Norrköping is a city in the province of Östergötland in eastern Sweden and the seat of Norrköping Municipality, Östergötland County, about 160 km southwest of the national capital Stockholm. The city has a population of 95,618 inhabitants in 2016, out of a municipal total of 130,050, making it Sweden's tenth largest city and eighth largest municipality; the city is situated by the mouth of the river Motala ström, at Bråviken, an inlet of the Baltic Sea. Water power from the Motala ström and the good harbour were factors that facilitated the rapid growth of this once industrial city, known for its textile industry, it has several nicknames such as: "Sweden's Manchester", "Peking" and "Surbullestan". The city has medieval foundations by settlers around the Norrköping twin city with Linköping Motala stream estuary, who used the falls and rapids to power their mills; the stream was full of fish such as salmon. Exact dates are uncertain, it was dedicated to Norway's patron. The first trace of the city's name is from 1283, when Sophia of Denmark donated her rights of salmon fishing to the Skänninge monastery.
The town is estimated to have received city status in the early 14th century, although no written documents exist prior to a document from 1384. This document, signed by Albrekt of Sweden is stored in the city archive today. Köping means there was a market there, while Nörr or Norr means "north". There is a smaller town nearby named Söderköping, or "South market"; the city was the location of several battles in the ensuing centuries. As a consequence, nothing of the medieval Norrköping remains today. During the Northern Seven Years' War, the entire southern part of Norrköping was burnt, it was rebuilt by John III of Sweden. In 1618, a weapon industry was established by supervision of Gustavus Adolphus; the harbour attracted ships due to its proximity to the industries of Finspång. In addition to the weapon industry, a large scale industry of textile was initiated. An important benefactor was the industrial man Louis De Geer. At De Geer's death, Norrköping was Sweden's second largest city; the city again burnt in 1655, again in 1719 during the Russian Pillage of 1719-21 when the Russians burnt it to the ground.
Stones from the Johannisborg castle were used to build new houses, today only a few stones remain. During the 18th century it was rebuilt and several industries soon got a stronghold: In the 1740s, Norrköping boasted three sugar refineries. From this time stems the city churches of Saint Olof and Saint Hedvig, several other old houses. In 1762, the first theater in Sweden outside of Stockholm was established in the city, the Egges Teater. Norrköping's importance again flourished. In 1769 the Swedish Riksdag assembled there. In 1800 King Gustav IV of Sweden was crowned in the Church of Saint Olof. In the 18th and early 19th Centuries, Norrköping was one of the three Swedish cities where Jews were allowed to live; the city again suffered fires in 1822 and 1826. Thereafter wooden houses were banned. In 1841 a ship industry was initiated as a branch of Motala Verkstad in Motala. In 1850 the industry had over 600 employees making it Sweden's largest ship industry at the time. During the remaining 19th century, the industries kept expanding.
The area by the Motala Stream was developed further with the construction of a cotton refinery, a paper mill was constructed in 1854, specializing in newspaper, is still today exporting to customers around the world. The industry, including textile manufacturers expanded into the 20th century. In 1950 a total of 54 factories had 6,600 employees in town. By 1956, however, 18 of them had been closed due to competition from countries abroad with lower wages, such as Italy and Japan. In 1970 only 10 factories and 1,200 employees remained. In that year, the renowned Holmen paper mill, with its 350 years long history, announced closure, another 900 people were let go. To counter the effects, several governmental authorities were relocated to Norrköping from Stockholm. See Braviken Paper Mill; as of 2002, Norrköping is now seeing a revival, as a center of education. The Norrköping symbol represents the "new" Norrköping; the Motala ström river flows through the city. In connection to the latter is the industrial landscape where the old textile industries once were situated.
