An insult is an expression, statement which is disrespectful or scornful. Insults may be intentional or accidental, an insult may be factual, but at the same time pejorative, such as the word inbred. Erving Goffman points out that every crack or remark set up the possibility of a counter-riposte, topper, or squelch, that is, examples of backhanded compliments include, I did not expect you to ace that exam. Which could impugn the targets success as a fluke and that skirt makes you look far thinner. I wish I could be as straightforward as you, but I always try to get along with everyone and you have the boldness of a much younger woman. Verbal insults often take a form, this includes offensive profanity. would insult each other grossly. Various typologies of insults have been proposed over the years, shakespeare himself set up an insult-hierarchy of seven-fold degrees. Thomas Conley, Toward a rhetoric of insult, university of Chicago Press,2010, ISBN 0-226-11478-3. Language Sciences, Volume 33, Number 3, May 2011, media related to Insults at Wikimedia Commons
Criticism is the practice of judging the merits and faults of something. The judger is called a critic, to engage in criticism is to criticise. One specific item of criticism is called a criticism or critique, Criticism is an evaluative or corrective exercise that can occur in any area of human life. Criticism can therefore take different forms. How exactly people go about criticizing, can vary a great deal, in specific areas of human endeavour, the form of criticism can be highly specialized and technical, it often requires professional knowledge to understand the criticism. This article provides only general information about criticism, for subject-specific information, see the Varieties of criticism page. To criticize does not necessarily imply to find fault, but the word is taken to mean the simple expression of an object against prejudice. Often criticism involves active disagreement, but it may only mean taking sides and it could just be an exploration of the different sides of an issue.
Criticism is often presented as something unpleasant, but thats not true, there are friendly criticisms, amicably discussed, and some people find great pleasure in criticism. The Pulitzer Prize for Criticism has been presented since 1970 to a writer who has demonstrated distinguished criticism. Normally criticism involves a dialogue of some kind, direct or indirect, one is still engaging with the ideas of others, even if only indirectly. One can of course keep a criticism to oneself, rather than express or communicate it, but in general the intention is, self-criticism, even if wholly private, still mentally takes the concerns of others into account. Another meaning of criticism is the study and interpretation of literature, film, the goal of this type of criticism is to understand the possible meanings of cultural phenomena, and the context in which they take shape. This section is about the origin and evolution of the meanings of the expression criticism, the English word criticism is derived from the French critique, which dates back to at least the 14th century.
The words critic and critical existed in the English language from the century. In turn, the French expression critique has roots in Latin, related Greek terms are krinein, krei- and krisis. The early English meaning of criticism was primarily literary criticism, that of judging and interpreting literature, samuel Johnson is often held as the prime example of criticism in the English language, and his contemporary Alexander Popes Essay on Criticism is a significant landmark. To be critical meant, positively, to have good, informed judgement about matters of culture, derivatively, a criticism referred to a nice point or a distinction, a tiny detail, a pedantic nicety, a subtlety, or a quibble
The punk subculture, which centres on punk rock music, includes a diverse array of ideologies and forms of expression, including visual art, dance and film. The subculture is largely characterized by anti-establishment views and the promotion of individual freedom, the punk subculture is centered on a loud, aggressive genre of rock music called punk rock. It is usually played by small bands consisting of a vocalist, Punk politics cover the entire political spectrum. Punk-related ideologies are mostly concerned with freedom and anti-establishment views. Common punk viewpoints include anti-authoritarianism, a DIY ethic, non-conformity, direct action, there is a wide range of punk fashion, in terms of clothing, cosmetics, tattoos and body modification. Early punk fashion adapted everyday objects for aesthetic effect, such as T-shirts, leather jackets, hardcore punk fans adopted a dressed-down style of T-shirts, combat boots or sneakers and crewcut-style haircuts. Women in the hardcore scene typically wore masculine clothing, one part of punk was creating explicitly outward identities of sexuality.
Everything that was supposed to be hidden was brought to the front. Punk aesthetics determine the type of art punks enjoy, usually underground, iconoclastic. Punk artwork graces album covers, flyers for concerts, and punk zines, Punk has generated a considerable amount of poetry and prose. Punk has its own press in the form of punk zines, which feature news, cultural criticism. Some zines take the form of perzines, important punk zines include Maximum RocknRoll, Punk Planet, No Cure, Cometbus and Search & Destroy. Many punk-themed films have made, as have punk rock music videos. Some punk films intercut stock footage with news clips and amateur videos of concerts, Punks can come from any and all walks of life and economic classes, and punk culture has aspects of gender equalist ideology. The punk subculture emerged in the United Kingdom, exactly which region originated punk has long been a major controversy within the movement. Various musical, political and artistic movements influenced the subculture.
