious, we are aware of our mental process; the preconscious involves information that, though not in our thoughts, can be brought into consciousness. Lastly, the unconscious includes mental processes, he believed there is tension between the conscious and unconscious because the conscious tries to hold back what the unconscious tries to express.
To explain this he developed three personality structures: the id, superego. The id, the most primitive of the three, functions according to the pleasure principle: seek pleasure and avoid pain; the superego plays the moralizing role. Based on this, he proposed five universal stages of development, that each is characterized by the erogenous zone, the source of the child's psychosexual energy; the first is the oral stage. During the oral stage, "the libido is centered in a baby's mouth." The baby is able to suck. The second is the anal stage, from one to three years of age. During the anal stage, the child defecates from the anus and is fascinated with their defecation; the third is the phallic stage. During the phallic stage, the child is aware of their sexual organs; the fourth is the latency stage. During the latency stage, the child's sexual interests are repressed. Stage five is the genital stage. During the genital stage, puberty starts happening. Jean Piaget, a Swiss theorist, posited that children learn by constructing knowledge through hands-on experience.
He suggested that the adult's role in helping the child learn was to provide appropriate materials that the child can interact with and use to construct. He used Socratic questioning to get children to reflect on what they were doing, he tried to get them to see contradictions in their explanations. Piaget believed that intellectual development takes place through a series of stages, which he described in his theory on cognitive development; each stage consists of steps. He believed that these stages are not separate from one another, but rather that each stage builds on the previous one in a continuous learning process, he proposed four stages: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational. Though he did not believe these stages occurred at any given age, many studies have determined when these co
Georgios Jakobides was a painter and one of the main representatives of the Greek artistic movement of the Munich School. He was the first curator of the National Gallery of Greece in Athens, he was born in Chidira, Ottoman Empire. At the age of 13, he traveled to Smyrna to live with his study at the Evangelical School. From 1870 to 1876, Jakobides studied sculpture and painting at the Athens School of Fine Arts, in 1877 he went to the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich on a scholarship to continue his painting studies under Karl Theodor von Piloty. In Munich, he lived for 17 years where he worked in his studio, painting mythological scenes, genre pictures, portraits, his work is influenced by German academic Realism. His most famous paintings were of children but it said that after his wife's death in 1889, he stopped painting happy themes. In the capital of Bavaria he was regarded as a successful German artist selling many of his works at high prices; the Greek government invited him in 1900 to return to Athens to organize the National Gallery of Athens, in 1904 he was appointed Director of the Athens School of Fine Arts, where he taught for 25 years.
At this time, additional to his themes he produced formal portraits of eminent Greeks. He opposed all new artistic tendencies, including Impressionism and Expressionism, but supported younger artists to follow their own individual artistic tendencies, he was awarded at five international exhibits: among those in Berlin 1891 and in Paris 1900. His works are found in the National Gallery of Athens, private collections and in museums and art galleries around the world including art galleries in Germany and the Art Institute of Chicago, his opus consists of some two hundred oil paintings, several of which are on display in Europe and overseas. His son, the actor Michalis Iakovides, donated his personal journal - which includes a list of his paintings between 1878 and 1919 - to the National Gallery of Greece in 1951, he died in Athens in 1932. Munich School Art in modern Greece Jakobides Digital Museum National Gallery of Athens Official website Andreas S. Ioannou, 19th Century Greek Art