In the summer, there is a cactus plantation in Carl Johans Park. 25,000 cacti planted there every summer. Kolmårdens Djurpark is a zoo located 30 km north of Norrköping. In connection to the large outdoor zoo, there is Tropicariet, an aquarium, where for example snakes and sharks can be seen; the archipelagos 50 km away from Norrköping are called St Gryt. A campus of Linköping University, its own symphonic orchestra, an airport called Kungsängen with 170,000 traveling, a high-tech industry park called Norrköping Science Park, Petroglyphs from the Nordic Bronze Age. Norrköping had a humid continental climate for the reference period of 1961–1990, but it was borderline four-season oceanic during that period and has since more resembled the latter, with somewhat warmer temperatures year-round. In spite of it being located near the Baltic Sea, Norrköping has a dry climate with precipitation levels averaging 508.2 millimetres between 1961 and 1990. That would in turn be low for a mar
Peking duck is a dish from Beijing, prepared since the imperial era. The meat is characterized by its thin, crisp skin, with authentic versions of the dish serving the skin and little meat, sliced in front of the diners by the cook. Ducks bred specially for the dish are slaughtered after 65 days and seasoned before being roasted in a closed or hung oven; the meat is eaten with spring onion and sweet bean sauce with pancakes rolled around the fillings. Sometimes pickled radish is inside, other sauces can be used. Duck has been roasted in China since the Northern Dynasties. A variation of roast duck was prepared for the Emperor of China in the Yuan dynasty; the dish named "shāo yāzi", was mentioned in the Complete Recipes for Dishes and Beverages manual in 1330 by Hu Sihui, an inspector of the imperial kitchen. The Peking Roast Duck that came to be associated with the term was developed during the Ming dynasty, by Peking Duck was one of the main dishes on imperial court menus; the first restaurant specialising in Peking Duck, was established in the Xianyukou, close to Qianmen of Beijing in 1416.
By the Qianlong Period of the Qing dynasty, the popularity of Peking Duck spread to the upper classes, inspiring poetry from poets and scholars who enjoyed the dish. For instance, one verse of Dūmén zhúzhīcí, a Beijing local poem was, "Fill your plates with roast duck and suckling pig". In 1864, the Quanjude restaurant was established in Beijing. Yang Quanren, the founder of Quanjude, developed the hung oven to roast ducks. With its innovations and efficient management, the restaurant became well known in China, introducing the Peking Duck to the rest of the world. By the mid-20th century, Peking Duck had become a national symbol of China, favored by tourists and diplomats alike. For example, Henry Kissinger, the Secretary of State of the United States, met Premier Zhou Enlai in the Great Hall of the People on July 10, 1971, during his first visit to China. After a round of inconclusive talks in the morning, the delegation was served Peking Duck for lunch, which became Kissinger's favourite; the Americans and Chinese issued a joint statement the following day, inviting President Richard Nixon to visit China in 1972.
Following Zhou's death in 1976, Kissinger paid another visit to Beijing to savor Peking Duck. Peking Duck, at the Quanjude in particular, has been a favorite dish for various political leaders ranging from Cuban Fidel Castro to former German chancellor Helmut Kohl. Two notable restaurants in Beijing which serve this dish are Quanjude and Bianyifang, both centuries-old establishments which have become household names, each with their own style: Quanjude is known for using the hung oven roasting method, while Bianyifang uses the oldest technique of closed oven roasting; the ducks used to prepare Peking Duck originated in Nanjing. They were small, had black feathers, lived in the canals around the city linking major waterways. With the relocation of the Chinese capital to Beijing, supply barge traffic increased in the area; these barges would spill grain into the canals, providing food for the ducks. By the Five Dynasties, the new breed of duck had been domesticated by Chinese farmers. Nowadays, Peking Duck is prepared from the white feathered Pekin duck.
Newborn ducks are raised in a free range environment for the first 45 days of their lives, force fed 4 times a day for the next 15–20 days, resulting in ducks that weigh 5–7 kg. The force feeding of the ducks led to an alternate name for Peking Stuffed Duck. Fattened ducks are slaughtered, plucked and rinsed with water. Air is pumped under the skin through the neck cavity to separate the skin from the fat; the duck is soaked in boiling water for a short while before it is hung up to dry. While it is hung, the duck is glazed with a layer of maltose syrup, the inside is rinsed once more with water. A second layer of glaze/marinade of soy sauce, five-spice powder and more maltose is applied inside and out, the duck is left to stand for 24 hours in a cool, dry place.. It is roasted in an oven until the skin turns shiny brown. Besides two traditional methods to prepare Peking Duck, recipes have been compiled by chefs around the world to produce the dish at home. Peking duck is roasted in a closed oven, Bianyifang is the restaurant that keeps this tradition.
