An amphora is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least as early as the Neolithic Period. Amphorae were used in vast numbers for the transport and storage of various products and they are most often ceramic, but examples in metals and other materials have been found. The amphora complements the large container, the pithos, which makes available capacities between one-half and two and one-half tons. In contrast, the amphora holds under a half-ton, typically less than 100 pounds, the bodies of the two types have similar shapes. Where the pithos may have small loops or lugs for fastening a rope harness. The necks of pithoi are wide for scooping or bucket access, the necks of amphorae are narrow for pouring by a person holding it by the bottom and a handle. The handles might not be present, the size may require two or three handlers to lift. For the most part, however, an amphora was tableware, or sat close to the table, was intended to be seen, stoppers of perishable materials, which have rarely survived, were used to seal the contents.
Two principal types of amphorae existed, the amphora, in which the neck and body meet at a sharp angle. Neck amphorae were used in the early history of ancient Greece. Most were produced with a base to allow upright storage by embedding in soft ground. The base facilitated transport by ship, where the amphorae were packed upright or on their sides in as many as five staggered layers. If upright, the bases probably were held by some sort of rack and reeds might be used as packing around the vases. Racks could be used in kitchens and shops, the base concentrated deposits from liquids with suspended solid particles, such as olive oil and wines. Amphorae are of use to maritime archaeologists, as they often indicate the age of a shipwreck. They are occasionally so well preserved that the content is still present, providing information on foodstuffs. Amphorae were too cheap and plentiful to return to their origin-point and so, amphora is a Greco-Roman word developing in ancient Greek during the Bronze Age.
The Romans acquired it during the Hellenization that occurred in the Roman Republic, cato is the first known literary person to use it
The ancient Cycladic culture flourished in the islands of the Aegean Sea from 3300 –1100 BCE. Along with the Minoan civilization and Mycenaean Greece, the Cycladic people are counted among the three major Aegean cultures, Cycladic art therefore comprises one of the three main branches of Aegean art. Almost all information known regarding Neolithic art of the Cyclades comes from the site of Saliagos off Antiparos. Pottery of this period is similar to that of Crete and the Greek mainland, sinclair Hood writes, A distinctive shape is a bowl on a high foot comparable with a type which occurs in the mainland Late Neolithic. These marble figures are scattered around the Aegean, suggesting that these figures were popular amongst the people of Crete. Perhaps the most famous of these figures are musicians, one a harp-player the other a pipe-player, dating to approximately 2500 BCE, these musicians are sometimes considered “the earliest extant musicians from the Aegean. However, this may be a misconception as there is evidence that the idols were originally brightly painted. A majority of the figurines are female, depicted nude, and with arms folded across the stomach, although some archeologists would agree, this interpretation is not generally agreed on by archeologists, among whom there is no consensus on their significance.
They have been interpreted as idols of the gods, images of death, childrens dolls. One authority feels they were more than dolls and probably less than sacrosanct idols, suggestions that these images were idols in the strict sense—cult objects which were the focus of ritual worship—are unsupported by any archeological evidence. What the archeological evidence does suggest is that images were regularly used in funerary practice. Yet at least some of them show signs of having been repaired. Furthermore, larger figures were broken up so that only part of them was buried. The figures apparently were buried equally with men and women. Such figures were not found in every grave, while the idols are most frequently found laid on their backs in graves, larger examples may have been set up in shrines or dwelling places. Early Cycladic art is divided into three periods, the art is by no means confined to one of these periods. The art of EC I is best represented on the islands of Paros and Amorgos, while EC II is primarily seen on Syros, the most important earliest groups are Pelos and Louros.
Pelos figurines are of schematic type, both males and females, in standing position with a head and face, compose the Plastiras type, the rendering is naturalistic but strangely stylized
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites
Pamphaios was an Attic potter active around the end of the 6th century BC. Pamphaios was the successor of Nikosthenes in that workshop, and thus took over from one of the most influential. At times, he developed these shapes further, unlike Nikostehenes, Pamphaios favoured painters of the red-figure style, which was at the time replacing the previously dominant technique of black-figure vase painting. He continued to many of the painters that had worked for Nikosthenes, such as Oltos, Epiktetos. Pamphaios signature survives on more than fifty vases – spelled different ways by various artists, John Beazley, Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters, Oxford 1956, p. John Boardman, Schwarzfigurige Vasen aus Athen. Ein Handbuch, Mainz 1977, ISBN 3-8053-0233-9, p.72 f.116 f.122
For the modern utensil, see frying pan. For the flower, see Eschscholzia lobbii, Frying pans is the descriptive name for Early Cycladic II ceramic artifacts from the Aegean Islands. They are found especially during the Cycladic Grotta-Pelos and Keros-Syros cultures and their purpose remains unknown, although they are usually interpreted as prestige goods. These artifacts are highly decorated and were apparently carefully crafted. They have been found at sites throughout the Aegean but are not common and they are usually found in graves, although they are very uncommon grave goods, the rarity of these objects has contributed to the difficulty in identifying their true purpose. Frying pans typically resemble skillets in that they have a diameter of 20 to 28 centimeters, a raised lip, all the decoration tends to be on the outside rim and on the base. The decoration is stamped or incised, the handles vary a great deal. It is worth noting that some think the term handle may be misleading as some of the handles seem more decorative than utilitarian.
