Muscogee (Creek) Nation
The Muscogee Nation is a federally recognized Native American tribe based in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. The nation descends from the historic Creek Confederacy, a large group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Official languages include Muscogee, Natchez and Koasati, with Muscogee retaining the largest number of speakers, they refer to themselves as Este Mvskokvlke. They were referred to as one of the Five Civilized Tribes of the American Southeast; the Muscogee Nation is the largest of the federally recognized Muscogee tribes. The Muskogean-speaking Alabama, Koasati and Natchez people, as well as Algonquian-speaking Shawnee and Yuchi are enrolled in the Muscogee Creek Nation; the latter two groups were from different language families than the Muscogee. Other federally recognized Muscogee groups include the Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, Thlopthlocco Tribal Town of Oklahoma, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas, the Poarch Band of Creeks in Alabama.
The Muscogee Nation is headquartered in Okmulgee and serves as the seat of tribal government. The Muscogee Nation Reservation status was reaffirmed in 2017 by decision of Tenth Circuit Court in Murphy v. Royal which held that the allotted Muscogee Nation reservation in Oklahoma has not been disestablished and therefore retains jurisdiction over tribal citizens in Creek, Okfuskee, Okmulgee, McIntosh, Muskogee and Wagoner counties in Oklahoma; the decision in Murphy v. Royal was appealed to the United States Supreme Court on February 6, 2018 and certiorari was granted on May 21, 2018; the government of the Muscogee Nation is divided into three branches: executive and judicial. Okmulgee is the capitol of the Muscogee Nation and serves as the seat of government; the Executive branch is led by a Principal Chief, Second Chief, Tribal Administrator, Secretary of the Nation. The Principal Chief and Second Chief are democratically elected every four years. Citizens cast ballots for both the Principal Chief and Second Chief as they are elected individually.
The Principal Chief chooses staff. The current members of the executive branch are as follows: James Floyd, Principal Chief Louis Hicks, Second Chief Jerry McPeak, Tribal Administrator The legislative branch is the National Council and consists of 16 members elected to represent the 8 different districts within the tribe's jurisdictional area. National Council representatives sponsor the laws and resolutions of the Nation; the 8 districts include: Creek, Wagoner, Muskogee, Okmulgee, McIntosh, Tukvpvtce. The Nation has two courts: the Supreme Court; the Supreme Court has final authority over disputes about the Muscogee Creek Constitution and Laws. The current members of the Supreme Court are as follows: Chief Justice Kathleen Supernaw Vice-Chief Justice Montie Deer Associate Justice Jonodev Chaudhuri Associate Justice Leah Harjo-Ware Associate Justice Andrew Adams III Associate Justice Richard LerblanceThere is a separate Muscogee Nation Bar Association. In 2016, there were 80,591 people enrolled in the Muscogee Creek Nation.
Of these, 60,403 lived within the state of Oklahoma. Since 1979, membership to the tribe is based on documented lineal descent from persons listed as Creek'Indians by Blood' on the Dawes Rolls; the tribe does not have a minimum blood quantum requirement. The Nation operates its own division of housing and issues vehicle license plates, their Division of Health contracts with Indian Health Services to maintain the Creek Nation Community Hospital and several community clinics, a vocational rehabilitation program, nutrition programs for children and the elderly, programs dedicated to diabetes, tobacco prevention, caregivers. The Muscogee Nation operates the Lighthorse Tribal Police Department, with 43 active employees; the tribe has its own program for enforcing child support payments. The Mvskoke Food Sovereignty Initiative is sponsored by the nation, it educates and encourages tribal members to grow their own traditional foods for health, environmental sustainability, economic development, sharing of knowledge and community between generations.
The Muscogee Nation operates a Communications Department that produces a bi-monthly newspaper, the Muscogee Nation News, a weekly television show, the Native News Today. The tribe operates a budget in excess of $290 million, has over 4,000 employees, provides services within their jurisdiction; the tribe has non-gaming businesses. Non-gaming business ventures include Onefire. MNBE and Onefire oversee economic development as well as investigating, planning and operating business ventures projects for the tribe related to non-gaming business. Gaming enterprises consist of 9 stand alone casinos; the revenue from both gaming and non-gaming business are reinvested to develop new businesses, as well as support the welfare of the tribe. The Muscogee Nation operates two Travel Plaza truck stops; the Nation's historic old Council House was located in downtown Okmulgee. It is under renovation, it now serves as a museum of tribal history. In 2004, the Muscogee Nation founded a tribal college in Okmulgee, the College of the Muscogee Nation.