The closed oven is fitted with metal griddles. The oven is preheated by burning Gaoliang sorghum straw at the base; the duck is placed in the oven after the fire burns out, allowing the meat to be cooked through the convection of heat within the oven. Controlling the fuel and the temperature is the main skill. In closed-oven style, duck meat is combined well with the fat under the skin, therefore is juicy and tender; the open oven was developed in the imperial kitchens during the Qing Dynasty, adopted by the Quanjude restaurant chain. It is designed to roast up to 20 ducks at the same time with an open fire fueled by hardwood from peach or pear trees; the ducks are roasted at a temperature of 270 °C for 30 -- 40 minutes. While the ducks are roasting, the chef may use a pole to dangle each duck closer to the fire for 30-second intervals. In open-oven style, the fat is melted during the cooking process, so the skin is crispy, can be eaten separately as a snack; every part
The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae. Hominini excludes the genus Gorilla; as of 2019, there is no consensus on whether it should include the genus Pan, the question being tied to the complex speciation process connecting humans and chimpanzees and the development of bipedalism in proto-humans. The tribe was introduced by John Edward Gray, long before any details on the speciation of Pan and Homo were known. Gray's tribe Hominini by definition includes both Homo; this definition is still adhered to in the proposal by Mann and Weiss, which divides Hominini into three subtribes, Panina and Australopithecina. Alternatively, Hominini is taken to exclude Pan. In this case, Panini may be used to refer to the tribe containing Pan as its only genus. Minority dissenting nomenclatures include Gorilla in Hominini and Pan in Homo, or both Pan and Gorilla in Homo. By convention, the adjectival term "hominin" refers to the tribe Hominini, while the members of the Hominina subtribe are referred to as "homininan".
This follows the proposal by Mann and Weiss, which presents tribe Hominini as including both Pan and Homo, placed in separate subtribes. The genus Pan is referred to subtribe Panina, genus Homo is included in the subtribe Hominina. However, there is an alternative convention which uses "hominin" to exclude members of Panina, i.e. either just for Homo or for both human and australopithecine species. This alternative convention is referenced in Dunbar. Potts in addition uses the name Hominini in a different sense, as excluding Pan, uses "hominins" for this, while a separate tribe for chimpanzees is introduced, under the name Panini. In this recent convention, contra Gray, the term "hominin" is applied to Homo, Australopithecus and others that arose after the split from the line that led to chimpanzees; this cladogram shows the clade of superfamily Hominoidea and its descendent clades, focussed on the division of Hominini. The family Hominidae comprises the tribes Ponginae and Hominini, the latter two forming the subfamily of Homininae.
Hominini is divided into Australopithecina. The Hominina are held to have emerged within the Australopithecina. Genetic analysis combined with fossil evidence indicates that hominoids diverged from the Old World monkeys about 25 million years ago, near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary; the most recent common ancestors of the subfamilies Homininae and Ponginae, lived about 15 million years ago. In the following cladogram, the approximate time the clades radiated newer clades indicated in millions of years ago. Both Sahelanthropus and Orrorin existed during the estimated duration of the ancestral chimpanzee-human speciation events, within the range of eight to four million years ago. Few fossil specimens have been found that can be considered directly ancestral to genus Pan. News of the first fossil chimpanzee, found in Kenya, was published in 2005. However, it is dated to recent times—between 545 and 284 thousand years ago; the divergence of a "proto-human" or "pre-human" lineage separate from Pan appears to have been a process of complex speciation-hybridization rather than a clean split, taking place over the period of anywhere between 13 million years ago and some 4 million years ago.