In the late 1970s, the subculture began to diversify, which led to the proliferation of such as new wave, post-punk,2 Tone, pop punk, hardcore punk, no wave, street punk. Hardcore punk, street punk and Oi. sought to do away with the frivolities introduced in the years of the original punk movement
Profanity is socially offensive language, which may be called bad language, strong language, coarse language, foul language, bad words, vulgar language, lewd language, choice words or expletives. The use of language is swearing, cursing or cussing. Used in this sense, profanity is a subset of a languages lexicon that is considered to be strongly impolite. It can show a debasement of someone or something, or show intense emotion, profanity takes the form of words or verbal expressions that fall into the category of formulaic language. The term profane originates from classical Latin profanus, literally before the temple and it carried the meaning of either desecrating what is holy or with a secular purpose as early as the 1450s CE. Moreover, many Bible verses speak against swearing, profanities, in the original meaning of blasphemous profanity, are part of the ancient tradition of the comic cults, which laughed and scoffed at the deity or deities. An example from Gargantua and Pantagruel is Christ, look ye, in English, swear words and curse words tend to have Germanic, rather than Latin etymology.
Shit has a Germanic root, as, does fuck, the more technical alternatives are often Latin in origin, such as defecate or excrete, and fornicate or copulate respectively. Strong language is by no means a recent phenomenon, the Bible records instances, such as mention of men who eat their own dung, and drink their own piss in the Authorized King James Version of the 1611 translation of Hebrew text of 2 Kings 18,27. Analyses of recorded conversations reveal that an average of roughly 80–90 words that a person each day –0. 5% to 0. 7% of all words – are swear words. In comparison, first-person plural pronouns make up 1% of spoken words, Swearing performs certain psychological functions, and uses particular linguistic and neurological mechanisms, all these are avenues of research. Functionally similar behavior can be observed in chimpanzees, and may contribute to our understanding, Keele University researchers Stephens and Kingston found that swearing relieves the effects of physical pain. Stephens said I would advise people, if they hurt themselves, the overuse of swear words tends to diminish this effect.
The Keele team won the Ig Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 for their research, a team of neurologists and psychologists at the UCLA Easton Center for Alzheimers Disease Research suggested that swearing may help differentiate Alzheimers disease from frontotemporal dementia. Neurologist Antonio Damasio noted that loss of language due to damage to the language areas of the brain. A group of researchers from Wright State University studied why people swear in the world by collecting tweets posted on Twitter. An interdisciplinary team of researchers from the University of Warsaw investigated bilingual swearing and it listed the profanities in order of decreasing severity. A similar survey was carried out in 2009 by New Zealands Broadcasting Standards Authority, the results were published in March 2010, in a report called What Not to Swear
An innuendo is a hint, insinuation or intimation about a person or thing, especially of a denigrating or a derogatory nature. It can be a remark or question, typically disparaging, in the latter sense the intention is often to insult or accuse someone in such a way that ones words, taken literally, are innocent. The term sexual innuendo has acquired a meaning, namely that of a risqué double entendre by playing on a possibly sexual interpretation of an otherwise innocent uttering. For example, We need to go deeper can be seen as either a request for further inquiry, or a request to go deeper into an intimate part. In the context of law, an innuendo meaning is one which is not directly contained in the words complained of. British sitcoms and comedy shows such as Are You Being Served. mild sexual innuendo is a staple of British pantomime. The figure on the right or above shows a male cat paying a call on a female cat, numerous television programs targeted at child audiences often use innuendos in attempt to entertain adolescent/adult audiences without exceeding their networks censorship policies.
Many American primetime shows use an extensive amount of innuendo to the point that it is rated TV-PG/14 D for dialogue. Shows such as The Simpsons, Son of the Beach, The Office, The Big Bang Theory, King of the Hill, House and Butt-head, Everybody Hates Chris, George Lopez, American Dad. Tosh.0,30 Rock, and especially Family Guy, South Park, many radio shows, including the Bobby Bones Show, the Rick and Bubba Show, The Gallo Radio Show, and most of the songs played on Southern Crossroads are notable for this. A character in the American sitcom Scrubs, The Todd, is known for his constant innuendo, even shown waiting around corners for set ups, opportunities to make innuendos. On The Scott Mills Show on BBC Radio 1, listeners are asked to send in clips from radio and TV with innuendos in a humorous context, a feature known as Innuendo Bingo. Presenters and special guests fill their mouths with water and listen to the clips, roman à clef Blind item Doublespeak Euphemism
Respect can be a specific feeling of regard for the actual qualities of the one respected. It can be conduct in accord with a specific ethic of respect, some people may earn the respect of individuals by assisting others or by playing important social roles. In many cultures, individuals are considered to be worthy of respect until they prove otherwise, respect is shown in many different languages by following certain grammatical conventions, especially in referring to individuals. An honorific is a word or expression that shows respect when used in addressing or referring to a person or animal, typically honorifics are used for second and third persons, use for first person is less common. Some languages have anti-honorific first person forms whose effect is to enhance the relative honor accorded a second or third person, for instance, it is disrespectful to not use polite language and honorifics when speaking in Japanese with someone having a higher social status. The Japanese honorific san can be used when speaking English, in China it is rude to call someone by their first name unless you have known them for a long period of time.
