Pottery is the craft of making ceramic material into pots or potterywares using mud. Major types of potterywares include earthenware and porcelain, the place where such wares are made by a potter is called a pottery. Early Neolithic pottery have found in places such as Jomon Japan. A clay body can be decorated before or after firing, prior to shaping processes. Kneading helps to ensure an even moisture content throughout the body, air trapped within the clay body needs to be removed. This is called de-airing and can be accomplished either by a called a vacuum pug or manually by wedging. Wedging can produce an even moisture content. Once a clay body has been kneaded and de-aired or wedged, after shaping, it is dried and fired. Clay ware takes on varying physical characteristics during the making of pottery, at sufficient moisture content, bodies at this stage are in their most plastic form. Leather-hard refers to a body that has been dried partially. At this stage the clay object has approximately 15% moisture content, clay bodies at this stage are very firm and only slightly pliable.
Trimming and handle attachment often occurs at the leather-hard state, bone-dry refers to clay bodies when they reach a moisture content at or near 0%. It is now ready to be bisque fired, bisque refers to the clay after the object is shaped to the desired form and fired in the kiln for the first time, known as bisque fired or biscuit fired. This firing changes the body in several ways. Mineral components of the body will undergo chemical changes that will change the colour of the clay. Glaze fired is the stage of some pottery making. A glaze may be applied to the form and the object can be decorated in several ways. After this the object is glazed fired, which causes the material to melt
The Majiayao culture was a group of Neolithic communities who lived primarily in the upper Yellow River region in eastern Gansu, eastern Qinghai and northern Sichuan, China. The culture existed from 3300 to 2000 BC, the archaeological site was first found in 1924 near the village of Majiayao in Lintao County, Gansu by Swedish archaeologist Johan Gunnar Andersson, who considered it part of the Yangshao culture. Following the work of Xia Nai, the founder of modern archaeology in the Peoples Republic of China, it has since considered a distinct culture. This culture developed from the middle Yangshao phase, through an intermediate Shilingxia phase, the culture is often divided into three phases, Majiayao and Machang. At the end of the third millennium BC, the Qijia culture succeeded the Majiayao culture at sites in three geographic zones, eastern Gansu, central Gansu, and western Gansu/eastern Qinghai. The most distinctive artifacts of the Majiayao culture are the painted pottery, during the Majiayao phase, potters decorated their wares with designs in black pigment featuring sweeping parallel lines and dots.
Pottery of the Banshan phase is distinguished by curvilinear designs using both black and red paints, machang-phase pottery is similar, but often not as carefully finished. The oldest bronze object found in China was a knife found at a Majiayao site in Dongxiang, further copper and bronze objects have been found at Machang-period sites in Gansu. Metallurgy spread to the middle and lower Yellow River region in the late 3rd millennium BC, scholars have come to the conclusion that the development of the Majiayao culture was highly related to climate changes. The transition from Yangshao to Majiayao coincides, with the Piora Oscillation, history of metallurgy in China List of Neolithic cultures of China Xishanping
The Qijia culture was an early Bronze Age culture distributed around the upper Yellow River region of Gansu and eastern Qinghai, China. It is regarded as one of the earliest bronze cultures, the Qijia Culture is named after the Qijiaping Site in Gansu Province. Prior to Qijia culture, in the area there existed Majiayao culture that was familiar with metalwork. At the end of the third millennium B. C, Qijia culture succeeded Majiayao culture at sites in three main geographic zones, Eastern Gansu, Middle Gansu, and Western Gansu/Eastern Qinghai. Johan Gunnar Andersson discovered the site at Qijiaping in 1923. Qijia culture was a culture, based on agriculture, and breeding pigs. Archeological evidence points to early contact between the Qijia culture and Central Asia. Qijia culture produced some of the earliest bronze and copper found in China. Extensive domestication of horses are found at many Qijia sites, the archaeological sites at Lajia, Huangniangniangtai and Dahezhuang are associated with the Qijia culture.
Qijia sites were found in Ningxia province and Inner Mongolia. A total of over 350 sites of the Qijia culture have been superimposed on the Majiayao culture. A large quantity of metal ware, mostly copper objects, including bronzes, have been excavated from various sites in Gansu province. 25 pieces of metalwork were analyzed for their composition and those made from copper were the most numerous, accounting for 64 per cent of the total. The rest represented various copper alloys, including tin, techniques of pottery-making are marked by a fine red ware and a coarse reddish-brown ware. There are a few pieces of grey ware and they are handmade, there being no evidence of wheel-made ware. While the Qijia culture pottery has its own characteristics, it shares many traits in common with the Longshan culture in Shaanxi. Some elements of the Majiayao culture are present, Machang culture flourished in 2500-2000 BC along the Yellow River, it was an outgrowth of the Banshan culture. Machang culture was partly contemporary with the Qijia, although they were quite different, some scholars consider Machang culture as only a phase of the larger Majiayao culture, they say that the Qijia derived from the Machang
It ended when metal tools became widespread. The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops, the beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant about 10, 200–8800 BC. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which evolved into true farming. The Natufian period was between 12,000 and 10,200 BC, and the so-called proto-Neolithic is now included in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between 10,200 and 8800 BC. By 10, 200–8800 BC, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa, Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order, the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture, unlike the Paleolithic, when more than one human species existed, only one human species reached the Neolithic. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, new and λίθος líthos, the term was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC, early development occurred in the Levant and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the Neolithic 1 period began roughly 10,000 years ago in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated around 9500 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the period. This site was developed by nomadic tribes, evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity.
