Sino-Russian border conflicts
The Sino-Russian border conflicts were a series of intermittent skirmishes between the Qing dynasty, with assistance from the Joseon dynasty of Korea, the Tsardom of Russia by the Cossacks in which the latter tried and failed to gain the land north of the Amur River with disputes over the Amur region. The hostilities culminated in the Qing siege of the Cossack fort of Albazin and resulted in the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 which gave the land to China; the southeast corner of Siberia south of the Stanovoy Range was twice contested between Russia and China. Hydrologically, the Stanovoy Range separates the rivers that flow north into the Arctic from those that flow south into the Amur River. Ecologically, the area is the southeastern edge of the Siberian boreal forest with some areas good for agriculture, and politically, from about 600 AD, it was the northern fringe of the Chinese-Manchu world. Various Chinese dynasties would claim sovereignty, build forts and collect tribute when they were strong enough.
The Ming dynasty Nurgan Regional Military Commission built a fort on the Northern bank of the Amur at Aigun, established an administrative seat at Telin, modern Tyr, Russia above Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. Russian expansion into Siberia began with the conquest of the Khanate of Sibir in 1582. By 1643 they reached the Pacific at Okhotsk. East of the Yenisei River there was little land fit for agriculture, except Dauria, the land between the Stanovoy Range and the Amur River, nominally subject to the Qing dynasty. In 1643, Russian adventurers spilled over the Stanovoy Range, but by 1689 they were driven back by the Qing; the land was populated by some 9,000 Daurs on the Zeya River, 14,000 Duchers downstream and several thousand Tungus and Nivkhs toward the river mouth. The first Russians to hear of Dauria were Ivan Moskvitin and Maxim Perfilev about 1640. In 1859/60 the area was annexed by Russia and filled up with a Russian population. December 1639-May 1640: 1st battle - the natives and the Qing: Battle of Gualar: between 2 regiments of Manchu and a detachment of 500 Solon-Daurs led by the Solon-Evenk leader Bombogor while the second native leader Bardači kept neutral.
September 1640: 2nd battle - the natives and the Qing: Battle of Yaksa: between the natives and the Manchus. May 1643: 3rd battle; the native tribes submitted to the Qing Empire. Winter 1643 - Spring 1644: a detachment of a Russian expedition led by the Cossack Vasili Poyarkov explored the stream of the Jingkiri river, present-day Zeya, the Amur rivers. Vassili Poyarkov traveled from Yakutsk south to the Zeya River, he sailed down the Amur River to its mouth and north along the Okhotsk coast, returning to Yakutsk three years later. 1650-1651: In 1649 Yerofei Khabarov found a better route to the upper Amur and returned to Yakutsk where he recommended that a larger force be sent to conquer the region. He returned the same year and built winter quarters at Albazin at the northernmost point on the river, he occupied the Daur's fort Albazin after subduing the Daurs led by Arbaši. The Russian conquest of Siberia was accompanied by massacres due to indigenous resistance to colonization by the Russian Cossacks, who violently suppressed the natives.
The Russian Cossacks were named luocha, after Demons found in Buddhist mythology, by the Amur natives because of their cruelty towards the Amur tribes people, who were subjects of the Qing. March 24, 1652: Battle of AchanskNext summer he sailed down the Amur and built a fort at Achansk near present-day Khabarovsk. Again there was fighting and the natives called for the assistance of the Qing. On 24 March 1652, Achansk was unsuccessfully attacked by a large Qing force; as soon as the ice broke up Khabarov built winter quarters at Kumarsk. In the spring of 1653 reinforcements arrived under Dmitry Zinoviev; the two quarreled, Khabarov was escorted to Moscow for investigation. March–April 1655: Siege of Komar 1655: Russian Tsardom has established a "military governor of the Amur region". 1657: 2nd Battle of Sharhody. Onufriy Stepanov was left in charge with about 400-500 men, they had little difficulty defeating the local Qing troops. The Qing responded with two policies. First they ordered the local population to withdraw, thereby ending the grain production that had attracted the Russians in the first place.
