A batholith is a large mass of intrusive igneous rock, larger than 100 square kilometres in area, that forms from cooled magma deep in the Earth's crust. Batholiths are always made of felsic or intermediate rock types, such as granite, quartz monzonite, or diorite. Although they may appear uniform, batholiths are in fact structures with complex histories and compositions, they are composed of multiple masses, or plutons, bodies of igneous rock of irregular dimensions that can be distinguished from adjacent igneous rock by some combination of criteria including age, texture, or mappable structures. Individual plutons are solidified from magma that traveled toward the surface from a zone of partial melting near the base of the Earth's crust. Traditionally, these plutons have been considered to form by ascent of buoyant magma in large masses called plutonic diapirs; because the diapirs are liquified and hot, they tend to rise through the surrounding native country rock, pushing it aside and melting it.
Most diapirs do not reach the surface to form volcanoes, but instead they slow down and solidify 5 to 30 kilometers underground as plutons. An alternate view is that plutons are formed not by ascent of large magma diapirs, but rather by aggregation of smaller volumes of magma that ascend as dikes. A batholith is formed; some batholiths are mammoth, paralleling past and present subduction zones and other heat sources for hundreds of kilometers in continental crust. One such batholith is the Sierra Nevada Batholith, a continuous granitic formation that makes up much of the Sierra Nevada in California. An larger batholith, the Coast Plutonic Complex, is found predominantly in the Coast Mountains of western Canada. A batholith is an exposed area of continuous plutonic rock that covers an area larger than 100 square kilometers. Areas smaller than 100 square kilometers are called stocks. However, the majority of batholiths visible at the surface have areas far greater than 100 square kilometers; these areas are exposed to the surface through the process of erosion accelerated by continental uplift acting over many tens of millions to hundreds of millions of years.
This process has removed several tens of square kilometers of overlying rock in many areas, exposing the once buried batholiths. Batholiths exposed at the surface are subjected to huge pressure differences between their former location deep in the earth and their new location at or near the surface; as a result, their crystal structure expands over time. This manifests itself by a form of mass wasting called exfoliation; this form of weathering causes convex and thin sheets of rock to slough off the exposed surfaces of batholiths. The result is clean and rounded rock faces. A well-known result of this process is Half Dome in Yosemite Valley. Aswan Granite Batholith Cape Coast Batholith, Ghana Darling Batholith, South Africa Hook granite massif, Zambia Mubende Batholith, Uganda Antarctic Peninsula Batholith Queen Maud Batholith Angara-Vitim batholith, Siberia Bhongir Fort Batholith, India Gangdese batholith, Himalaya Trans-Himalayan Batholith, Himalaya Kalba-Narym batholith, Kazakhstan Karakorum Batholith, Himalaya Tak batholith, Thailand Tien Shan batholith, Central Asia Bindal Batholith, Norway Cornubian batholith, England Corsica-Sardinia Batholith Donegal batholith, Ireland Leinster Batholith, Ireland Mancellian batholith, France North Pennine Batholith, England Ljusdal Batholith, Sweden Mt-Louis-Andorra Batholith Riga Batholith, Latvia Salmi Batholith, Republic of Karelia, Russia Sunnhordaland Batholith, Norway Transscandinavian Igneous Belt and NorwayRevsund Massif Rätan Batholith Småland–Värmland Belt Bald Rock Batholith Boulder Batholith British Virgin Islands Chambers-Strathy Batholith Town Mountain Granite batholith, Texas Golden Horn Batholith Idaho Batholith Ilimaussaq Batholith, Greenland Kenosha Batholith Ruby Mountains Rio Verde Batholith, Mexico Sierra Nevada Batholith South Mountain Batholith, Nova Scotia Peninsular Ranges and Southern California Stone Mountain Pike's Peak Granite Batholith Chilliwack batholith Wyoming batholith Cullen Batholith, Australia Kosciuszko Batholith, Australia Moruya Batholith, Australia Median Batholith, New Zealand New England Batholith, Australia Achala Batholith, Argentina Antioquia Batholith, Colombia Guanambi Batholith, Brazil Parguaza rapakivi granite Batholith and Colombia Cerro Aspero Batholith, Argentina Coastal Batholith of Peru Colangüil Batholith, Argentina Cordillera Blanca Batholith, Peru Vicuña Mackenna Batholith, Chile Elqui-Limarí Batholith and Argentina Futrono-Riñihue Batholith, Chile Illescas Batholith, Uruguay Coastal Batholith of central Chile Panguipulli Batholith, Chile Patagonian Batholith and Argentina North Patagonian Batholith South Patagonian Batholith Laccolith Sill Stock Volcanic plug Plummer, McGeary, Physical Geology, Eighth Edition pages 61–63 ISBN 0-697-37404-1 Glazner, Coleman, Taylor, Are plutons assembled over millions of years by amalgamation from small magma chambers?, GSA Today: Vol. 14, No.