CMN is a two-year institution, offer
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
A tornado is a rotating column of air, in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. The windstorm is referred to as a twister, whirlwind or cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology to name a weather system with a low-pressure area in the center around which winds blow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, they are visible in the form of a condensation funnel originating from the base of a cumulonimbus cloud, with a cloud of rotating debris and dust beneath it. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour, are about 250 feet across, travel a few miles before dissipating; the most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour, are more than two miles in diameter, stay on the ground for dozens of miles. Various types of tornadoes include the multiple vortex tornado and waterspout. Waterspouts are characterized by a spiraling funnel-shaped wind current, connecting to a large cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud.
They are classified as non-supercellular tornadoes that develop over bodies of water, but there is disagreement over whether to classify them as true tornadoes. These spiraling columns of air develop in tropical areas close to the equator and are less common at high latitudes. Other tornado-like phenomena that exist in nature include the gustnado, dust devil, fire whirl, steam devil. Tornadoes occur most in North America in central and southeastern regions of the United States colloquially known as tornado alley, as well as in Southern Africa and southeast Europe and southeastern Australia, New Zealand and adjacent eastern India, southeastern South America. Tornadoes can be detected before or as they occur through the use of Pulse-Doppler radar by recognizing patterns in velocity and reflectivity data, such as hook echoes or debris balls, as well as through the efforts of storm spotters. There are several scales for rating the strength of tornadoes; the Fujita scale rates tornadoes by damage caused and has been replaced in some countries by the updated Enhanced Fujita Scale.
An F0 or EF0 tornado, the weakest category, damages trees, but not substantial structures. An F5 or EF5 tornado, the strongest category, rips buildings off their foundations and can deform large skyscrapers; the similar TORRO scale ranges from a T0 for weak tornadoes to T11 for the most powerful known tornadoes. Doppler radar data and ground swirl patterns may be analyzed to determine intensity and assign a rating; the word tornado comes from the Spanish word tornado. Tornadoes opposite phenomena are the derechoes. A tornado is commonly referred to as a "twister", is sometimes referred to by the old-fashioned colloquial term cyclone; the term "cyclone" is used as a synonym for "tornado" in the often-aired 1939 film The Wizard of Oz. The term "twister" is used in that film, along with being the title of the 1996 tornado-related film Twister. A tornado is "a violently rotating column of air, in contact with the ground, either pendant from a cumuliform cloud or underneath a cumuliform cloud, visible as a funnel cloud".
For a vortex to be classified as a tornado, it must be in contact with both the ground and the cloud base. Scientists have not yet created a complete definition of the word. Tornado refers to the vortex of wind, not the condensation cloud. A tornado is not visible; this results in the formation of a visible funnel condensation funnel. There is some disagreement over the definition of a condensation funnel. According to the Glossary of Meteorology, a funnel cloud is any rotating cloud pendant from a cumulus or cumulonimbus, thus most tornadoes are included under this definition. Among many meteorologists, the'funnel cloud' term is defined as a rotating cloud, not associated with strong winds at the surface, condensation funnel is a broad term for any rotating cloud below a cumuliform cloud. Tornadoes begin as funnel clouds with no associated strong winds at the surface, not all funnel clouds evolve into tornadoes. Most tornadoes produce strong winds at the surface while the visible funnel is still above the ground, so it is difficult to discern the difference between a funnel cloud and a tornado from a distance.
A single storm will produce more than one tornado, either or in succession. Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family". Several tornadoes are sometimes spawned from the same large-scale storm system. If there is no break in activity, this is considered a tornado outbreak. A period of several successive days with tornado outbreaks in the same general area is a tornado outbreak sequence called an extended tornado outbreak. Most tornadoes take on the appearance of a narrow funnel, a few hundred yards across, with a small cloud of debris near the ground. Tornadoes may
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Hulbert is a town in Cherokee County, United States, named after Ben H. Hulbert, a prominent Cherokee man; the population was 590 at the 2010 census, an increase of 8.7 percent from 543 at the 2000 census. Our Lady of the Annunciation of Clear Creek Monastery is a Benedictine monastery located in Hulbert; the Clear Creek Monastery elevated to the status of an abbey, is a foundation abbey of France's Notre Dame de Fontgombault, itself a foundation abbey of Saint Pierre de Solesmes in France. The Hulbert Store and Grist Mill was built in 1890 were built between the towns of Wagoner and Tahlequah in 1890. According to local legend, a white trapper from Kentucky named Benjamin Hulbert married a Cherokee woman and built a store on her allotted land. A settlement formed around it; the community moved to its present location after the turn of the 20th Century to be closer to the nearest railroad. A post office opened there May 4, 1903; the town of Hulbert incorporated on January 18, 1965. It became a city in 1996.