Second they appointed the experienced general Sarhuda as the garrison commander at Ninguta. In 1657 he built more than 40 ships at the village of Ula.. In 1658 a large Qing fleet under Sarhuda caught up with Stepanov and killed him and about 220 Cossacks. A few became freebooters. In the following operations significant Korean forces under King Hyojong were included into Manchu-led troops; the campaigns became known in Korean historiography as Naseon Jeongbeol. January 1654: the first time a Korean contingent arrived to join a Manchu army near Ninguta. July 1654: Battle of Hutong between a joint Korean-Manchu army of 1500 men led by Byeon Geup against 400-500 Russians. 1658: Big warships capable of fighting Russian ships were built by Han Chinese shipbuilders for the Qing forces. Sarhuda's Qing fleet from Ninguta, including a large Korean contingent led by
High Qing era
The High Qing era refers to the period of the Qing dynasty in China during which the country's prosperity grew to new heights. Set after the rule of the Ming dynasty, the High Qing saw China transformed into a commercial state with nearly twice the population of its predecessor, due to high political stability. Improvements in literacy took place during this period; the defining characteristics of the High Qing Empire are its new generation of rulers, commercialization, territorial expansion. Firstly, a new generation of emperors that combined the strengths of their culture in addition to a level of sinicization of the conquered cultures in order to combine assimilation and the retaining of their own cultural identity; this was initiated with the Kangxi Emperor, in power at the initiation of the High Qing. As an emperor he elevated the status of the Qing empire through his passion for education in combination with his military expertise, his restructuring of the bureaucracy into that of a cosmopolitan one.
His son and successor, the Yongzheng Emperor ruled differently through more harsh and brutal tactics, but was an efficient and unprecedented level of commitment to the betterment of the empire. The last successful emperor of the High Qing was the Qianlong Emperor who, following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, was a well-rounded ruler who created the peak of the High Qing empire; the unique and unprecedented ruling techniques of these three emperors, the emphasis on multiculturalism fostered the productivity and success, the High Qing era. Another key characteristic of the High Qing period was the spike in population growth. After the Ming dynasty, population had dropped; however due to the commercialization of the state, new types of foods became available. Produce like sweet potatoes and corn became substitutes for rice in times of need, which enabled the population to grow without food shortages; this allowed for the population to double in the eighteenth century. Additionally, the conquest of the western territories of the Mongols and Muslims under the rule of the Qing were another factor of prosperity.
Again, the skillful rule of the era’s emperors allowed for this success. Rule through chiefdoms in territories like Taiwan, allowed for the conquered peoples to retain their culture and be ruled by their own people while the Qing Empire still possessed the ultimate control and rule; these such ruling tactics created for little reason for rebellion of the conquered. Another aspect of Manchu rule under the Qing Empire was rule within modern day China; the Mongols' attempt to rule may have failed. The High Qing Emperors ruled from within, enabling them to obtain and retain stable and efficient control of the state. A heavy revival on the arts was another characteristic of the High Qing Empire. Through commercialization, items such as porcelain were mass produced and used in trade. Literature was emphasized as Imperial libraries were erected, literacy rates of men and women both, rose within the elite class; the significance of education and art in this era is that it created for economic stimulation that would last for a period of over fifty years.
Another characteristic of the High Qing was rising literacy rates, not only among men, but women as well. Because men left the home more during this era due to the commercialization of the trade industry, there was this conception that in order for the males for the family to succeed outside the home, women of the house needed to possess their own distinct morals and authority; this meant that the most ideal mothers of elite families would be educated as well as their husbands, in reading and writing. The main purpose for this was to start teaching their sons to read and write as young as possible to better prepare them for the civil service examinations in their intended futures; the emphasis on women's education is a major change from that of previous eras, which further distinguishes the High Qing from that of other eras, empires
Second Opium War
The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the United Kingdom and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860. The terms "Second War" and "Arrow War" are both used in literature. "Second Opium War" refers to one of the British strategic objectives: legalizing the opium trade, expanding trade, opening all of China to British merchants, exempting foreign imports from internal transit duties. The "Arrow War" refers to the name of a vessel; the war followed on from the First Opium War. In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking—the first of what the Chinese called the unequal treaties—granted an indemnity and extraterritoriality to Britain, the opening of five treaty ports, the cession of Hong Kong Island; the failure of the treaty to satisfy British goals of improved trade and diplomatic relations led to the Second Opium War. In China, the First Opium War is considered to be the beginning of modern Chinese history.
