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A pelletron is a type of electrostatic particle accelerator similar to a Van de Graaff generator. Pelletrons have been built in many sizes, from small units producing voltages up to 500 kilovolts and beam energies up to 1 megaelectronvolt of kinetic energy, to the largest system, which has reached a DC voltage of over 25 megavolts and produced ion beams with energies over 900 MeV. Generating electric charge is done by a mechanical transportation system made of a chain of pellets, used to build up high voltages on the Pelletron terminal; the system is enclosed by a pressure vessel filled with insulating gas, such as SF6, an evacuated beamline. The potential difference between the terminal and ground is used to accelerate several kinds of particles, such as positrons and negative and positive ions. Compared to the Van de Graaff generator, the pellet chain can operate at a higher velocity than a rubber belt, both the voltage and currents that can be attained are far higher; the chain is charged more uniformly than the belt of a Van de Graaff, so the stability of the terminal voltage and the particle energy is higher.

Pelletron accelerators are used as analytical tools in many fields, including materials analysis, nuclear physics, semiconductor development and production, pharmaceutical research, as ultra-sensitive mass spectrometers for carbon dating and the measurement of other rare isotopes. Pelletron operation animation at The Pelletron — Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Germany — National Electrostatics Corporation List of about 50 pelletrons - by voltage

Sothuparai Dam

The Sothuparai Dam is a dam across the Varaha River in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located 12 km from the town of Periyakulam in Theni district. Sothupari dam is one among the highest dams in Tamilnadu, it is located at the backside of Periyakulam city. It is located 12 km from Periyakulam; the height of the dam is 57 m. Its length is 345 m and the total catchment area is 357 Acre; the agricultural lands belonging to Thenkarai and Thamaraikulam village are benefitted by this Dam. In 2020, a proposal for constructing a dam with reservoir of 100 million cubic feet water storing capacity across the River Varaganadhi at an estimated cost of Rs.791 lakhs was passed. Technical Sanction for a sum of Rs.870.1 lakhs was granted to the Chief Engineer, PWD. The dam construction works were started on 20.07.1982 but got delayed due to the delay in acquisitioning 14.55 hectare land from the Forest Department. The works were resumed since 1985, it was found that there were no hard rocks beneath the proposed site and so the geological department was contacted to offer clearance in this regard.

The works were restarted on 1997 November and completed by M/s ECCI company on 2001. Dr. M. Karunanidhi, the Chief Minister of Tamilnadu paid visit to the dam site and accelerated the work; the dam has reached its maximum capacity and overflew for the first time on 15.11.2001. The dam was opened in a simple function by Thiru. R. Paranthaman, Chief Engineer, PWD presided over by Thiru. Athul Anand, District Collector, Theni. Manjalar Dam

Richard Ferris

Richard Ferris was a wealthy merchant from Barnstaple in Devon, England who served as a Member of Parliament for Barnstaple in 1640 and served twice as Mayor of Barnstaple in 1632 and 1646. He founded the Barnstaple Grammar School, otherwise known as the "Blue School". Ferris was born at Barnstaple, the son of Philip Ferris by his wife Thomasyn Cade; the armorials displayed on his monument in St Peter's Church, Barnstaple are the canting arms of the ancient Ferrers family seated from the 12th century at Bere Ferrers in Devon, where they had their castle, which held the manors of Churston Ferrers and Newton Ferrers with many others in Devon. The Devonshire historian Pole, stated: Beere Ferrers, which takes his name of ye famyly of Ferrers, th'ancient inhabitants, from whence all the Ferrers in Devon & Cornwall issued, states that Raph de Ferrarys was lord of Beere in King Henry 2 tyme; however the senior male line of this family is known to have died out on the death of Martin Ferrers, who left three daughters and co-heiresses, who married into the families of Champernowne and Fleming.

The name Ferrers was Latinized as de Ferariis, from the Latin noun ferrarius, meaning an iron-worker or blacksmith, alluded to by the horse-shoes in the canting arms. The Cade family seated at Fremington were prominent merchants at nearby Barnstaple. Roger Cade of Barnstaple was Mayor of Barnstaple in 1591; the records of the Borough of Barnstaple record in 1630 that a payment was made by the Borough to Alexander Horwood and Richard Ferris "for riding to Exon about the Spanish Company". Barnstaple is associated with this Company, the Company's arms are shown on several monuments in St Peter's Church and sculpted in relief on the plaster ceiling of the grand townhouse at 62 Boutport Street, Barnstaple. In November 1640 Ferris was elected as one of the two Members of Parliament for Barnstaple in the Long Parliament. During the Civil war he was a "fervent Parliamentarian" and when the town of Barnstaple was "without stocke of money" he was one of those, who made personal financial contributions.

