The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
The Pegasus (Star Trek: The Next Generation)
"The Pegasus" is the 164th episode of the syndicated American science fiction television series Star Trek: The Next Generation, the 12th episode of the seventh season. It was directed by series cast member LeVar Burton. Set in the 24th century, the series follows the adventures of the crew of the Federation starship USS Enterprise-D. In this episode, the Enterprise attempts to recover the Pegasus, a Federation starship that contained experimental technology of vital strategic importance and was the first starship posting of Enterprise first officer, Commander William Riker when he left Starfleet Academy; the Enterprise is ordered on a priority mission to collect a member of Starfleet Intelligence: Admiral Erik Pressman, former Captain of the USS Pegasus, where Will Riker first served after graduating from Starfleet Academy. Pressman informs Captain Jean-Luc Picard and Riker that intelligence has located the Pegasus in the Devolin system near the Romulan Neutral Zone. Though it is presumed destroyed, Pressman orders the Enterprise to either recover the ship's remains or destroy them to prevent them from falling into the hands of the Romulans.
In private, Riker attempts to discuss the events aboard the Pegasus's last mission and questions Pressman's intentions, but Pressman instructs Riker to remain silent until the mission is completed. In the Devolin system, the Enterprise encounters a Romulan Warbird searching for the Pegasus as well. Picard and Sirol, the Romulan commander, acknowledge each other's presence, creating a tense situation. Though the Enterprise sensors locate the Pegasus buried in a large fissure in an asteroid, Picard orders them to move on to lure the Romulans away. Picard asks Riker about the Pegasus. Prior to the assumed destruction of the vessel, there was a mutiny. Riker says that when the Pegasus' warp core overloaded, several officers took up arms against Pressman, fearful that the Captain was out of control. Riker pulled his weapon in the Captain's defense, but they were overwhelmed and got to the emergency lifeboats. Shortly after they ejected from the crippled ship, the explosion occurred. Picard reads a portion of the Judge Advocate General's report suggesting that the surviving officers and crew are involved in a cover-up and further investigation is warranted.
Picard informs Riker that the aforementioned investigation never happened and that the report was buried by Starfleet Intelligence. Riker tells Picard. Picard acknowledges that since, as a captain, he cannot order Riker to disobey an admiral's orders, he will have to trust Riker to not let Pressman put the Enterprise at unnecessary risk. Picard tells Riker, "If I find that that trust has been misplaced I will have to reevaluate the command structure of this ship." With the Romulans distracted, the Enterprise returns to the asteroid. Pressman orders the Enterprise to enter a fissure in the asteroid, over Picard's objections. Once inside, they discover that the Pegasus is fused with the asteroid. Pressman and Riker transport to the Pegasus and recover an experimental device with which the ship was equipped. Pressman is elated to find it, he informs Pressman that he won't allow him to restart the experiments that led to the mutiny and the current state of the Pegasus. They return to the Enterprise when they learn the Romulans have closed the fissure, trapping the Enterprise inside.
Sirol diplomatically "apologizes" for accidentally closing the fissure and gives Picard and his crew the option of taking asylum aboard the Warbird. Riker proposes using the device they took from the Pegasus—a prototype for a Federation cloaking device; the device is phase-shifting and as such it would allow the Enterprise to travel through the solid matter of the asteroid and escape. Pressman is furious at the breaking of Riker's silence, but Picard rebukes Pressman, pointing out that the development of a cloaking device by the Federation is a violation of the Treaty of Algeron. Pressman attempts to take command of the Enterprise. Picard directs the cloaking device to be installed on the Enterprise and used to escape the asteroid; the cloak is dropped in full view of the Romulan ship against Pressman's protestations, Picard informs Sirol that the Federation will be contacting the Romulan government about the incident. Picard orders Pressman to be arrested for violating the Treaty of Algeron.