Between the two wars, repeated acts of aggression against British subjects led in 1847 to the Expedition to Canton which assaulted and took, by a coup de main, the forts of the Bocca Tigris resulting in the spiking of 879 guns. The 1850s saw the rapid growth of Western imperialism; some of the shared goals of the western powers were the expansion of their overseas markets and the establishment of new ports of call. The French Treaty of Huangpu and the American Wangxia Treaty both contained clauses allowing renegotiation of the treaties after 12 years of being in effect. In an effort to expand their privileges in China, Britain demanded the Qing authorities renegotiate the Treaty of Nanking, citing their most favoured nation status; the British demands included opening all of China to British merchant companies, legalising the opium trade, exempting foreign imports from internal transit duties, suppression of piracy, regulation of the coolie trade, permission for a British ambassador to reside in Beijing and for the English-language version of all treaties to take precedence over the Chinese language.
To give Chinese merchant vessels operating around treaty ports the same privileges accorded to British ships by the Treaty of Nanking, British authorities granted these vessels British registration in Hong Kong. In October 1856, Chinese marines in Canton seized a cargo ship called the Arrow on suspicion of piracy, arresting twelve of its fourteen Chinese crew members; the Arrow had been used by pirates, captured by the Chinese government, subsequently resold. It was registered as a British ship and still flew the British flag at the time of its detainment, though its registration had expired, its captain, Thomas Kennedy, aboard a nearby vessel at the time, reported seeing Chinese marines pull the British flag down from the ship. The British consul in Canton, Harry Parkes, contacted Ye Mingchen, imperial commissioner and Viceroy of Liangguang, to demand the immediate release of the crew, an apology for the alleged insult to the flag. Ye refused to release the last three. On 23 October the British destroyed four barrier forts.
On 25 October a demand was made for the British to be allowed to enter the city. Next day the British started to bombard the city, firing one shot every 10 minutes. Ye Mingchen issued a bounty on every British head taken. On 29 October a hole was blasted in the city walls and troops entered, with a flag of the United States being planted by James Keenan on the walls and residence of Ye Mingchen. Losses were 12 wounded. Negotiations failed and the city was bombarded. On 6 November, 23 war junks were destroyed. There were pauses for talks, with the British bombarding at intervals, fires were caused on 5 January 1857, the British returned to Hong Kong; the British government lost a Parliamentary vote regarding the Arrow incident and what had taken place at Canton to the end of the year on 3 March 1857. There was a general election in April 1857 which increased the government majority. In April, the British government asked the United States of America and Russia if they were interested in alliances, the offers were rejected.
In May 1857, the Indian Mutiny became serious. British troops destined for China were diverted to India, considered the priority issue. France joined the British action against China, prompted by complaints from their envoy, Baron Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros, over the execution of a French missionary, Father Auguste Chapdelaine, by Chinese local authorities in Guangxi province, which at that time was not open to foreigners; the British and the French joined forces under Admiral Sir Michael Seymour. The British army led by Lord Elgin, the French army led by Gros, together they attacked and occupied Canton in late 1857. A joint committee of the Alliance was formed; the Allies left the city governor at his original post in order to maintain order on behalf of the victors. The British-French Alliance maintained control of Canton for nearly four years; the coalition cruised north to capture the Taku Forts near Tientsin in May 1858. The United States and Russia sent envoys to Hong Kong to offer military help to the British and French, though in the end Russia sent no military aid.
The U. S. was involved in a minor concurrent conflict during the war, although they ignored the UK's offer of alliance and did not coordinate with the Anglo-French forces. In 1856, the Chinese garrison at Canton shelled a United States Navy steamer. S. Navy retaliated in the Battle of the Pearl River Forts; the ships bombarded the
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
The Qing dynasty the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, it was succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China, it was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing. In an unrelated development, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing, in 1644. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon.