He served twice as Mayor of Barnstaple in 1632 and for another year from September 1646 after the Civil War, Sir Allen Apsley having surrendered the town to Parliamentarian forces on 14 April 1646. His second election was conducted in open air, to reduce the risk of catching the plague ravaging the town, as is recorded in the Journal of Rev. Richard Wood, Vicar of Fremington: "Mr Ferris was elected Mayor in the marsh on the higher side of Kony Bridge by ballets". Ferris founded the grammar school at Barnstaple, he was buried in St Peter's Church in Barnstaple. His large mural monument with recumbent effigy survives in that church. History of Parliament biography, on-line text not yet available SourcesLamplugh, Barnstaple: Town on the Taw, South Molton, 2002 Pole, Sir William, Collections Towards a Description of the County of Devon, Sir John-William de la Pole, London, 1791

Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb are two small islands in the eastern Persian Gulf, close to the Strait of Hormuz. They lie at 26°15′N 55°16′E and 26°14′N 55°08′E some 12 kilometres from each other and 20 kilometres south of the Iranian island of Qeshm; the islands are administered by Iran as part of its Hormozgan Province, but are claimed by the United Arab Emirates as a territory of the Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah. Greater Tunb has a surface of 10.3 km2. It is known for its red soil. There are conflicting descriptions about its population: While some sources state there are between a few dozen and a few hundred inhabitants, others describe the island as having no native civilian population. There is reported to be an Iranian garrison and naval station, an aircraft runway, a fish storage facility and a red-soil mine. Lesser Tunb has a surface of 2 km2 and is uninhabited with the exception of a small airfield and entrenched Iranian military unit; the toponymy of Tonb is in all likelihood of Persian origin.

In the local Persian dialect of southern Persia, the noun Tomb andTonb, with its diminutive Tonbu or Tombu, as it applied to Lesser Tonb, means “hill” or “low elevation”. The terms have the same meaning in the larger Dari Persian language system. There are other toponyms such as Tonb-e Seh in Tonbānu on Qeshm island. Etymologically, the word TNB is a proper Arabic word, which means to anchor, according to the Medieval Arab linguist Ibn Fares. Reference to Great Tonb as an Iranian island is found in Ibn Balkhi's 12th-century Farsnameh and Hamdallah Mustawfi Kazvini's 14th-century Nuzhat al-Qulub; the Tonbs were dominions of the Kings of Hormuz from 1330 or so until Hormuz's capitulation to the Portuguese in 1507. The Tonbs remained a part of the Hormuzi-Portuguese administration until 1622, when the Portuguese were expelled from the Persian littoral by the Persian central government. During this period, the human geography and territorial administration of the Tonbs, along with Abu Musa and Sirri islands, became intimately connected with the Province of Fars, notably the Persian ports of Bandar Lengeh and Bandar Kang, the nearby Qeshm and Hengam islands.

It has been remarked, in the context of the limits of the Persian empire in the Persian Gulf in the middle of the 18th century, that "ll the islands off the Persian coast, from Kharqu and Kharaq in the north to Hormoz and Larak in the south, were rightly Persian, though many were in the hands of Arab tribes". Consistent with this, the British in 1800 were of the belief that "lthough the King exercises no positive authority over any of the islands of the Persian Gulf, those on the northern shore are all considered as part of the Empire". An 1804 map of German origin showed the southern coast of Iran as the habitat of the "Bani Hule" tribe and the islands, coloured in the same orange, were designated as "Thunb unbenohul"; the "Bani Hule" or Howalla were a loosely defined grouping of peoples of distant Arab origin but with longstanding residence on the Iranian coast. Regardless of the spelling of the toponym as "Tonb", be it from the Arabic tÂonb or from the Persian tonb, the attribution to the larger island of this epithet highlighted the islands' intimate association with the Persian coast and its inhabitants.

One of the clans belonging to the Howalla or "Bani Hule" of the Persian coast was that of the Qasimi. Their Arab tribal origins are not as established as is, their Persian geographical origin prior to their rise to notoriety in the lower Persian Gulf; this occurred in the 18th century. During the 1720s, the Qasami had emigrated from the Persian coast and established themselves as a force in Sharjah and Julfar. In the period 1747–59, a branch of the Qasemi from Sharjah established itself on the Persian littoral, but it was expelled in 1767. By 1780, the Qasemi branch was re-established on the Persian coast and began to feud with other coastal tribes over pasturage in the islands off Langeh; the Iranian argument for the ownership of the disputed islands is that the Qasami controlled the islands while they were located on the Persian coast, not when they emigrated to the UAE coast. In April 1873, the islands were reported as a dependency of the Persian Fars province to the British Resident, which the Resident acknowledged.