Two types of frying pans are distinguished, the plate interpretation is fairly neutral, as a plate could be anything from a decorative object to a religious one. It is unlikely that they are cooking utensils, as there is no signs of food or fire. The drum theory is unlikely as one would expect a drum to have holes around the edges so that the hide could be stretched across it. Furthermore, with many of the handles found on these objects, a study concluded by experiment that the best reflection was provided by darkened olive oil. It remains undetermined if they served some symbolic or religious purpose, Frying pan Frying pan Frying pan
A slip is a liquid mixture or slurry of clay and/or other materials suspended in water. It has many uses in the production of pottery, and other ceramics ware, in pottery the two most important uses of slip are, firstly, to create the basic shape by slipcasting with moulds, and secondly, to decorate the pottery, which is discussed below. Engobe, from the French word for slip, is in English an American term for similar to a slip. Some American sources say it is synonymous with slip, and use it in preference to slip, while others draw distinctions, mainly in terms of engobe using materials other than clay. On one definition engobe, as compared to slip, has somewhat lower clay content, higher proportion of flux, and added filler and it is mostly used in relation to contemporary pottery, but sometimes for slip in historical contexts. Slipware is pottery decorated by slip placed onto a wet or leather-hard clay body surface by dipping, painting or splashing, decorative slips may be a different colour than the underlying clay body or offer other decorative qualities.
Selectively applying layers of colored slips can create the effect of a painted ceramic, slip decoration is an ancient technique in Chinese pottery also, used to cover whole vessels over 4,000 years ago. Chinese pottery used techniques where patterns, images or calligraphy were created as part-dried slip was cut away to reveal a lower layer of slip or the clay body in a contrasting colour. The latter of these is called the cut-glaze technique, slipware may be carved or burnished to change the surface appearance of the ware. Specialized slip recipes may be applied to biscuit ware and refired, a slip may be made for various other purposes in the production and decoration of ceramics. Slip can be used, As a means of mixing the constituents of a clay body, to join sections of unfired ware or greenware, such as handles and spouts. To fix into place pieces of relief decoration produced separately, for example by moulding and this technique is known as sprigging, an example is Jasperware. An additive with deflocculant properties, such as silicate, can be added to the slip to disperse the raw material particles.
This allows a higher solids content to be used, or allows a fluid slip to be produced with the a minimum of water so that shrinkage is minimised. Usually the mixing of slip is undertaken in a blunger although it can be using other types of mixers or even by hand. Chinese Pottery and Porcelain,1991, British Museum Press,9780714114705
Three-phase firing or iron reduction technique is a firing technique used in ancient Greek pottery production, specifically for painted vases. Already vessels from the Bronze Age feature the typical of the technique, with yellow, orange or red clay. But the firing had three phases, designed to create the intended colours, sometimes further painting in other colours was added after firing, especially in white-ground and Hellenistic vases. However, new studies instead provide material evidence that the pottery was made two or more separate firings in which the pottery is subjected to multiple firing stages. The conventional view is described in detail below, but the possibility of different firings for the phases described should be kept in mind. All colours of Greek black-red vase painting are produced by the different concentrations of iron in the clay, Iron has the special feature of forming oxides of various colours, including grey Iron oxide, red Iron oxide, and deep black magnetite. Thus, the colour of iron-rich clays can be influenced by controlling the atmosphere during firing, aiming for it to be reducing or oxidising.
This control is the essence of three-phase firing, to achieve more than one colour on a given vase, a further trick is necessary, The black magnetite Fe3O4 has to be prevented from returning to matt red hematite Fe2O3. In other words, the areas to remain black have to be denied access to oxygen, smaller clay particles and a high calcium content lower the sintering point. The production of finely varied painting slips was achieved through levigation, the addition of peptising substances can further reduce particle size. In other words, the particles are now in a state of colloid suspension. Before firing, the vessels were densely stacked in the kiln. Since Attic pottery contains no proper, vessels could touch in the kiln. However, it was of importance to achieve a good circulation of air/gas. Typical firing probably took place at a temperature of 850 to 975 degrees Celsius, with constant firing of the kiln, such temperatures were reached after about 8 to 9 hours. During this process, the vessels in the oven initially lost whatever moisture remained in them, at a temperature of 500 °C, after 6 or 7 hours, true firing of the now red-hot vessels began.