He seized the capital. Resistance from the Southern Ming and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the Qing conquest of China proper by nearly four decades; the conquest was only completed in 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor reign. The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia; the early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs, while their title was Emperor, they used "Bogd khaan" when dealing with the Mongols and they were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government and retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with Manchus, they adapted the ideals of the tributary system in dealing with neighboring territories. During the Qianlong Emperor reign the dynasty reached its apogee, but began its initial decline in prosperity and imperial control; the population rose to some 400 millions, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis.
Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, ruling elites failed to change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium Wars, European powers imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control; the Taiping Rebellion and the Dungan Revolt in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people, most of them due to famines caused by war. In spite of these disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order and the Qing rulers; the initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi; when the Scramble for Concessions by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign "Boxers", the foreign powers invaded China, Cixi declared war on them, leading to defeat and the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.
After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform; the Wuchang Uprising on 11 October 1911, led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912. Nurhaci declared himself the "Bright Khan" of the Later Jin state in honor both of the 12th–13th century Jurchen Jin dynasty and of his Aisin Gioro clan, his son Hong Taiji renamed the dynasty Great Qing in 1636. There are competing explanations on the meaning of Qīng; the name may have been selected in reaction to the name of the Ming dynasty, which consists of the Chinese characters for "sun" and "moon", both associated with the fire element of the Chinese zodiacal system.
The character Qīng is associated with the water element. This association would justify the Qing conquest as defeat of fire by water; the water imagery of the new name may have had Buddhist overtones of perspicacity and enlightenment and connections with the Bodhisattva Manjusri. The Manchu name daicing, which sounds like a phonetic rendering of Dà Qīng or Dai Ching, may in fact have been derived from a Mongolian word "ᠳᠠᠢᠢᠴᠢᠨ, дайчин" that means "warrior". Daicing gurun may therefore have meant "warrior state", a pun, only intelligible to Manchu and Mongol people. In the part of the dynasty, however the Manchus themselves had forgotten this possible meaning. After conquering "China proper", the Manchus identified their state as "China", referred to it as Dulimbai Gurun in Manchu; the emperors equated the lands of the Qing state as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi-ethnic state, rejecting the idea that "China" only meant Han areas. The Qing emperors proclaimed that bo
The Sino-Nepalese War known as the Sino-Gorkha war and in Chinese the Campaign of Gorkha, was an invasion of Tibet by Nepal from 1788-1792. The war was fought between Nepalese and Tibetan armies over a trade dispute related to a long-standing problem of low-quality coins manufactured by Nepal for Tibet; the Nepalese Army under Bahadur Shah plundered Tibet under Qing rule and Tibetans signed the Treaty of Kerung paying annual tribute to Nepal. However, Tibetans requested for Chinese intervention and Sino-Tibetan forces under Fuk'anggan raided Nepal up to Nuwakot only to face strong Nepalese counterattack. Thus, both countries signed the Treaty of Betrawati. Tibet had been using Nepalese silver coins since the time of the Malla kings; when Prithvi Narayan Shah of the Gorkha Kingdom launched an economic blockade on the Kathmandu Valley during his unification campaign, Jaya Prakash Malla of Kathmandu faced an economic crisis which he tried to alleviate by minting low quality coins mixed with copper.
After Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the Kathmandu Valley in 1769 and established the rule of the Shah dynasty in Nepal, he reverted to minting pure silver coins. But by the damage to the confidence of the Nepalese minted coins had been done; the Tibetans demanded that all the impure coins in circulation be replaced by pure silver ones, a demand that would place a huge financial burden on the newly founded Shah dynasty. Prithvi Narayan Shah was not willing to bear such a huge loss in a matter for which he was not responsible, but was willing to vouch for the purity of the newly minted coins, thus two kinds of coins were in circulation in the market. The case remained unresolved due to his untimely demise in 1775, the problem was inherited by successive rulers of Nepal. By 1788 Bahadur Shah, the youngest son of Prithivi Narayan Shah, the uncle and regent of the minor king Rana Bahadur Shah, had inherited an aggravated coinage problem. On the plea of debased coins, Tibet had started to spread rumors that it was in a position to attack Nepal.