At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals, Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming, in the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour, emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated
Lower Xiajiadian culture
The Lower Xiajiadian culture is an archaeological culture in Northeast China, found mainly in southeastern Inner Mongolia, northern Hebei and western Liaoning, China. Subsistence was based on millet farming supplemented with animal husbandry and hunting, archaeological sites have yielded the remains of pigs, dogs and cattle. The culture built permanent settlements and achieved relatively high population densities, the population levels reached by the Lower Xiajiadian culture in the Chifeng region would not be matched until the Liao Dynasty. The culture was preceded by the Hongshan culture, through the transitional Xiaoheyan culture, the type site is represented by the lower layer at Xiajiadian, Inner Mongolia. Stone and pottery artefacts were discovered at Lower Xiajiadian sites, while gold, lacquer, copper, the most commonly found copper and bronze artefacts are earrings. People of the Lower Xiajiadian practiced oracle bone divination, the culture prepared its oracle bones by drilling and polishing the bones before heating them.
Inscriptions are generally not found on examples of oracle bones of the Lower Xiajiadian, people had good access to local sources of stone, primarily basalt, which were often used in construction and tool-making. Lower Xiajiadian houses were typically round, made from mud and stone, Lower Xiajiadian settlements were built near and were protected by cliffs or steep slopes. Stone walls were erected around the non-sloped perimeter of its settlement. Walls with watchtowers and were built by sandwiching a rammed earth core with two sides of stone walls, upper Xiajiadian culture Yueshi culture Shelach, Leadership Strategies, Economic Activity, and Interregional Interaction, Social Complexity in Northeast China, ISBN 0-306-46090-4
The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square meters and the collection of neolithic findings at the site has been conducted in two phases. This archaeological site was voted Number One in the Top Ten most outstanding archaeological findings in 2004 by Chinese archaeologists in their annual poll. The most significant discovery in the first phase of the excavation is the large number of pottery masks in the shape of human and animal faces. A dozen carved clay masks, in cat and pig as well as human likenesses, have been unearthed at Beifudi, One mask of a human face has a mouth and nose in carved relief and the eyes are pierced out. The first engraved clay artifacts ever found in ruins of this age and these artifacts, along with raised platforms, or altars, may provide information on various early religious practices. The masks are believed to be part of the ritual performances accompanying sacrifices, excavations in the second phase, dating to 6500–7000 BP include pottery and stone tools, ceramic pots and small-mouth-double-handled pots.
Artifacts excavated from dwellings include stone blocks, building materials, ash pits, and sacrificial sites have been excavated as well as pieces of jade and very well preserved carved ceramic masks. The finding of stone tools for food processing does not reliably prove that the culture had developed agriculture as such tools were used before the cultivation of crops
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a language with topic-prominent organization. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants, Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There exist two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan, aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, while Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters. There are many characters that are identical between the two systems, in English, the governments of China and Hong Kong use Putonghua, Putonghua Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, and Mandarin, while those of Taiwan and Malaysia, use Mandarin. The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history and it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese.
For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or common tongue/speech, was different from the Guoyu. The former was a prestige variety, while the latter was the legal standard. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, which is close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called the speech of the modern man. The use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai, prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the term for Standard Chinese. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca, Huayu, or language of the Chinese nation, originally simply meant Chinese language, and was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name Huayu to refer to Mandarin and it incorporates the notion that Mandarin is usually not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live.
The term Mandarin is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire, in English, Mandarin may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name Modern Standard Mandarin is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the language from other northern. Chinese has long had considerable variation, hence prestige dialects have always existed. Confucius, for example, used yǎyán rather than colloquial regional dialects, rime books, which were written since the Northern and Southern dynasties, may have reflected one or more systems of standard pronunciation during those times
Xindian culture was a Bronze Age culture in the Gansu and Qinghai provinces of China. 1500–1000 BCE, a testing of an artefact produced a date around 1000 BCE. The Xindian culture is named after a site discovered in 1923–24 in Xindian, Lintao County, the culture was mainly located in Gansu in the middle and lower course of the Tao River and Daxia River, and in Qinghai in the basin of the Huangshui River. Xindian culture was agricultural, with breeding pigs and cattle, at the sites of the culture were found bronze castings. Some small bronzes have been discovered at Huizui in Lintao county and they include knives and buttons. Xindian culture belongs to the painted pottery cultures found in Central Asia, Xindian culture postdates the Qijia culture, the pottery evidence demonstrates a cultural continuity, though genetically it is not related with it. The shape of some Xindian culture pottery vessels, as well as the patterns on pottery reveal correlations with the Tangwang culture. In the same area in proximity are distributed early sites of the contemporary neighboring Siwa culture, though Xindian culture.