Different chromosomes appear to have split at different times, with broad-scale hybridization activity occurring between the two emerging lineages as late as the period 6.3 to 5.4 Mya, according to Patterson et al. This research group noted that one hypothetical late hybridization period was based in particular on the similarity of X chromosomes in the proto-humans and stem chimpanzees, suggesting the final divergence as recent as 4 Mya. Wakeley rejected these hypotheses. Most DNA studies find that humans and Pan are 99% identical, but one study found only 94% commonality, with some of the difference occurring in noncoding DNA, it is most that the australopithecines, dating from 3 to 4.4 Mya, evolved into the earliest members of genus Homo. In the year 2000, the discovery of Orrorin tugenensis, dated as early as 6.2 Mya challenged critical elements of that hypothesis, as it suggested that Homo did not in fact derive from australopithecine ancestors. All the listed fossil genera are evaluated for: 1) probability of being ancestral to Homo, 2) whether they are more related to Homo than to any other living primate—two traits that could identify them as hominins.
Some, including Paranthropus and Australopithecus, are broadly thought to be ancestral and related to Homo.
Peking Man, Homo erectus pekinensis, is an example of Homo erectus. Discovered in 1923–27 during excavations at Zhoukoudian near Beijing, China, in 2009 this group of fossil specimens dated from 750,000 years ago, a new 26Al/10Be dating suggests they are in the range of 680,000–780,000 years old. Between 1929 and 1937, 15 partial crania, 11 mandibles, many teeth, some skeletal bones and large numbers of stone tools were discovered in the Lower Cave at Locality 1 of the Peking Man site at Zhoukoudian, their age is estimated to be between 300,000 years old. The most complete fossils, all of which were calvariae, are: Skull II, discovered at Locus D in 1929 but only recognized in 1930, is an adult or adolescent with a brain size of 1030 cc. Skull II.jpg Skull III, discovered at Locus E in 1929 is an adolescent or juvenile with a brain size of 915 cc. Skull III.jpg Skulls X, XI and XII were discovered at Locus L in 1936. They are thought to belong to an adult man, an adult woman and a young adult, with brain sizes of 1225 cc, 1015 cc and 1030 cc respectively.
Skull X.jpg Skull XI.jpg Skull XII.jpg Skull V: two cranial fragments were discovered in 1966 which fit with two other fragments found in 1934 and 1936 to form much of a skullcap with a brain size of 1140 cc. These pieces were found at a higher level, appear to be more modern than the other skullcaps. Most of the study on these fossils was done by Davidson Black until his death in 1934. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin took over until Franz Weidenreich replaced him and studied the fossils until he left China in 1941; the original fossils disappeared in 1941. Swedish geologist Johan Gunnar Andersson and American palaeontologist Walter W. Granger came to Zhoukoudian, China in search of prehistoric fossils in 1921, they were directed to the site at Dragon Bone Hill by local quarrymen, where Andersson recognised deposits of quartz that were not native to the area. Realising the importance of this find he turned to his colleague and announced, "Here is primitive man, he returned to the site in 1923, materials excavated in the two subsequent digs were sent to Uppsala University in Sweden for analysis.
In 1926 Andersson announced the discovery of two human molars in this material, Zdansky published his findings. Canadian anatomist Davidson Black of Peking Union Medical College, excited by Andersson and Zdansky’s find, secured funding from the Rockefeller Foundation and recommenced excavations at the site in 1927 with both Western and Chinese scientists. Swedish palaeontologist Anders Birger Bohlin unearthed a tooth that fall, Black placed it in a gold locket on his watch chain. Black published his analysis in the journal Nature, identifying his find as belonging to a new species and genus which he named Sinanthropus pekinensis, but many fellow scientists were skeptical about such an identification on the basis of a single tooth, the foundation demanded more specimens before it would agree to grant additional money. A lower jaw, several teeth, skull fragments were unearthed in 1928. Black presented these finds to the foundation and was rewarded with an $80,000 grant that he used to establish the Cenozoic Research Laboratory.