In the period 1786–1835 the official British opinion and maps identified the Tonbs as part of Langeh, subject to the government of the province of Fars. Chief among them were the works of Lt. John McCluer, political counselor John Macdonald Kinneir, Lt. George Barns Brucks. In 1835, the Bani Yas attacked a British ship off Greater Tonb. In the ensuing maritime peace arranged by the British Political Resident Samuel Hennell, a restrictive line was established between Abu Musa and Sirri islands, pledges were obtained from the tribes of the lower Persian Gulf not to venture their war boats north of the line. In view of Sirri and Abu Musa being pirate lairs themselves, Hennell's successor, Major James Morrison, in January 1836, modified the restrictive line to run from Sham on the Trucial Coast to a point ten miles south of Abu Musa to Sáir Abu Noayr island. In either of its configurations, the restrictive line placed the Tonbs outside of the reach of the war boats of the Qasemi, Bani Yas, other tribes o

2009 Crown Royal Presents the Russ Friedman 400

The 2009 Crown Royal presents the Russ Friedman 400 was the tenth race in the 2009 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, which took place on May 2, 2009 at the Richmond International Raceway in Richmond, Virginia. Brian Vickers won his second pole position of the season. Kyle Busch won the 400 lap race in his Toyota on his 24th Birthday, with Tony Stewart, Jeff Burton, Ryan Newman following. In total, there were 15 caution flags during the course of the race. Busch won the NASCAR Nationwide Series race the previous day; this was the last race for Jeremy Mayfield, as he was suspended by NASCAR soon after for failing the drug policy rule. The race was telecast on Fox/Speed starting at 7 PM US EDT, because of baseball with radio coverage on Sirius Satellite Radio and MRN beginning at 7:30 PM US EDT. † - Denotes rookie driver

Winx Club 3D: Magical Adventure

Winx Club 3D: Magical Adventure is a CGI animated film, released in Italy on October 29, 2010. The film is a sequel to Winx Club: The Secret of the Lost Kingdom, its working title, announced in 2009, was Winx Club 3D: The Magic Is Back. During a party at Alfea, the Trix crash it and take the Compass of Revealed Secrets for the Ancestral Witches. Despite the Winx's efforts, Icy and Darcy escape with the compass. Meanwhile, on Domino, Sky proposes to Bloom, but a secret between King Erendor and the destruction of Domino forces Sky to call off the wedding; the rest of the Winx visit Bloom, struggling to get over it. The Trix report to the Ancestral Witches on the successful theft; the Trix head to the Tree of Life in Pixie Village to destroy all the good magical energy. On Domino, King Oritel puts Bloom to a showcase of princes to see. Sky meets Bloom, saying that he will fix everything, he is soon discovered by an angry King Oritel. He gives Bloom a letter before being forced to leave. Bloom protests.

She is overruled by her father. An angry Bloom transports to Gardenia with the Winx; the Trix take over the Tree of Life. This eliminates all good powers, along with the Winx's Believix. Powerless in Gardenia, the Winx turn to Bloom's adoptive parents Vanessa for shelter, they meet up with the specialists. Meanwhile, the Ancestral Witches learn that there is one tiny source of positive energy left in the universe, they remember giving King Erendor an hourglass with the tree's pollen. This protected Eraklyon. In Gardenia, the Winx meet the specialists and travel to Avram, the city with the last known sighting of the pollen; the Trix force him to give them the whereabouts of the pollen. Along the way, their ship is attacked by ghost of Avram citizens; the Trix and Ancient Witches travel to Avram. Oritel reads Sky's letter; the team learns that Erendor broke the hourglass, forming a seedling. Trying to get to the middle of Avram and Sky get separated from the others, who make it to the seedling; the Trix and company make it to the plant, try to destroy it.

Bloom and Sky arrive, restore the seedling, which restores their powers. The Ancient Witches merge with their Trix counterparts and attack the Winx. King Oritel and King Erendor arrive to aid the Winx in their battle against the witches but Icy manages to kill King Erendor when he sacrifices himself to protect Bloom; the Winx destroy the Ancestral Witches with a Believix Convergence. King Oritel reveals that he had collected some of the pollen from the seedling and sprinkles it on Erendor, bringing him back to life. King Oritel gives Bloom and Sky his blessing on their engagement. Bloom and Sky reconcile, they fly back to Eraklyon's main city together. Winx Club 3D: Magical Adventure was released on October 1, 2010. Official website Winx Club 3D: Magical Adventure on IMDb