The Xindian culture expanded westard and came closer to the Kayue culture, Xindian wenhua - A rare large Neolithic painted pottery jar Xindian culture, c.1500 -1000 BC Xindian Culture Painted Pottery
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a part of the worlds human population. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize, wild rice, from which the crop was developed, may have its native range in Australia. Chinese legends attribute the domestication of rice to Shennong, the emperor of China. Genetic evidence has shown that rice originates from a single domestication 8, archaeological evidence had suggested that rice was domesticated in the Yangtze River valley region in China. From East Asia, rice was spread to Southeast and South Asia, Rice was introduced to Europe through Western Asia, and to the Americas through European colonization. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally, in some areas such as the Far East or Spain, there is a preference for softer and stickier varieties. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial.
The rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and it has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long, the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate. However, rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems. Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade, the traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. The name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia. The Greek word is the source of all European words, the origin of the Greek word is unclear. It is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word அரிசி, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, and proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead.
The varieties of rice are typically classified as long-, medium-, the grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking, medium-grain rice becomes more sticky. Medium-grain rice is used for dishes, for risotto in Italy
The Xinle culture was a Neolithic culture in northeast China, found primarily around the lower Liao River on the Liaodong Peninsula in Liaoning. The culture showed evidence of cultivation and pig domestication. The type site at Xinle was discovered in the Huanggu District of Shenyang, the site is named after an old inn, in which grounds the remains were first discovered. The site of the ancient settlement was discovered in the grounds of an old accommodation block for an electrical factory, the accommodation block was called the Xinle Dormitory and hence the discovery was named the Xinle Relic. When it was discovered that the settlement was that of a hitherto unknown civilization, although more recent discoveries in nearby areas have been extremely significant, especially one in Xinmin, the original name has prevailed. In 1973, excavations at the site discovered evidence for some 40 neolithic houses, artifacts uncovered during the dig included stone tools, jade, bone tools, wood carvings and refined coal.
In 1978, another dig uncovered yet more artifacts including one wooden carving that was some 7,200 years old, no other find in the whole of Shenyang has been older, the find is one of the oldest wooden carvings found anywhere in the world. The excavations discovered two Khitan tombs from 1,000 years ago, in 1984, the Museum of the Xinle Civilization was founded. The museum is divided two sections and south. The southern section contains displays of the artifacts unearthed during the various excavations that have taken place on 44-acre site. The northern section contains a reconstruction of a 7, 000-year-old Xinle village, some of the houses in the settlement contain representations of life 7,000 years ago. List of Neolithic cultures of China Hongshan culture Stark, Miriam T, archaeology of Asia,2006, ISBN 1-4051-0213-6
Millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in the tropics of Asia and Africa. The crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, millets are indigenous to many parts of the world. The most widely grown millet is pearl millet, which is an important crop in India, Finger millet, proso millet, and foxtail millet are important crop species. Millets have been important food staples in human history, particularly in Asia and they have been in cultivation in East Asia for the last 10,000 years. Consumption of the minor millets has been practiced since the beginning of the ancient civilizations of the world, the millets are small-grained, warm-weather cereals belonging to grass family. They are highly tolerant of extreme conditions such as drought and are nutritious compared to the major cereals such as rice. They contain low phytic acid and are rich in fiber, calcium.
Moreover, these millets release sugar slowly in the blood and diminish the glucose absorption, major millets are the most widely cultivated species. Eragrostideae tribe, Eleusine coracana, Finger millet - the fourth-most cultivated millet, paniceae tribe, Panicum miliaceum, Proso millet - the third-most cultivated millet. Pennisetum glaucum, Pearl millet - the most cultivated millet, setaria italica, Foxtail millet - the second-most cultivated millet. Jobs tears - of minor importance as a crop, eragrostideae tribe, Eragrostis tef, Teff - often not considered to be a millet. White fonio, Black fonio, Polish millet - of minor importance as a crop, Japanese barnyard millet, Indian barnyard millet, Burgu millet, Common barnyard grass. Collectively, the members of this genus are called barnyard grasses or barnyard millets, other common names to identify these seeds include Jhangora, Samo seeds or Morio / Mario / Moraiaya seeds. Panicum sumatrense, Little millet Paspalum scrobiculatum, Kodo millet Urochloa ramosa, guinea millet Foxtail Millet is known to have been the first domesticated millet.
Chinese legends attribute the domestication of millet to Shennong, the legendary Emperor of China, millets formed important parts of the prehistoric diet in Indian, Chinese Neolithic and Korean Mumun societies. Broomcorn and foxtail millet were important crops beginning in the Early Neolithic of China, for example, some of the earliest evidence of millet cultivation in China was found at Cishan. Evidence at Cishan for foxtail millet dates back to around 6500 BC, a 4, 000-year-old well-preserved bowl containing well-preserved noodles made from foxtail millet and broomcorn millet was found at the Lajia archaeological site in China