4, pp. 4–11 Idaho Batholith The Cornubian Batholith
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock, granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray depending on their mineralogy; the word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar; the term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These rocks consist of feldspar, quartz and amphibole minerals, which form an interlocking, somewhat equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals; some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.
A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids; the extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite. Granite is nearly always massive and tough; these properties have made granite a widespread construction stone throughout human history. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength lies above 200 MPa, its viscosity near STP is 3–6·1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C. Granite has poor primary permeability overall, but strong secondary permeability through cracks and fractures if they are present. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.
True granite contains both alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite; when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are high in potassium and low in plagioclase, are S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses: Granite containing rock is distributed throughout the continental crust. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age. Outcrops of granite tend to form rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite occurs as small, less than 100 km2 stock masses and in batholiths that are associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.
In some locations coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite is more common in continental crust than in oceanic crust, they are crystallized from felsic melts which are less dense than mafic rocks and thus tend to ascend toward the surface. In contrast, mafic rocks, either basalts or gabbros, once metamorphosed at eclogite facies, tend to sink into the mantle beneath the Moho. Granitoids have crystallized from felsic magmas that have compositions near a eutectic point. Magmas are composed of minerals in variable abundances. Traditionally, magmatic minerals are crystallized from the melts that have separated from their parental rocks and thus are evolved because of igneous differentiation. If a granite has a cooling process, it has the potential to form larger crystals. There are peritectic and residual minerals in granitic magmas. Peritectic minerals are generated through peritectic reactions, whereas residual minerals are inherited from parental rocks. In either case, magmas will evolve to the eutectic for crystallization upon cooling.
Anatectic melts are produced by peritectic reactions, but they are much less evolved than magmatic melts because they have not separated from their parental rocks. The composition of anatectic melts may change toward the magmatic melts through high-degree fractional crystallization. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, titanium and sodium, enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar and quartz, are two of the defining constituents of granite; this process operates regardless of the origin of parental magmas to granites, regardless of their chemistry. The composition and origin of any magma that differentiates into granite leave certain petrological evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was; the final texture and composition of a granite are distinctive as to its parental rock. For instance, a granite, derived from partial melting of meta
Downtown Halifax is the city centre of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Located on the eastern-central portion of the Halifax Peninsula, on Halifax Harbour, it serves as the business and tourism hub of the region. Unlike other historic Canadian cities such as Quebec and Montreal or comparably size New England cities such as Portland, Halifax has not preserved any heritage districts and has few intact blocks of historic buildings, although the downtown is known for the historic architecture of some individual landmark buildings. Demolition and urban renewal in the 1960s and 1970s replaced most of the downtown with blocks with office towers. One of the few blocks to have retained its heritage character is Granville Mall, a pedestrian mall part of Granville Street, made up of an array of shops and pubs in a conglomeration of rowed historic buildings built in the 1860s, it is known for the stone facades on each building. Historic Properties, a collection of 19th-century warehouses converted into shops and restaurants, is located nearby.
Despite the heritage focus of these remaining blocks of heritage buildings, none are protected as heritage districts. The downtown is home to individual government landmarks such as Province House, built in 1819 and home to the Nova Scotia House of Assembly. Builders such as George Lang created many landmark Victorian Era buildings. Citadel Hill, a 40-acre star-shaped fort, is another historic attraction in the downtown. Established with the arrival of Edward Cornwallis and the out break of Father Le Loutre's War, the current fort was built in the Victorian Era as the hub of the historic defence system for the port; as a result, there is viewplane legislation that restricts vertical development that might block the direct line of sight from Citadel Hill to the harbour and George's Island in particular. Recent developments have challenged the viewplane limits; the Halifax Public Gardens and Victoria Park bear many Victorian era monuments. Downtown Halifax is the financial centre of Atlantic Canada.