With a constant supply of oxygen and an increasing temperature. During this process, the content is transformed into deep red hematite
In ancient Greece, the symposium was a drinking party. Symposia are depicted in Greek and Etruscan art that shows similar scenes, the equivalent in Roman society is the Latin convivium. In modern usage it has come to mean an academic conference or meeting such as a scientific conference, the Greek symposium was a key Hellenic social institution. It was a forum for men of respected families to debate, plot and they were frequently held to celebrate the introduction of young men into aristocratic society. Symposia were held by aristocrats to celebrate special occasions. They were a source of pride for them, symposia were usually held in the andrōn, the mens quarters of the household. The participants, or symposiasts, would recline on pillowed couches arrayed against the three walls of the room away from the door, due to space limitations the couches would number between seven and nine, limiting the total number of participants to somewhere between fourteen and twenty seven. If any young men took part they did not recline but sat up, however, in Macedonian symposia the focus was not only on drinking but hunting, and young men were allowed to recline only after they had killed their first wild boar.
Entertainment was provided, and depending on the occasion could include games, flute-girls or boys, slaves performing various acts, symposia often were held for specific occasions. The most famous symposium of all, described in Platos dialogue of that name was hosted by the poet Agathon on the occasion of his first victory at the theater contest of the 416 BC Dionysia. The men at the symposium would discuss a multitude of philosophical, such as love. A symposium would be overseen by a symposiarch who would decide how strong the wine for the evening would be, the Greeks and Romans customarily served their wine mixed with water, as the drinking of pure wine was considered a habit of uncivilized peoples. However, there were differences between the Roman and Greek symposiums. A Roman symposium served wine before and after food, in a Greek symposium, wine was only drunk after dinner, and women were not allowed to attend. The wine was drawn from a krater, a large jar designed to be carried by two men, and served from pitchers.
Certain formalities were observed, most important among which were libations, in a fragment from his c. After the third one is drained, wise men go home, symposiums are often featured on Attic pottery and Richard Neer has argued that the chief function of Attic pottery was for use in the symposium. Poetry and music were central to the pleasures of the symposium, although free women of status did not attend symposia, high-class female prostitutes and entertainers were hired to perform and converse with the guests
Amasis was an ancient Attic potter, active in Athens between 560/550 and 530/520 BC. Amasis’s pottery workshop employed a well-known painter, who is named the Amasis Painter after the potter. His works are mostly black-figure, but some red-figure vase paintings by him do occur and he and Exekias produced the first major painted amphorae with a narrative image on front and back, respectively. ISBN 0-500-23443-4, ISBN 0-89236-086-0 Papers on the Amasis painter and his world, colloquium sponsored by the Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities and symposium sponsored by the J. Paul Getty Museum. ISBN 0-89236-093-3 Hans Peter Isler, Der Töpfer Amasis und der Amasis-Maler, bemerkungen zur Chronologie und zur Person, in, Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 109 p. 93-114. Beobachtungen zum Töpfer Amasis, In, Athenian potters and painters
White ground technique
White-ground technique is a style of white ancient Greek pottery and the painting in which figures appear on a white background. It developed in the region of Attica, dated to about 500 BC, nevertheless, a wide range of subjects are depicted. In white-ground pottery, the vase is covered with a light or white slip of kaolinite, a similar slip had been used as carrier for vase paintings in the Geometric and Archaic periods. White-ground vases were produced, for example, in Ionia, but only in Athens did it develop into a veritable separate style beside black-figure and red-figure vase painting. For that reason, the term white-ground pottery or white-ground vase painting is used in reference to the Attic material only. The light slip was probably meant to make the vases appear more valuable, however, in no case was a vessels entire surface covered in white slip. It has been conjectured that this form of painting emerged in order to emulate the more prestigious medium of wall painting, the group of five Huge Lekythoi are covered entirely in white slip, which suggests an imitation of marble lekythoi for funerary purposes.
White-ground vase painting often occurred in association with red-figure vase painting, especially typical of this are kylikes with a white-ground interior and a red-figure exterior image. White-ground painting is less durable than black- or red-figure, which is why such vases were used as votives. The development of vase painting took place parallel to that of the black-. In the course of development, five sub-styles can be noted. The earliest surviving example of the technique is a fragmentary kantharos signed by the potter-painter Nearchos ca.570 BC and it was found on the Athenian Acropolis. The technique was used to create strobing bands of colour that emphasize the shape of the vase. and is associated with the workshops of Andokides, after a short interval, this technique was adopted by other workshops, including that of Psiax. The manner of painting is the same as in conventional black-figure, the ground is rarely pure white, but usually slightly yellowish or light beige. A second form is monochrome silhouette drawing, images are not created from reservation and painted internal detail, but from drawn outlines and painted internal detail.