Riker insists that he be arrested as well, Picard reluctantly agrees. Visiting Riker in the brig, Picard informs Riker that Pressman and four other high-ranking officers in Starfleet Intelligence have been arrested pending a court-martial, he notes that Riker's record will be affected by this incident but coming clean will support his case. Picard tells Riker that while he did conceal the truth of Pressman's illegal activities, he stood up and told the truth, as long as Riker still has the integrity to do so, he will still be proud to have him as a First Officer. Gizmodo ranked "The Pegasus" as the 55th out of 100 of the best of all Star Trek television episodes in 2014. "The Next Phase" - A fifth season episode involving a Romulan attempt at creating a phase-shifting cloaking device "These Are the Voyages..." - The Star Trek: Enterprise series finale, set during the events of this episode, where Riker visits the holodeck and turns to the events of the 22nd century for guidance. Star Trek The Next Generation D
Battlestar Galactica is an American science fiction media franchise created by Glen A. Larson; the franchise began with the original television series in 1978 and was followed by a short-run sequel series, a line of book adaptations, original novels, comic books, a board game, video games. A re-imagined version of Battlestar Galactica aired as a two-part, three-hour miniseries developed by Ronald D. Moore and David Eick in 2003; that miniseries led to a weekly television series, which aired until 2009. A prequel series, aired in 2010. All Battlestar Galactica productions share the premise that in a distant part of the universe, a human civilization has extended to a group of planets known as the Twelve Colonies, to which they have migrated from their ancestral homeworld of Kobol; the Twelve Colonies have been engaged in a lengthy war with a cybernetic race known as the Cylons, whose goal is the extermination of the human race. The Cylons offer peace to the humans. With the aid of a human named Baltar, the Cylons carry out a massive attack on the Twelve Colonies and on the Colonial Fleet of starships that protect them.
These attacks devastate the Colonial Fleet, lay waste to the Colonies, destroy their populations. Scattered survivors flee into outer space aboard a ragtag array of available spaceships. Of the entire Colonial battle fleet, only the Battlestar Galactica, a gigantic battleship and spacecraft carrier, appears to have survived the Cylon attack. Under the leadership of Commander Adama, the Galactica and the pilots of "Viper fighters" lead a fugitive fleet of survivors in search of the fabled thirteenth colony known as Earth. Glen A. Larson, the creator and executive producer of Battlestar Galactica, claimed he had conceived of the Battlestar Galactica premise, which he called Adam's Ark, during the late 1960s; as James E. Ford detailed in “Battlestar Galactica and Mormon Theology,” a paper read at the Joint Conference of the American Culture and Popular Culture Associations on 17 April 1980, the series incorporated many themes from Mormon theology, such as marriage for "time and eternity", a "council of twelve," a lost thirteenth tribe of humans, a planet called Kobol, as Larson was a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
However, he was unable to find financial backing for his TV series for a number of years. Battlestar Galactica was produced in the wake of the success of the 1977 film Star Wars; the original Cylons of Battlestar Galactica, robotic antagonists bent on destroying all humankind, owe much to Fred Saberhagen's berserker stories, including Saberhagen's fictional race The Builders whose "sliding single red eye" became the signature design element for the Cylons. Larson had envisioned Battlestar Galactica as a series of made-for-TV movies for the American Broadcasting Company. A shortened version of the three-hour pilot, Saga of a Star World, was screened in Canadian theaters and in American and Australian theaters on. Instead of two additional TV movies, ABC decided to commission a weekly TV series of one-hour episodes. In 1979 at the sixth annual People's Choice Awards, the TV series won in the category of "Best New TV Drama Series"; the first episode of the TV series was broadcast on September 17, 1978.
However, about 30 minutes before the end, that broadcast was interrupted by the announcement of the signing of the Egyptian–Israeli Camp David Accords. After the interruption, the episode picked back up. During the eight months after the pilot's first broadcast, 17 original episodes of the series were made, equivalent to a standard 24-episode TV season. Citing declining ratings and cost overruns, ABC canceled Battlestar Galactica in April 1979, its final episode "The Hand of God" was telecast on April 29, 1979. During the autumn of 1979, ABC executives met with Battlestar Galactica's creator Glen A. Larson to consider restarting the series. A suitable concept was needed to draw viewers, it was decided that the arrival of the Colonial Fleet at present-day Earth would be the storyline. A new TV movie called. Again, it was decided this new version of Battlestar Galactica would be made into a weekly TV series. Despite the early success of the premiere, this program failed to achieve the popularity of the original series, it was canceled after just ten episodes.