Bell Aliant and Emera are headquartered in downtown Halifax. All Big Five Canadian banks have major operations in the CBD; the Bank of Canada has one of its five Canadian regional offices located in the area. Major recent commercial developments include the Nova Centre; the latter development will house the new Halifax Convention Centre. Many of the Halifax region's hotels are located in the downtown area, with many major hotel chains maintaining a location here. There are a considerable number of small hostels nearby. Hotels in the downtown area include: Downtown Halifax is the home of the Halifax Regional Council chamber at Halifax City Hall. Offices for the mayor, city councillors, additional staff can be found downtown. At the provincial level, the downtown is the home of Nova Scotia's Province House where the Nova Scotia House of Assembly meets. Government House, where the Lieutenant-Governor resides, is located on Barrington Street; the provincial government has offices in several other downtown office buildings.
Canada's federal government maintains a significant presence in the area, working from various buildings including the Dominion Public Building, the Ralston Building, the Maritime Centre. Downtown Halifax has hotels, annual festivals and events, an array of attractions, many restaurants. There are several museums and art galleries in downtown Halifax. Pier 21, an immigrant entry point prominent throughout the 1930s, 40s, 50s, was opened to the public as a National Historic Site of Canada in 1999; the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic is a maritime museum containing extensive galleries including a large exhibit on the famous Titanic, over 70 small craft and a 200-foot steamship CSS Acadia. In summertime the preserved World War II corvette HMCS Sackville operates as a museum ship and Canada's naval memorial; the Art Gallery of Nova Scotia is housed in a 150-year-old building containing over 9,000 works of art. The waterfront in Downtown Halifax is the site of the Halifax Harbourwalk, a 3 km boardwalk popular amongst tourists and locals alike.
Many mid-sized ships dock here at one of the many wharves. The harbourwalk is home to a Halifax Transit ferry terminal, hundreds of stores, Historic Properties, several office buildings, the Casino Nova Scotia, several public squares where buskers perform, most prominently at the annual Halifax International Busker Festival in August. Downtown Halifax, being home to many small shops and vendors, is a major shopping area in the HRM, it is home to several small malls, including Scotia Square, Barrington Place Shops, Maritime Mall. Numerous malls on Spring Garden Road are located nearby; the area is home to 200 restaurants and bars, providing an interesting array of world cuisine. There are over 60 sidewalk cafes that open in the summer months; the nightlife is made up of bars and small music venues as well as Casino Nova Scotia, a large facility built over the water. Neptune Theatre, a 43-year-old establishment located on Argyle Street, is Halifax's largest theatre, it performs an assortment of professionally produced plays year-round.
The Shakespeare by the Sea theatre company performs at nearby Point Pleasant Park. Eastern Front Theatre performs at Alderney Landing in Downtown Dartmouth which can be accessed from the area via the Halifax Transit ferry service; the Scotiabank Centre is one of the largest buildings in Downtown Halifax, as well as the largest arena in Atlantic Canada. It is the home of the popular Halifax Mooseheads hockey team, it plays host to most of the major sporting events and concerts that visit Halifax; the Nova Scotia International Tattoo is held here every year. It is connected to the Dow
Peggys Point Lighthouse
Peggys Point Lighthouse known as Peggys Cove Lighthouse, is an active lighthouse and an iconic Canadian image. Located within Peggy's Cove, Nova Scotia, it is one of the busiest tourist attractions in the province and is a prime attraction on the Lighthouse Trail scenic drive; the lighthouse marks the eastern entrance of St. Margarets Bay and is known as the Peggys Point Lighthouse; the classic red-and-white lighthouse is still operated by the Canadian Coast Guard, is situated on an extensive granite outcrop at Peggys Point south of the village and its cove. This lighthouse is one of the most-photographed structures in Atlantic Canada and one of the most recognizable lighthouses in the world. Visitors may explore the granite outcrop on Peggys Point around the lighthouse; the first lighthouse at Peggys Cove was built in 1868 and was a wooden house with a beacon on the roof. At sundown the keeper lit a kerosene oil lamp magnified by a catoptric reflector creating the red beacon light marking the eastern entrance to St. Margarets Bay.