Excavations at the site under the supervision of Chinese archaeologists Yang Zhongjian, Pei Wenzhong, Jia Lanpo uncovered 200 human fossils from more than 40 individual specimens. These excavations came to an end in 1937 with the Japanese invasion. Excavations at Zhoukoudian resumed after the war; the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1987. New excavations were started at the site in June 2009; the first specimens of Homo erectus had been found in Java in 1891 by Eugene Dubois, but were dismissed by many as the remains of a deformed ape. The discovery of the great quantity of finds at Zhoukoudian put this to rest and Java Man, named Pithecanthropus erectus, was transferred to the genus Homo along with Peking Man. Contiguous findings of animal remains and evidence of fire and tool usage, as well as the manufacturing of tools, were used to support H. erectus being the first "faber" or tool-worker. The analysis of the remains of "Peking Man" led to the claim that the Zhoukoudian and Java fossils were examples of the same broad stage of human evolution.
This interpretation was challenged in 1985 by Lewis Binford, who claimed that Peking Man was a scavenger, not a hunter. Following the discovery of specimens of Lantian Man starting in 1963, added to the genus as Sinanthropus lantianensis; the next year Lantian man was reclassified as a subspecies of Homo erectus. The genus Sinanthropus is disused. Franz Weidenreich considered Peking Man as a human ancestor and an ancestor of the Chinese people, as seen in his original multiregional model of human evolution in 1946. Chinese writings on human evolution in 1950 considered evidence insufficient to determine whether Peking Man was ancestral to modern humans. One view was that Peking Man in some ways resembled modern Europeans more than modern Asians, but this debate of the origin has sometimes become complicated by issues of Chinese nationalism. By 1952 Peking Man was considered by some to be a direct a
SS City of Peking
SS City of Peking was an iron-hulled steamship built in 1874 by John Roach & Sons for the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. City of Peking and her sister ship City of Tokio were at the time of construction the largest vessels built in the United States, the second largest in the world behind the British leviathan Great Eastern. Like Great Eastern, construction of the two Pacific Mail ships was to be plagued with financial difficulties, which threatened to bankrupt the shipbuilder. Unlike Great Eastern, a commercial failure, City of Peking would go on to have a long and successful commercial career. In addition to her cargoes, City of Peking brought many Chinese and Japanese immigrants to the United States, served as a troopship in the Spanish–American War. In 1865 the Pacific Mail Steamship Company had obtained a $500,000 annual subsidy from the U. S. Congress to operate a steam packet between the United States and Japan. On June 1, 1872, Congress approved an additional $500,000 subsidy, raising the company's total subsidy to one million dollars annually.
Under the terms of the statute, the new subsidy was contingent upon the company increasing its packet to a monthly service beginning on October 1, 1873 and continuing for a period of ten years. The statute stipulated that the company must utilize iron ships of at least 4,000 tons for the service, built in the United States and suitable for conversion into naval auxiliaries in the event of war. With the incentive of the new half million dollar subsidy, Pacific Mail decided to upgrade its entire fleet of aging wooden side-wheelers with new iron vessels; the company it chose to build its new fleet was John Roach and Sons, which had opened a state-of-the-art shipyard, the Delaware River Iron Ship Building and Engine Works, in Chester, Pennsylvania. Pacific Mail ordered a total of nine iron ships from Roach, the first of which were to include the 4,000 ton sister ships City of Peking and City of Tokio. During construction however, rumors abounded that a newly established British company, China Transpacific, was building larger ships in England for service on the same route.
Pacific Mail concluded that it would require larger ships than envisaged to compete, submitted new specifications, which upgraded the two ships from 4,000 to 5,000 tons. The change required a complete redesign of the hull and machinery, Roach, who had laid the keels and constructed the frames to meet the original specification, was forced to start from scratch, delaying the ships' completion. Roach had welcomed the Pacific Mail contracts, anticipating that they would help establish a sound financial foundation for his new company. In the spring of 1873, eight months into construction of the new ships, Pacific Mail reported an inability to meet its payments. Pacific Mail's President, Alden B. Stockwell, had attempted to manipulate his firm's stock price with company funds, depleting cash reserves and borrowing money to meet the company's obligations; when the stock scheme fell through, Pacific Mail's cash reserves had been substituted with debt. Stockwell and another company director, Richard B.