In this 1980 sequel series, the Colonial fleet finds the Earth, it covertly protects it from the Cylons. This series was a quick failure due to its low budget panned writing, ill-chosen time slot; the TV series had to adhere to strict content restrictions such as limiting the number of acts of violence and being required to shoehorn educational content into the script and dialogue. To cut costs, the show was set on the contemporary Earth, to the great dismay of fans. Another factor for fan apathy was the nearly complete recasting of the original series: Lorne Greene reprised his role as Adama, Herb Jefferson, Jr. played "Colonel" Boomer in about half of the episodes, Dirk Benedict as Starbuck for one episode (the abrupt final episode, though his character was to h
Battlestar (fictional spacecraft)
Battlestars are capital ships from the science fiction universe of Battlestar Galactica, depicted in the original Battlestar Galactica movie and series, the Galactica 1980 spinoff, the re-imagined Battlestar Galactica series. Battlestars are the premier capital ships the space equivalent of aircraft carriers, of the 12 Colonies of Man but combining some attributes of battleships; the hull is divided into the main hull with the bridge and propulsion systems, winged hangar bays on the port and starboard sides. Each hangar bay carries many Viper Starfighters and several unarmed shuttles which can deploy armed Landram armoured vehicles; the exact number of fighters deployed by each Battlestar is unclear although the Galactica recovers at least 69 in "Saga of Star World" including some from other Battlestars, destroyed. In same episode the Cylons on Carillon estimate the Galactica's Viper pilot complement at 200 and in "The Hand of God" Adama tells his pilots they will be outnumbered 2 to 1 by the Basestar's 300 Raiders.
Given the large dimensions of the ship design there is an internal rail car system to transport personnel in the event of a battle alert. The fuel for a Battlestar and its Vipers is called tylium which can be found only on certain planets; the laser turrets are the same weapon as a Viper's laser cannon based on appearances alone. There are several known types of turret. One, the anti-ship type, is a slow-tracking heavy turret found along the outer edge of both hangar bays, they have longer barrels than other turrets. Above each anti-ship turret is an anti-fighter turret, they are thinner in appearance and track much faster. Their barrels are closer together; these weapons however lack the power to damage capital ships. The forward lasers have only been seen in The Living Legend Part 2 and The Hand of God and are confused with anti-ship missiles because they use the same graphics, they are orange-colored beam weapons for capital ship use. It is not known; when the Galactica attacks a Baseship in "The Hand of God" Commander Adama explicit states that they have reconfigured their lasers to be able to attack the Baseship and showing that they are not a standard mode of weaponry.
These heavy missiles give a Battlestar enough firepower to utterly destroy at least two Basestars. The only example of their use is in The Living Legend, Part 2, where they are fired at the same time as, confused with, the forward lasers, it is not known whether only some did. The only ship, seen to have them - or referred to as having them - is the Pegasus from'The Living Legend, Part 2'; the Galactica herself is never seen using them or referring to having them. When she takes on a Cylon Baseship in "The Hand Of God" she attacks it by reconfiguring her lasers, not by using any missiles. Eight Battlestars were mentioned by name during the TV series. Of these, five were known to have survived by the time. Many are identified in background radio chatter in the original pilot film A sixth Battlestar was thought to have been lost, but reappeared during the series. Battlestar GalacticaBuilt 500 yahren before the close of the Thousand Yahren War, it is commanded by Commander Adama. The Galactica has about 150 Vipers aboard, a mixture of its own, some from the other Battlestars at the Peace Conference, a great number of fighters from the Pegasus.
Battlestar AtlantiaLost at the Peace Conference. Atlantia carried the Council of Twelve. Was the first battlestar destroyed in the Battle of Cimtar. Battlestar PacificaLost at the Peace Conference. Novelization states that she was sister ship of the Atlantia, was the largest of the battlestars and had been destroyed. Battlestar TritonLost at the Peace Conference. Battlestar AcropolisLost at the Peace Conference. Battlestar PegasusSole survivor of the Battle of Molecay, 2 yahrens before the Destruction of the Colonies; the Pegasus was commanded by Commander Cain. Missing in action since the Battle of Gamoray when she destroyed two Cylon Basestars. Viper pilots from the Pegasus' Silver Spar Squadron wore a helmet design that bore a black'flying horse', unlike the Galactica's Blue and Red Squadron pilots' falcon/eagle crest Viper helmets, due to the Pegasus' own namesake. Battlestar ColumbiaIn the episode "Gun on Ice Planet Zero", a Cadet Cree claims to be from the Battlestar Columbia in an attempt to foil the interrogation efforts by the Gold Command Centurion Vulpa.