That lighthouse was replaced by the current structure, an octagonal lighthouse, built in 1914. It is made of reinforced concrete but retains the eight-sided shape of earlier generations of wooden light towers, it stands 15 metres high. The old wooden lighthouse became the keeper's dwelling and remained near to the current lighthouse until it was damaged by Hurricane Edna in 1954 and was removed; the lighthouse was automated in 1958. Since the red light was changed to white light to a green light in the late 1970s. To conform to world standards the light was changed to red in 2007; the lighthouse used to contain a small Canada Post office in the lower level during the summer months serving as the village post office where visitors could send postcards and letters. Each piece of mail received a special cancellation mark in the shape of the lighthouse; however Canada Post closed the lighthouse post office in November 2009 citing mold growth as a safety hazard. The lighthouse at Peggys Cove was declared surplus by the Canadian Coast Guard in June 2010, along with all lighthouses in Canada.
The lighthouse has until May 29, 2012 to be nominated under the Heritage Lighthouse Protection Act by a group willing to look after it, or the lighthouse will face disposal. The province of Nova Scotia has not made a decision. List of lighthouses in Canada Nova Scotia Lighthouse Preservation Scociety - Peggys Point Lighthouse Aids to Navigation Canadian Coast Guard
A glacial erratic is a piece of rock that differs from the size and type of rock native to the area in which it rests. "Erratics" take their name from the Latin word errare, are carried by glacial ice over distances of hundreds of kilometres. Erratics can range in size from pebbles to large boulders such as Big Rock in Alberta. Geologists identify erratics by studying the rocks surrounding the position of the erratic and the composition of the erratic itself. Erratics are significant because: They can be transported by glaciers, they are thereby one of a series of indicators which mark the path of prehistoric glacier movement, their lithographic origin can be traced to the parent bedrock, allowing for confirmation of the ice flow route. They can be transported by ice rafting; this allows quantification of the extent of glacial flooding resulting from ice dam failure which release the waters stored in proglacial lakes such as Lake Missoula. Erratics released by ice-rafts that were stranded and subsequently melt, dropping their load, allow characterization of the high-water marks for transient floods in areas like temporary Lake Lewis.
Erratics dropped by icebergs melting in the ocean can be used to track Antarctic and Arctic-region glacial movements for periods prior to record retention. Known as dropstones, these can be correlated with ocean temperatures and levels to better understand and calibrate models of the global climate; the term "erratic" is used to refer to erratic blocks, which Geikie describes as: "large masses of rock as big as a house, that have been transported by glacier-ice, have been lodged in a prominent position in the glacier valleys or have been scattered over hills and plains. And examination of their mineralogical character leads the identification of their sources…". In geology, an erratic is material moved by geologic forces from one location to another by a glacier. Erratics are formed by glacial ice erosion resulting from the movement of ice. Glaciers erode by multiple processes: abrasion/scouring, ice thrusting and glacially-induced spalling. Glaciers crack pieces of bedrock off in the process of producing the larger erratics.
In an abrasion process, debris in the basal ice scrapes along the bed and gouging the underlying rocks, similar to sandpaper on wood, producing smaller glacial till. In ice thrusting, the glacier freezes to its bed as it surges forward, it moves large sheets of frozen sediment at the base along with the glacier. Glacially-induced spalling occurs when ice lens formation with the rocks below the glacier spall off layers of rock, providing smaller debris, ground into the glacial basal material to become till. Evidence supports another option for creation of erratics as well, rock avalanches onto the upper surface of the glacier. Rock avalanche–supraglacial transport occurs when the glacier undercuts a rock face, which fails by avalanche onto the upper surface of the glacier; the characteristics of rock avalanche–supraglacial transport includes: Monolithologic composition – a cluster of boulders of similar composition are found in close proximity. Commingling of the multiple lithologies present throughout the glaciated basin, has not occurred.