This style is used since the end of the 6th century BC, especially on cups, initially, the outline of the figures is executed in the form of a relief line, but from about 500 BC, this is increasingly replaced by painted yellowish-brown lines. The so-called semi-outline technique is a combination of the first and the technique, used only in the first half of the 5th century BC, virtually exclusively on lekythoi. In the first quarter of the 5th century, the workshop of the potter Euphronios develops a four-colour painting style using a combination of shiny clay slip, the images are made up of outline drawings in shiny slip and coloured areas in mineral paint
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction. Design has different connotations in different fields, in some cases, the direct construction of an object is considered to use design thinking. Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, economic, and it may involve considerable research, modeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design. Meanwhile, diverse kinds of objects may be designed, including clothing, graphical user interfaces, corporate identities, business processes, and even methods or processes of designing. Thus design may be a substantive referring to an abstraction of a created thing or things. It is an act of creativity and innovation, here, a specification can be manifested as either a plan or a finished product, and primitives are the elements from which the design object is composed. With such a broad denotation, there is no language or unifying institution for designers of all disciplines.
This allows for many differing philosophies and approaches toward the subject, the person designing is called a designer, which is a term used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas usually specifying which area is being dealt with. A designers sequence of activities is called a process while the scientific study of design is called design science. Another definition of design is planning to manufacture an object, thus the word design can be used as a noun or a verb. In a broader sense, the design is an applied art, while the definition of design is fairly broad, design has a myriad of specifications that professionals utilize in their fields. Substantial disagreement exists concerning how designers in many fields, whether amateur or professional, alone or in teams, the prevailing view has been called The Rational Model, Technical Problem Solving and The Reason-Centric Perspective. The alternative view has been called Reflection-in-Action, Evolutionary Design, co-evolution, the Rational Model was independently developed by Herbert A.
Simon, an American scientist, and Gerhard Pahl and Wolfgang Beitz, two German engineering design theorists. The Rational Model is based on a rationalist philosophy and underlies the waterfall model, systems development life cycle, according to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner. Technical rationality is at the center of the process, each stage has many associated best practices. Unrealistic assumptions – goals are often unknown when a design project begins, the Action-Centric Perspective is a label given to a collection of interrelated concepts, which are antithetical to The Rational Model. Substantial empirical evidence supports the veracity of this perspective in describing the actions of real designers, like the Rational Model, the Action-Centric model sees design as informed by research and knowledge. Designers context-dependent experience and professional judgment take center stage more than technical rationality, at least two views of design activity are consistent with the Action-Centric Perspective
Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay. It may take forms including art ware, figurines, Ceramic art is one of the arts, particularly the visual arts. Of these, it is one of the plastic arts, while some ceramics are considered fine art, some are considered to be decorative, industrial or applied art objects. Ceramics may be considered artefacts in archaeology, Ceramic art can be made by one person or by a group of people. In a pottery or ceramic factory, a group of people design, products from a pottery are sometimes referred to as art pottery. In a one-person pottery studio, ceramists or potters produce studio pottery, the word ceramics comes from the Greek keramikos, meaning pottery, which in turn comes from keramos meaning potters clay. Most traditional ceramic products were made from clay and subjected to heat, in modern ceramic engineering usage, ceramics is the art and science of making objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials by the action of heat. It excludes glass and mosaic made from glass tesserae, cultures especially noted for ceramics include the Chinese, Greek, Mayan and Korean cultures, as well as the modern Western cultures.
Different types of clay, when used with different minerals and firing conditions, are used to produce earthenware, porcelain, earthenware is pottery that has not been fired to vitrification and is thus permeable to water. Many types of pottery have been made from it from the earliest times, earthenware is often made from clay and feldspar. Terracotta, a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic and its uses include vessels and waste water pipes and surface embellishment in building construction. Terracotta has been a medium for ceramic art. Stoneware is a vitreous or semi-vitreous ceramic made primarily from stoneware clay or non-refractory fire clay, stoneware is fired at high temperatures. Vitrified or not, it is nonporous, it may or may not be glazed and it may be vitreous or semi-vitreous. It is usually coloured grey or brownish because of impurities in the used for its manufacture. Porcelain is a material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C.
Porcelain has been described as being completely vitrified, impermeable, white or artificially coloured, translucent and it has been defined as ware with a translucent body containing a minimum of 30% of phosphate derived from animal bone and calculated calcium phosphate. Developed by English potter Josiah Spode, bone china is known for its levels of whiteness and translucency