Vulpa answers back. Battlestar RyconIn the episode "Take the Celestra", during an awards ceremony Commander Kronus is described as having'risen from the ranks to command the Battlestar Rycon, a ship famed for destroying 3 Cylon Basestars at the Battle Of Cosmora Archipelago, but at the cost of the Rycon herself presumably.'Battlestar Solaria Another ship mentioned as destroyed in the novelization of the original series first episode. Was the last Battlestar destroyed according to the Battlestar Galactica novelization, when Lt. Starbuck and Lt. Boomer tried to find another
The Pegasus-class hydrofoils were a series of fast attack patrol boats employed by the U. S. Navy, they were in service from 1977 through 1993. These hydrofoils carried the designation "PHM" for "Patrol, Missile." The Pegasus class vessels were intended for NATO operations in the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Subsequently, participation by other NATO navies, including Germany and Italy and the U. S. Navy proceeded to procure six PHMs, which were successful in conducting coastal operations, such as narcotics interdiction and coastal patrol, in the Caribbean basin. In the late 1960s, NATO developed a requirement for a small, fast warship to counter large numbers of Warsaw Pact missile boats, such as the Komar and Osa class missile boats, deciding that a hydrofoil would be the best way to meet this requirement. In 1970 Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, the new Chief of Naval Operations, keen to increase the Navy's number of surface vessels in a cost-effective manner, committed the United States to the NATO program for a hydrofoil.
The U. S. Navy proposed the PHM design as a NATO standard, with the program being led by the U. S. Navy, an order placed for two prototypes in 1972; the Italian Navy and the West German Bundesmarine signed letters of intent to participate in the programme, with other NATO navies, including the Royal Navy and Canadian Forces studying the project. The U. S. Navy planned to buy up with 10 to be purchased by West Germany and four by Italy. After Zumwalt's retirement, the Navy chose to funnel most of the money for the PHMs into larger vessels; this delayed the ongoing construction of Pegasus, the other vessels were not started. Congress forced the Navy to complete the vessels; the difficulties in project progression forced the other involved navies to abort their participation. The Pegasus class ships were powered by two 800 horsepower twin turbo-charged Mercedes-Benz Diesel engines when waterborne, using water jets, giving them a speed of 12 knots; when foilborne, the ships were powered by a General Electric LM2500 gas turbine and a large water jet, giving them a speed of over 48 knots.
Pegasus ships were well armed for their size, carrying two four-rack RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles and an Oto Melara 76 mm gun. The Harpoons were capable of sinking far larger ships at distances in excess of 60 nautical miles; the West German version would have carried the MM38 Exocet. As Pegasus was constructed several years before the rest of the series, there are some slight differences, such as the fire-control system. All six vessels were constructed by Boeing, in Seattle at the Renton plant at the south end of Lake Washington, they were stationed at NAS Key West. Principal contractors, along with Boeing, were Sperry Corporation for MK 92 Mod 1 fire control system, Hollandse Signaalapparaten and Sperry Corp. for WM 28 fire control system, OTO-Melara for 76mm gun, NAVSEC for design support. The technology was first pioneered by the USS Tucumcari, where it operated in Vietnam, but ran aground off Puerto Rico, it was judged to be more advanced than the Grumman Flagstaff, built at the same time to the same requirements.
The primary technology used in the Boeing Jetfoil ferries, used submerged flying foils with waterjet propulsion. The ships were retired because they were not judged cost effective for their mission in a Navy with offensive missions rather than coastal patrol. USS Aries PHM-5 Hydrofoil Memorial, Inc. obtained Aries for rehabilitation as a memorial located on the Grand River in Brunswick, Missouri at 39°25′15″N 93°7′47″W. All other PHMs in the class have been scrapped, except for Gemini, converted into a yacht and scrapped. Pegasus Delphinus Hercules Taurus Aquila Aries Gemini Boeing hydrofoils USS High Point USS Flagstaff USS Tucumcari USS Plainview HMCS Bras d'Or, a Canadian hydrofoil intended for anti-submarine duties HMS Speedy, a Royal Navy Jetfoil mine countermeasure vessel. Matka-class missile boat, a class of Soviet PHM Sarancha-class missile boat, a class of Soviet PHM Sparviero-class patrol boat, a class of Italian PHM PHM Pegasus, a videogame based on this class of vessels Gardiner and Stephen Chumbley.
Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995. Annapolis, Maryland, USA: Naval Institute Press, 1995. ISBN 1-55750-132-7. McLeavy, Roy. Jane's Surface Skimmers: Hovercraft and Hydrofoils 1975–76. Jane's Yearbooks, 1975. ISBN 0 354 00525 1. Jenkins, George. "Patrol Combatant Missile: PHM History 1973–1995". Foils.com, 1 November 2000. Retrieved 5 September 2012. Navysite.de PHM page Boeing page USS Aries PHM-5 Hydrofoil Memorial, Inc. - Brunswick, Missouri
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
A hydrofoil is a lifting surface, or foil, that operates in water. They are similar in purpose to aerofoils used by aeroplanes. Boats that use hydrofoil technology are simply termed hydrofoils; as a hydrofoil craft gains speed, the hydrofoils lift the boat's hull out of the water, decreasing drag and allowing greater speeds. The hydrofoil consists of a wing like structure mounted on struts below the hull, or across the keels of a catamaran in a variety of boats; as a hydrofoil-equipped watercraft increases in speed, the hydrofoil elements below the hull develop enough lift to raise the hull out of the water, which reduces hull drag. This provides a corresponding increase in fuel efficiency. Wider adoption of hydrofoils is prevented by the increased complexity of building and maintaining them. Hydrofoils are prohibitively more expensive than conventional watercraft above the certain displacement, so most hydrofoil craft are small, are used as high-speed passenger ferries, where the high passenger fees can offset the high cost of the craft itself.
However, the design is simple enough. Amateur experimentation and development of the concept is popular. Since air and water are governed by similar fluid equations—albeit with different levels of viscosity and compressibility—the hydrofoil and airfoil create lift in identical ways; the foil shape moves smoothly through the water, deflecting the flow downward, following the Euler equations, exerts an upward force on the foil. This turning of the water creates higher pressure on the bottom of the foil and reduced pressure on the top; this pressure difference is accompanied by a velocity difference, via Bernoulli's principle, so the resulting flow field about the foil has a higher average velocity on one side than the other. When used as a lifting element on a hydrofoil boat, this upward force lifts the body of the vessel, decreasing drag and increasing speed; the lifting force balances with the weight of the craft, reaching a point where the hydrofoil no longer lifts out of the water but remains in equilibrium.
Since wave resistance and other impeding forces such as various types of drag on the hull are eliminated as the hull lifts clear and drag act on the much smaller surface area of the hydrofoil, decreasingly on the hull, creating a marked increase in speed. Early hydrofoils used V-shaped foils. Hydrofoils of this type are known as "surface-piercing" since portions of the V-shape hydrofoils rise above the water surface when foilborne; some modern hydrofoils use submerged inverted T-shape foils. Submerged hydrofoils are less subject to the effects of wave action, therefore, more stable at sea and more comfortable for crew and passengers; this type of configuration, however, is not self-stabilizing. The angle of attack on the hydrofoils must be adjusted continuously to changing conditions, a control process performed by sensors, a computer, active surfaces; the first evidence of a hydrofoil on a vessel appears on a British patent granted in 1869 to Emmanuel Denis Farcot, a Parisian. He claimed that "adapting to the sides and bottom of the vessel a series or inclined planes or wedge formed pieces, which as the vessel is driven forward will have the effect of lifting it in the water and reducing the draught.".
Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini used a "ladder" foil system. Forlanini obtained patents in the United States for his ideas and designs. Between 1899 and 1901, British boat designer John Thornycroft worked on a series of models with a stepped hull and single bow foil. In 1909 his company built the full scale 22-foot long boat, Miranda III. Driven by a 60 hp engine, it rode on a flat stern; the subsequent Miranda IV was credited with a speed of 35 kn. A March 1906 Scientific American article by American hydrofoil pioneer William E. Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils. Alexander Graham Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane a significant achievement, after reading the article began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. With his chief engineer Casey Baldwin, Bell began hydrofoil experiments in the summer of 1908. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models based on those designs, which led to the development of hydrofoil watercraft.
During Bell's world tour of 1910–1911, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in Italy, where they rode in his hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore. Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Bell's large laboratory at his Beinn Bhreagh estate near Baddeck, Nova Scotia, they experimented with a number of designs, culminating in Bell's HD-4. Using Renault engines, a top speed of 87 km/h was achieved, accelerating taking waves without difficulty, steering well and showing good stability. Bell's report to the United States Navy permitted him to obtain two 260 kW engines. On 9 September 1919 the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of 114 km/h, which stood for two decades. A full-scale replica of the HD-4 is viewable at the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site museum in Baddeck, Nova Scotia. In the early 1950s an English couple built the White Hawk, a jet-powered hydrofoil water craft, in an attempt to beat the absolute water speed record. However, in tests, White Hawk could top the record breaking speed of the 1919 HD-4.
The designers had faced an engineering phenomenon that limits the top speed of modern hydrofoils: cavitation disturbs the lift created by the foils as t