Angularity – the supraglacially transported rocks tend to be rough and irregular, with no sign of subglacial abrasion. The sides of boulders are planar, suggesting that some surfaces may be original fracture planes. Great size – the size distribution of the boulders tends to be skewed toward larger boulders than those produced subglacially. Surficial positioning of the boulders – the boulders are positioned on the surface of glacial deposits, as opposed to or buried. Restricted areal extents – the boulder fields tend to have limited areal extent. Orientations – the boulders may be close enough that original fracture planes can be matched. Locations of the boulder trains – the boulders appear in rows, trains or clusters along the lateral moraines as opposed to being located on the terminal moraine or in the general glacial field. Erratics provide an important tool in characterizing the directions of glacier flows, which are reconstructed used on a combination of moraines, drumlins, meltwater channels, similar data.
Erratic distributions and glacial till properties allow for identification of the source rock from which they derive, which confirms the flow direction when the erratic source outcrop is unique to a limited locality. Erratic materials may be transported by multiple glacier flows prior to their deposition, which can complicate the reconstruction of the glacial flow. Glacial ice entrains debris of varying sizes from small particles to large masses of rock; this debris is transported to the coast by glacier ice and released during the production and melting of icebergs. The rate of debris release by ice depends upon the size of the ice mass in which it is carried as well as the temperature of the ocean through which the ice floe passes. Sediments from the late Pleistocene period lying on the floor of the North Atlantic show a series of layers which contain ice-rafted debris, they were formed between 70,000 years before the present. The deposited debris can be traced back to the origin by both the nature of the materials released and the continuous path of debris release.
Some paths extend more than 3,000 kilometres distant from the point at which the ice floes broke free. The location and altitude of ice-rafted boulders r
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain was a French colonist, cartographer, soldier, geographer, ethnologist and chronicler. He made between 21 and 29 trips across the Atlantic Ocean, founded New France and Quebec City, on July 3, 1608. An important figure in Canadian history, Champlain created the first accurate coastal map during his explorations, founded various colonial settlements. Born into a family of mariners, Champlain began exploring North America in 1603, under the guidance of his uncle, François Gravé Du Pont. From 1604 to 1607, he participated in the exploration and settlement of the first permanent European settlement north of Florida, Port Royal, Acadia, as well as the first European settlement that would become Saint John, New Brunswick. In 1608, he established the French settlement, now Quebec City, Canada. Champlain was the first European to describe the Great Lakes, published maps of his journeys and accounts of what he learned from the natives and the French living among the Natives, he formed relationships with local Montagnais and Innu, with others farther west — tribes of the, with Algonquin and Wendat.
In 1620, Louis XIII of France ordered Champlain to cease exploration, return to Quebec, devote himself to the administration of the country. In every way but formal title, Samuel de Champlain served as Governor of New France, a title that may have been formally unavailable to him owing to his non-noble status, he established trading companies that sent goods fur, to France, oversaw the growth of New France in the St. Lawrence River valley until his death, in 1635. Champlain is memorialized as the "Father of New France" and "Father of Acadia", with many places and structures in northeastern North America bearing his name, most notably Lake Champlain. Champlain was born to Antoine Champlain and Marguerite Le Roy, in either Hiers-Brouage, or the port city of La Rochelle, in the French province of Aunis, he was born on or before August 13, 1574, according to a recent baptism record found by Jean-Marie Germe, French genealogist. Although in 1870, the Canadian Catholic priest Laverdière, in the first chapter of his Œuvres de Champlain, accepted Pierre-Damien Rainguet's estimate and tried to justify it, his calculations were based on assumptions now believed, or proven, to be incorrect.
Although Léopold Delayant wrote as early as 1867 that Rainguet's estimate was wrong, the books of Rainguet and Laverdière have had a significant influence. The 1567 date was carved on numerous monuments dedicated to Champlain and is regarded as accurate. In the first half of the 20th century, some authors disagreed, choosing 1570 or 1575 instead of 1567. In 1978 Jean Liebel published groundbreaking research about these estimates of Champlain's birth year and concluded, "Samuel Champlain was born about 1580 in Brouage, France." Liebel asserts that some authors, including the Catholic priests Rainguet and Laverdière, preferred years when Brouage was under Catholic control. Champlain claimed to be from Brouage in the title of his 1603 book and to be Saintongeois in the title of his second book, he belonged to either a Protestant family, or a tolerant Roman Catholic one, since Brouage was most of the time a Catholic city in a Protestant region, his Old Testament first name was not given to Catholic children.