Irwin pocketed a loan from Roach and misappropriated about $750,000 in company funds before fleeing the country. But worse was to come. Before his flight, Stockwell had exchanged 20,000 company shares with the notorious stock speculator Jay Gould for the sum of a million dollars. Gould now had influence on the company board, but he had no interest in reviving the company's fortunes. Instead, he hatched a scheme to drive the price of the company's stock down still further, to a point where he and his co-conspirators could purchase the undervalued stock—and thus gain control of the company—at the lowest possible price. In order to realize this aim, Gould needed to somehow persuade shareholders that the company was facing financial ruin; when Pacific Mail proved unable to initiate its new packet service on the date stipulated in the June 1872 statute, Congress was obliged to decide whether or not to cancel the subsidy. Gould seized on this issue to further his scheme of damaging the company's reputation.
He organized a lobbying campaign to persuade Congress to rescind the subsidy, while Roach, concerned that without the subsidy Pacific Mail might be unable to meet its debts, lobbied for retaining it. Unknown to Roach, his trusted friend and adviser, the lawyer William E. Chandler, acting as Roach's main Washington lobbyist had Gould as a client, a conflict of interest that encouraged Chandler's reticence; as a result, Roach's lobbying was ineffective at combating Gould's attempt to portray Roach as an unethical raider of the public purse. Gould's campaign was successful and Congress canceled the subsidy. Owed a million dollars by Pacific Mail, Roach was now in financial difficulty himself as nervous creditors began calling for immediate settlement of their debts. Roach bluffed his way out of the crisis by declaring his readiness to settle any debt within three days of receiving a detailed statement, but he now had to decide whether to foreclose on Pacific Mail in order to secure at least some of his investment in the ships, or to renegotiate the payment plan.
He chose the latter, accepting Pacific Mail's old ships for their scrap value as part payment, reducing its monthly payment obligation from $75,000 to $35,000. Roach was embittered by the affair, but his handling of the crisis increased his reputation as a businessman able to deal with adverse circumstances. City of Peking, the largest ship built in the United States at the time, was launched in March 1874 to great fanfare. Roach himself was honored with a testimonial dinner at which he was toasted—quite inaccurately, to the
Beijing romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast. Beijing is an important world capital and global power city, one of the world's leading centers for politics and business, education, culture and technology, architecture and diplomacy. A megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's political and educational center, it is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions. It is a major hub for the national highway, expressway and high-speed rail networks.
The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010, and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world. Combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back three millennia; as the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries, was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A. D. Encyclopædia Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural center of an area as immense as China." With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital.
The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, parks, tombs and gates. It has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal— all tourist locations. Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. Many of Beijing's 91 universities rank among the best in China, such as the Peking University and Tsinghua University. Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is known as China's Silicon Valley and a center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship. Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names; the name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital", was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing. The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin.
An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries. Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng, prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation. Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with IATA Code PEK, Peking University, still use the former romanization; the single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is 京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ"; the earliest traces of human habitation in the Beijing municipality were found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago.
Paleolithic Homo sapiens lived there more about 27,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing, located in downtown Beijing; the first walled city in Beijing was Jicheng, the capital city of the state of Ji and was built in 1045 BC. Within modern Beijing, Jicheng was located around the present Guang'anmen area in the south of Xicheng District; this settlement was conquered by the state of Yan and made its capital. After the First Emperor unified China, Jicheng became a prefectural capital for the region. During the Three Kingdoms period, it was held by Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao before falling to the Wei Kingdom of Cao Cao; the AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern China was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was the capital of the Xianbei Former Yan Kingdom. After China was reunified during the Sui dynasty, Jicheng known as Zhuojun, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal.