In work-related situations people address each other by their title, at home people often refer to each other by nicknames or terms of kinship. In the Chinese culture, individuals often address their friends as juniors and seniors even if they are just a few months younger or older, when a Chinese person asks someone their age they often do this so they know how to address the person. This counts for money, which is considered to be a manifestation of the goddess of wealth Lakshmi, pranāma, or the touching of feet in Indian culture is a sign of respect. For instance, when a child is greeting his or her grandparent, in Indian culture, it is believed that the feet are a source of power. In many African/West Indian descent communities and some non-African//West Indian descent communities, many gestures or physical acts that are common in the West can be considered disrespectful in Japan. For instance, one should not point directly at someone, when greeting someone or thanking them, it may be insulting if the person of lower status does not bow lower than the person with higher status.
The duration and level of the bow depends on factors such as age. Some signs of physical respect apply to women only, if a woman does not wear cosmetics or a brassiere, it is possible that she will be considered unprofessional or others may think she does not care about the situation. Unlike Japanese culture, it is not necessary in Chinese culture to bow to one another as a greeting or parting gesture, bowing is generally reserved as a sign of respect for elders and ancestors. When bowing, they place the fist of the hand in the palm of their left at stomach level. The deeper the bow, the respect they are showing. In Chinese culture, there is not much participation in contact, especially when doing business because this can be seen as too casual
Online Etymology Dictionary
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary that describes the origins of English-language words. Douglas Harper compiled the etymology dictionary to record the history and evolution of more than 30,000 words, including slang, the core body of its etymology information stems from Ernest Weekleys An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. Other sources include the Middle English Dictionary and the Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology, in producing his large dictionary, Douglas Harper says that he is essentially and for the most part a compiler, an evaluator of etymology reports which others have made. Harper works as a Copy editor/Page designer for LNP Media Group, as of June 2015, there were nearly 50,000 entries in the dictionary. It is cited in articles as a source for explaining the history
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity. The English dictionary definition of Late Latin dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD and this somewhat ambiguously defined period fits between Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. Although there is no consensus about exactly when Classical Latin should end, nor exactly when Medieval Latin should begin. Being a written language, Late Latin is not identical with Vulgar Latin, the latter during those centuries served as proto-Romance, a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages. Although Late Latin reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin vocabulary and constructs, it remains to a large extent classical in overall features, some are more literary and classical, some more inclined to the vernacular. Nor is Late Latin identical to Christian or patristic Latin, the writings of the early Christian fathers. While Christian writings are considered a subset of Late Latin, pagans wrote much Late Latin, serving as some sort of lingua franca to a large empire, Latin tended to become simpler, to keep above all what it had of the ordinary.
Neither Late Latin nor Late Antiquity are modern terms or concepts, instances of English vernacular use of the term may be found from the 18th century. The term Late Antiquity meaning post-classical and pre-medieval had currency in English well before then, Imperial Latin went on into English literature, Fowlers History of Roman Literature mentions it in 1903. There are, insoluble problems with the beginning and end of Imperial Latin, politically the excluded Augustan Period is the paradigm of imperiality, and yet the style cannot be bundled with either the Silver Age or with Late Latin. Moreover, in 6th century Italy, the Roman Empire no longer existed, subsequently the term Imperial Latin was dropped by historians of Latin literature, although it may be seen in marginal works. The Silver Age was extended a century and the four centuries represent Late Latin. Low Latin is a vague and often pejorative term that might refer to any post-classical Latin from Late Latin through Renaissance Latin depending on the author.