The exact location of his birth is thus not known with certainty, but at the time of his birth his parents were living in Brouage. Born into a family of mariners, Samuel Champlain learned to navigate, make nautical charts, write practical reports, his education did not include Ancient Greek or Latin, so he did not read or learn from any ancient literature. As each French fleet had to assure its own defense at sea, Champlain sought to learn to fight with the firearms of his time: he acquired this practical knowledge when serving with the army of King Henry IV during the stages of France's religious wars in Brittany from 1594 or 1595 to 1598, beginning as a quartermaster responsible for the feeding and care of horses. During this time he claimed to go on a "certain secret voyage" for the king, saw combat. By 1597 he was a "capitaine d'une compagnie" serving in a garrison near Quimper. In 1598, his uncle-in-law, a navigator whose ship Saint-Julien was chartered to transport Spanish troops to Cádiz pursuant to the Treaty of Vervins, gave Champlain the opportunity to accompany him.
After a difficult passage, he spent some time in Cadiz before his uncle, whose ship was chartered to accompany a large Spanish fleet to the West Indies, again offered him a place on the ship. His uncle, who gave command of the ship to Jeronimo de Valaebrera, instructed the young Champlain to watch over the ship; this journey lasted two years, gave Champlain the opportunity to see or hear about Spanish holdings from the Caribbean to Mexico City. Along the way he took detailed notes, wrote an illustrated report on what he learned on this trip, gave this secret report to King Henry, who rewarded Champlain with an annual pension; this report was published for the first time in 1870, by Laverdière, as Brief Discours des Choses plus remarquables que Sammuel Champlain de Brouage a reconneues aux Indes Occidentalles au voiag
The Labrador Current is a cold current in the North Atlantic Ocean which flows from the Arctic Ocean south along the coast of Labrador and passes around Newfoundland, continuing south along the east coast of Nova Scotia. It is a continuation of the Baffin Island Current, it meets the warm Gulf Stream at the Grand Banks southeast of Newfoundland, again north of the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The combination of these two currents produces heavy fogs and has created one of the richest fishing grounds in the world. In spring and early summer, the Labrador Current transports icebergs from the glaciers of Greenland southwards into the trans-Atlantic shipping lanes; the waters of the current have a cooling effect on the Canadian Atlantic provinces, on the United States' upper northeast coast from Maine south to Massachusetts. The transport of the Labrador Current is believed to contain a large barotropic component. Early estimates indicated that the current may be 30% stronger than geostrophic calculations indicated as a result of a significant barotropic flow component.
Greenberg and Petrie calculated a total transport of 7.6 sverdrup. The geostrophic transport was calculated to be just 4.1 Sv. With a 30% increase the transport is only 5.3 Sv so, the high transport values are thought to from the inclusion of deep currents indicated by a deep-water mooring. Speeds for the Labrador Current are about 0.3–0.5 m/s along the shelf edge. Current speeds of 0.3–0.5 m/s were found by Reynaud et al. for the Labrador Current. Including the barotropic component, they estimate a value of 3 Sv for the continental shelf branch of the Labrador Current and 16 Sv transport for the slope branch of the Labrador Current; the inshore branch of the Labrador Current is 100 km wide and 150 m deep and it passes through Avalon Channel and the splitting of the Labrador Current around Flemish Cap can be seen in the satellite tracked drifters. Within the Flemish Pass and Isenor report that the width of the Labrador Current is reduced to 50 km with a speed of 0.25 m/s which they believe is 0.30 m/s.
The Labrador Current east than normal. This can produce hazardous shipping conditions, for it can carry icebergs into an area of the Atlantic where they are not found; the current has been known to transport icebergs as far south as Bermuda and as far east as the Azores. After the sinking of RMS Titanic in 1912, the International Ice Patrol was set up to track icebergs, including those found in areas of the ocean where they are located. Surface Currents in the Atlantic Ocean