Under the Tang dynasty, Jicheng as Youzhou, served as a military frontier command center. During the An-Shi Rebellion and again amidst the turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own shor
The Peking Plan was an operation in which three destroyers of the Polish Navy, the Burza, Błyskawica, Grom, were evacuated to the United Kingdom in late August and early September 1939. They were ordered to travel to British ports and assist the British Royal Navy in the event of a war with Nazi Germany; the plan was successful and allowed the ships to avoid certain destruction or capture in the German invasion. The plan was created in order to remove the Destroyer Division of the Polish Navy from the Baltic Sea operation theatre; the Kriegsmarine had a significant numerical advantage over the Polish Navy, in the event of a war the Polish High Command realized that ships which remained in the Baltic Sea were to be sunk by the Germans. The Danish straits were well within the operational range of the Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe, so there was little chance for the plan to succeed, if implemented after hostilities began. On 24 August 1939, the British government, through Lieutenant-General Sir Adrian Carton De Wiart, head of the British Military mission, made strong representations to Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz, commander-in-chief of the Polish Forces, that the most modern elements of the fleet be evacuated from the Baltic Sea.
Although Śmigły-Rydz resisted the idea at first, he agreed. Part of Śmigły-Rydz's reason for doing so was the idea of a Romanian Bridgehead, it was hoped the Polish forces could hold out in the southeast of the country, near the common border with Romania, until relieved by a Franco-British offensive. Munitions and arms could be delivered from the west via Romanian railways; the Polish Navy would be able to escort the ships delivering the supplies to Romanian ports. As the tensions between Poland and Germany were increasing, the Commander of the Polish Fleet, Counter Admiral Józef Unrug signed the order for the operation on 26 August 1939, a day after the signing of the Polish-British Common Defence Pact; the order was delivered in sealed envelopes to the ships. On 29 August, the fleet received the signal "Peking, Peking" from the Polish Commander-in-Chief, Marshal Śmigły-Rydz: "Execute Peking". At 1255 hours, the ships received the signal via signal flags or radio from the signal tower at Oksywie.
The respective captains of the ships opened the envelopes and departed at 1415 under the command of Komandor porucznik Roman Stankiewicz. Błyskawica was commanded by Komandor porucznik Włodzimierz Kodrębski, Burza by Komandor podporucznik Stanisław Nahorski and Grom by Komandor porucznik Włodzimierz Hulewicz; the ships traveled without any problems through the Baltic. In the passage they encountered the German light cruiser Königsberg and a destroyer, but as the war had not yet started there was no combat; the Polish ships passed through the Kattegat and Skagerrak. On 31 August, the ships were spotted and followed by German reconnaissance seaplanes, the group changed course towards Norway in order to shake off the pursuit during the night, when they returned to their original course towards the UK; the ships entered the North Sea, at 0925 on 1 September learned about the German invasion of Poland. At 1258, they encountered the Royal Navy destroyers HMS Wanderer and Wallace and received a liaison officer.
At 17:37, they docked in the port of Edinburgh. The Peking Plan generated controversy in Poland; the ships served alongside the Royal Navy for the remainder of the war, ORP Burza and ORP Błyskawica survived the war. On the other hand, all the other surface ships of the Polish Navy which remained in the Baltic were engaged and sunk or captured by the German forces, starting with the Battle of the Gdańsk Bay on 1 September; the fate of the remaining two largest ships is telling: the fourth Polish destroyer and the heavy minelayer Gryf, the largest ship of the Polish navy, were both sunk by 3 September, the third day of the war. As for the Germans, in the face of Plan Peking on 30 August, they recalled from the Baltic Sea the tactical unit, assigned to engage them — the three light cruisers Nürnberg, Köln and Leipzig, under Vice-Admiral Densch. Orzeł incident Plan Worek Polish Navy order of battle in 1939 Jerzy Pertek, "Wielkie dni małej floty", Wyd. Poznańskie, Poznań 1976, OCLC 69482799, ISBN 83-210-0542-X Adrian Carton De Wiart, "Happy Odyssey" Jonathan Cape, London, 1950