Its origins are obscure but the Latin expression media et infima Latinitas sprang into public notice in 1678 in the title of a Glossary by Charles du Fresne, the multi-volume set had many editions and expansions by other authors subsequently. The title varies somewhat, most commonly used was Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis and it has been translated by expressions of widely different meanings. The uncertainty is understanding what media and infima, the media is securely connected to Medieval Latin by Canges own terminology expounded in the Praefatio, such as scriptores mediae aetatis, writers of the middle age. Canges Glossary takes words from authors ranging from the Christian period to the Renaissance, in the former case the infimae appears extraneous, it recognizes the corruptio of the corrupta Latinitas Cange said his Glossary covered. The two-period case postulates a second unity of style, infima Latinitas, Cange in the glossarial part of his Glossary identifies some words as being used by purioris Latinitatis scriptores, such as Cicero
Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, is an American company that publishes reference books, especially known for its dictionaries. In 1831, George and Charles Merriam founded the company as G & C Merriam Co. in Springfield, in 1843, after Noah Webster died, the company bought the rights to An American Dictionary of the English Language from Websters estate. All Merriam-Webster dictionaries trace their lineage to this source, in 1964, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. acquired Merriam-Webster, Inc. as a subsidiary. The company adopted its current name in 1982, in 1806, Webster published his first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language. In 1807 Webster started two decades of work to expand his publication into a fully comprehensive dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language. To help him trace the etymology of words, Webster learned 26 languages, Webster hoped to standardize American speech, since Americans in different parts of the country used somewhat different vocabularies and spelled and used words differently.
Webster completed his dictionary during his year abroad in 1825 in Paris and his 1820s book contained 70,000 words, of which about 12,000 had never appeared in a dictionary before. He added American words, including skunk and squash, that did not appear in British dictionaries, at the age of 70 in 1828, Webster published his dictionary, it sold poorly, with only 2,500 copies putting him in debt. However, in 1840, he published the edition in two volumes with much greater success. He shows ways that American poetry inherited Websters ideas and draws on his lexicography to develop the language, in 1843, after Websters death, George Merriam and Charles Merriam secured publishing and revision rights to the 1840 edition of the dictionary. They published a revision in 1847, which did not change any of the text but merely added new sections. This began a series of revisions that were described as being unabridged in content, in 1884 it contained 118,000 words,3000 more than any other English dictionary.
With the edition of 1890, the dictionary was retitled Websters International, the Collegiate Dictionary was introduced in 1898 and the series is now in its eleventh edition. Following the publication of Websters International in 1890, two Collegiate editions were issued as abridgments of each of their Unabridged editions, with the ninth edition, the Collegiate adopted changes which distinguish it as a separate entity rather than merely an abridgment of the Third New International. Some proper names were returned to the word list, including names of Knights of the Round Table, the most notable change was the inclusion of the date of the first known citation of each word, to document its entry into the English language. The eleventh edition includes more than 225,000 definitions, a CD-ROM of the text is sometimes included. This dictionary is preferred as a source for general matters of spelling by the influential The Chicago Manual of Style, the Chicago Manual states that it normally opts for the first spelling listed.
Merriam overhauled the dictionary again with the 1961 Websters Third New International under the direction of Philip B, making changes that sparked public controversy
Dude is an American English slang term for an individual. It typically applies to men, although the word can encompass either sex, Dude is an old term, recognized by multiple generations although potentially with slightly different meanings. From the 1870s to the 1960s, dude primarily meant a person who dressed in a fashionable manner or a citified person who was visiting a rural location. In the 1960s, dude evolved to mean any male person, current slang retains at least some use of all three of these common meanings. The word may have derived from the Scottish term for clothes, the term dude was first used in print in 1876, in Putnams Magazine, to mock how a woman was dressed. The use of the word dudde for clothing in English goes as far back as 1567, in the popular press of the 1880s and 1890s, dude was a new word for dandy – an extremely well-dressed male, a man who paid particular importance to how he appeared. The café society and Bright Young Things of the late 1800s, Young men of leisure vied to show off their wardrobes.
The best known of this type is probably Evander Berry Wall and this version of the word is still in occasional use in American slang, as in the phrase all duded up for getting dressed in fancy clothes. The word was used to refer to Easterners and referred to a man with store bought clothes, the word dude derived from the Spanish phrase lo dudo meaning doubtful. The word was used by cowboys to unfavorably refer to the city dwellers, a variation of this was a well-dressed man who is unfamiliar with life outside a large city. In The Home and Farm Manual, author Jonathan Periam used the term several times to denote an ill-bred and ignorant. The implication of an individual who is unfamiliar with the demands of life outside of urban settings gave rise to the definition of dude as a city slicker, or an Easterner in the West. Thus dude was used to describe the men of the expansion of the United States during the 19th century by ranch-and-homestead-bound settlers of the American Old West. This use is reflected in the ranch, a guest ranch catering to urbanites seeking more rural experiences.
Dude ranches began to appear in the American West in the early 20th century, the implicit contrast is with those persons accustomed to a given frontier, mining, or other rural setting. This usage of dude was still in use in the 1950s in America, as a word for a tourist—of either gender—who attempts to dress like the local culture but fails. The term was used as a job description, such as bush hook dude as a position on a railroad in the 1880s. For an example, see the Stampede Tunnel, in the early 1960s, dude became prominent in surfer culture as a synonym of guy or fella