Another sore point in Nepal-Tibet relationship was Nepal’s decision to provide refuge to the 10th Shamarpa Lama, Mipam Chödrup Gyamtso, his fourteen Tibetan followers. He had fled from Tibet to Nepal on political grounds, yet another cause for conflict was the low quality of salt being provided by Tibetans to Nepal, since in those days, all the salt in Nepal came from Tibet. A Nepalese delegation was sent to Tibet to resolve these issues, but the demands made by the Nepalese were rejected by the Tibetans; the Nepalese found the quarrel over coinage a good pretext to expand their kingdom and to raid the rich monasteries in Tibet. Thus, Nepal launched multi-directional attacks on Tibet. In the year 1788, Bahadur Shah sent Gorkha troops under the joint command of Damodar Pande and Bam Shah to attack Tibet; the Gorkha troops reached as far as Tashilhunpo. A fierce battle was fought at Shikarjong; the Panchen Lama and Sakya Lama requested the Gorkha troops to have peace talks. So the Gorkha troops went towards Kuti and Kerung.
When the Qianlong Emperor of China heard the news of the invasion of Tibet by Nepal, he sent a large troop of the Chinese army under the command of General Chanchu. Chanchu came to know the situation from the Tibetan Lamas, he decided to stay in Tibet. The representatives of Tibet and Nepal met at Khiru in 1789 to have peace talks. In the talks Tibet was held responsible for the quarrel and were required to give compensation to Nepal for the losses incurred in the war. Tibet had to pay tribute to Nepal a sum of Rs. 50,001 every year in return for giving back to Tibet all the territories acquired during the war. It was called the Treaty of Kerung; the Nepalese representatives were given Rs. 50,001 as the first installment. So giving back the territories - Kerung, Longa and Falak, they went back to Nepal, but Tibet refused to pay the tributes after the first year of the conclusion of the treaty. As a result, the war between Nepal and Tibet continued; as Tibet had refused to pay the tribute to Nepal, Bahadur Shah sent a troop under Abhiman Singh Basnet to Kerung and another troop under the command of Damodar Pande to Kuti in 1791.
Damodar Pande captured the property of the monastery there. He arrested the minister of Lhasa, Dhoren Kazi and came back to Nepal; as soon as this news was heard by the Qianlong Emperor, he sent a strong troop of 70,000 soldiers under the leadership of Fuk'anggan to defend Tibet. Thus in the year 1792 the Nepal - Tibet war turned into a war between Nepal and the Qing empire; the Qing Empire asked Nepal to return the property to Tibet, looted at Digarcha. They demanded them to give back Shamarpa Lama who had taken asylum in Nepal, but Nepal turned a deaf ear to these demands. The Qing imperial army responded to Nepal with military intervention; the Qing forces marched along the banks of the Trishuli river. The Nepalese troops attempted to defend against the Qing attack, but were faced with overwhelming odds. Heavy damages were inflicted on both sides and the Chinese army pushed the Gurkhas back to the inner hills close to the Nepali capital. However, a comprehensive defeat of the Gorkhali army could not be achieved.
At the same time, Nepal was dealing with military confrontations along two other fronts. The nation of Sikkim had begun incursions along Nepal's eastern border. Along the far-western side, the war with Garhwal continuined. Within Nepals own borders, the kingdoms of Achham, Doti an
Wenxiang. Manchu statesman during the late Qing dynasty. Wenxiang hailed from the Gūwalgiya clan and belonged to the Plain Red Banner in the Eight Banners in Mukden. In 1845, he obtained the highest degree in the imperial examination and four years he was appointed to the Board of Works, he advanced through the ranks and in 1858, he was appointed vice president to the Board of Rites and became a member of the Grand Council, the highest policy-making organ in the Empire. He subsequently held a number of prominent posts in the central government and became a key player in court politics; as foreign troops invaded Beijing during the Second Opium War and the Xianfeng Emperor fled to Chengde, Wenxiang remained in the capital and took part in negotiating with the British and French. Following the peace settlement, he became one of the founders of the new Qing foreign office, the Zongli Yamen, he was one of the architects behind the Self-strengthening movement and was instrumental in devising the Qing government's cooperative policy towards the Western powers in the period 1861-76.
Fang, Chao-Ying. "Wên-hsiang". In Hummel Sr. Arthur W. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. United States Government Printing Office. Crossley, Pamela Kyle, Orphan Warriors', 141-146