Hulbert is located in western Cherokee County at 35°55′54″N 95°8′34″W. Oklahoma State Highway 51 passes through the town, leading east 10 miles to Tahlequah, the county seat, west 14 miles to Wagoner. Fort Gibson Lake on the Neosho River is 7 miles to the west on Highway 51. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.0 square mile, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 543 people, 214 households, 148 families residing in the town; the population density was 572.1 people per square mile. There were 245 housing units at an average density of 258.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 44.94% White, 47.15% Native American, 7.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.18% of the population. There were 214 households out of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.1% were married couples living together, 20.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.4% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.01. In the town, the population was spread out with 29.8% under the age of 18, 12.3% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $19,886, the median income for a family was $24,063. Males had a median income of $23,333 versus $19,107 for females; the per capita income for the town was $9,508. About 23.7% of families and 26.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.7% of those under age 18 and 34.4% of those age 65 or over. NeoHealth—Northeastern Oklahoma Community Health Centers is headquartered in Hulbert and operates five clinics: Hulbert Health Center in Hulbert, Tahlequah Health Center, Tahlequah Extended Care Clinic, NeoHealth OB/GYN Associates in Tahlequah, Westville Family Medical Center, Salina Family Medical Center in Salina, NeoHealth Muskogee.
NeoHealth opened a pharmacy in Hulbert in April 2012. Lake Region Electric Cooperative provides electricity to most of Cherokee and surrounding counties. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Hulbert
Tahlequah is a city in Cherokee County, United States located at the foothills of the Ozark Mountains. It is part of the Green Country region of Oklahoma and was established as a capital of the 19th-century Cherokee Nation in 1839, as part of the new settlement in Indian Territory after the Cherokee Native Americans were forced west from the American Southeast on the Trail of Tears; the city's population was 15,753 at the 2010 census, an increase of 8.96 percent from 14,458 at the 2000 census. The 2014 estimated population is 16,496, it is the county seat of Cherokee County. The main campus of Northeastern State University is located in the city. Tahlequah is the capital of the two federally recognized Cherokee tribes based in Oklahoma, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians and the modern Cherokee Nation, it is the Capital of the Cherokee Nation Many linguists believe the word'Tahlequah' and the word'Teh-li-co' are the same as'di li gwa', the Cherokee word for grain or rice.. Scholars report the Cherokee word'di li gwa' describes a type of native grain with a red hue that grew in the flat open areas of east Tennessee.
One area, Great Tellico, was named for the grass with the red seed tops. Others interpret a word'tel-i-quah' as'plains'; the idea that'tahlequah' means'plains' lends weight to the belief that the name refers to the wide open grassy areas of Great Tellico. Local legend states the name is derived from Cherokee words'ta-li' and'ye-li-quu' meaning'just two' or'two is enough'. Three tribal elders had planned to meet to determine the location of the Cherokee Nation's permanent capital. Two elders waited for the third; as dusk approached, they decided that'two is enough', or'ta-li-ye-li-quu' which became anglicanized to Tahlequah. According to tribal elders and Cherokee County elders, this legend first began to circulate in the 1930s. Tahlequah was a settlement as early as 1832. After the Western Cherokee agreed in 1834 to let the newer migrants settle near them, they joined their government with the Eastern Cherokee at Tahlequah in 1839. Tahlequah was named. In 1839, Tahlequah was designated the capital of ancestors of both the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians.
The government buildings were a complex of log or framed structures. Most of these buildings were destroyed during the Civil War, during which the Cherokee became divided into two bitterly opposing sides. After the war, a brick capitol was built and first occupied in 1870. In 1907, at the time of Oklahoma statehood, the building was converted into the Cherokee County courthouse, it was returned to the Cherokee Nation in 1970. Several markers of Cherokee and Native American heritage are found in town: street signs and business signs are noted in both the Cherokee language and English; such signs use the syllabary created by Sequoyah, a Cherokee scholar of the 1820s who created the writing system. The Cherokee Supreme Court Building, located in downtown Tahlequah and constructed in 1844, is the oldest public building in Oklahoma. Tahlequah is located at 35°54′55″N 94°58′12″W; the city has a total area of all land. As of the 2010 census, there were 15,753 people, 6,111 households, 3,351 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,312.75 per square mile. There were 6,857 housing units at an average density of 571.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 53.8% White, 2.4% African American, 30.0% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 3.7% from other races, 8.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.8% of the population. Out of 6,111 households, 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.5% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.2% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.99. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.1% under the age of 18, 23.6% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males. As of 2013, the median household income was $29,114 and the median family income was $43,940. Males had a median income of $32,475 versus $27,939 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,003. About 20.7% of families and 33.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.2% of those under age 18 and 21.8% of those age 65 or over. Many people in Tahlequah speak Cherokee, there is a Cherokee language immersion school in Tahlequah, that educates students from pre-school through eighth grade with the Cherokee language as the medium of instruction, no English. Education within the Tahlequah city limits consists of one early learning center serving students in Pre-K: Sequoyah. Tahlequah High School serves as the main high school within the county as well and is fed by other rural Pre-K through 8th grade schools within Cherokee County; the Cherokee l