American Alpine Club
The American Alpine Club is a non-profit member organization whose goal is a united community of competent climbers and healthy climbing landscapes. The Club is housed in the American Mountaineering Center in Golden and it maintains regional sections—with both regional staff and volunteers—throughout the United States. The AAC publishes two journals, The American Alpine Journal and Accidents in North American Mountaineering, and a Guidebook to Membership annually. Collections of these journals, along with tens of thousands of other climbing-related publications and mountaineering literature, can be found in the Henry S. Hall, American Alpine Club Library, located in the AMC. The AAC is a 5013 organization supported by gifts and grants from individuals and foundations, member dues, founded by Arctic zoologist and geographer Angelo Heilprin, the American Alpine Club was established in 1902 and had 45 founding members. These original members were primarily from the East Coast, although a handful resided in the Midwest, among them was Annie Smith Peck and the AACs first president, Charles Ernest Fay, who a founding member of the Appalachian Mountain Club.
The Club is housed in the American Mountaineering Center, whose tenants include the Colorado Mountain Club. The AAC is historically and contemporarily associated with a number of other American and it was a founding member of the Union International des Associations d’Alpinism in 1930 and the Arctic Institute of North America in 1948. The AAC Library was established in 1916 by a gift from American mountaineer Henry Montagnier, the Library was initially focused primarily on the Alps. Beginning in 1929, the Library was housed in the New York Public Library, during this time, the Library grew to include contributions from many members, as well as cultural artifacts from their various expeditions to the Himalaya and elsewhere. In 1941, the AAC purchased a firehouse in Manhattan to house the growing Library. When the AAC moved its permanent headquarters to Golden in 1993, the Library, moved to its current location in the basement of the American Mountaineering Center, many items are autographed by the expedition members who wrote them.
Most recently, in 2008, a collector donated 30,000 bound volumes of the Central Asia Library. Many of the Library’s original volumes are housed in the current Library’s Rare Books Room, today, AAC members can search the Library’s website for literature and guidebooks and have items shipped to them from Golden. The Library features an online Guidebook Finder which allows users to search for climbing guidebooks by location, the Guidebook to Membership, first published and distributed in 2012, contains information about the benefits associated with membership in the AAC. The Guidebook is available online, the AAC has no prerequisites for membership. Another notable founding member is naturalist, prolific writer, and Sierra Club co-founder John Muir, Muir served as the Club’s second president, and was instrumental in bringing the AAC to a central role in environmental conservation in the United States. Lyman Spitzer, noted theoretical physicist and astronomer was a member of the club, in 1965, Spitzer and Donald Morton became the first men to climb Mount Thor 1,675 m, located in Auyuittuq National Park, on Baffin Island, Canada
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Ann Arbor is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County. The 2010 census recorded its population to be 113,934, the citys population was estimated at 117,070 as of July 2015 by the U. S. Census Bureau. The Ann Arbor Metropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Washtenaw County, the city is part of the larger Detroit–Ann Arbor–Flint, MI Combined Statistical Area with a population of 5,318,744. Ann Arbor was founded in 1824, named for wives of the villages founders, the University of Michigan moved from Detroit to Ann Arbor in 1837, and the city grew at a rapid rate in the early to mid-20th century. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as a center for left-wing politics, Ann Arbor became a focal point for political activism and anti-Vietnam War movement, as well as various student movements. Ann Arbor is home to the University of Michigan, one of the foremost research universities in the United States, the university shapes Ann Arbors economy significantly as it employs about 30,000 workers, including about 12,000 in the medical center.
The citys economy is centered on high technology, with several companies drawn to the area by the universitys research and development infrastructure. In about 1774, the Potawatomi founded two villages in the area of what is now Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor was founded in 1824 by land speculators John Allen and Elisha Walker Rumsey. On 25 May 1824, the plat was registered with Wayne County as Annarbour. Allen and Rumsey decided to name it for their wives, both named Ann, and for the stands of Bur Oak in the 640 acres of land purchased for $800 from the federal government at $1.25 per acre. The local Ojibwa named the settlement kaw-goosh-kaw-nick, after the sound of Allens sawmill, Ann Arbor became the seat of Washtenaw County in 1827, and was incorporated as a village in 1833. The Ann Arbor Land Company, a group of speculators, set aside 40 acres of undeveloped land and offered it to the state of Michigan as the site of the state capital, but lost the bid to Lansing. In 1837, the property was accepted instead as the site of the University of Michigan, since the universitys establishment in the city in 1837, the histories of the University of Michigan and Ann Arbor have been closely linked.
Throughout the 1840s and the 1850s settlers continued to come to Ann Arbor, while the earlier settlers were primarily of British ancestry, the newer settlers consisted of Germans and African-Americans. In 1851, Ann Arbor was chartered as a city, though the city showed a drop in population during the Depression of 1873. It was not until the early 1880s that Ann Arbor again saw robust growth, with new immigrants coming from Greece, Russia, Ann Arbor saw increased growth in manufacturing, particularly in milling. Ann Arbors Jewish community grew after the turn of the 20th century, during the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as an important center for liberal politics. Ann Arbor became a locus for left-wing activism and anti-Vietnam War movement, during the ensuing 15 years, many countercultural and New Left enterprises sprang up and developed large constituencies within the city
The term mountaineering describes the sport of mountain climbing, including ski mountaineering. Hiking in the mountains can be a form of mountaineering when it involves scrambling, or short stretches of the more basic grades of rock climbing. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety, mountaineering is often called Alpinism, especially in European languages, which implies climbing with difficulty such high and often snow and ice-covered mountains as the Alps. A mountaineer with such great skill is called an Alpinist, many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they often regarded as sacred due to their proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a team, using ladders. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, in 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains.
During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, in 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. By the early 19th century many of the peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812. In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc and this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, in the early years of the golden age, scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and this ascent is generally regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age.
By this point the sport of mountaineering had largely reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides, mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James, though lower than Pikes Peak, the heavily glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842, pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Heavily glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th, in 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Mount Mckinley, the tallest peak in North America was successfully climbed by Hudson Stuck, Mount Logan, the tallest peak in Canada was first summitted by a half dozen climbers in 1925 in an expedition that took more than two months.
In 1879-1880 the exploration of the highest Andes in South America began when English mountaineer Edward Whymper climbed Chimborazo, the summit of Aconcagua was finally reached on January 14,1897 by Swiss mountaineer Matthias Zurbriggen during an expedition led by Edward FitzGerald that began in December 1896. The Andes of Bolivia were first explored by Sir William Martin Conway in 1898 and it took until the late 19th century for European explorers to penetrate Africa
The icefall is considered one of the most dangerous stages of the South Col route to Everests summit. The Khumbu glacier that forms the icefall moves at speed that large crevasses open with little warning. Huge blocks of ice tumble down the glacier from time to time and it is estimated that the glacier advances 0.9 to 1.2 m down the mountain every day. Most climbers try to cross the icefall during the early morning, before sunrise. As the intense sunlight warms the area, the friction between the ice structure lessens and increases the chances of crevasses opening or blocks falling, the most dangerous time to cross the Khumbu Icefall is generally mid- to late-afternoon. Camp I on Everests South Col route is slightly beyond the top of the Khumbu Icefall. On occasion, a climber will experience a large block of ice crashing down in their vicinity, the resulting blast of displaced air and snow can result in a dusting. To those that have experienced it, it is an unnerving experience. It is virtually impossible to run away or even to know which way to run and those bodies have been recovered and given proper burials.
Since the structures are changing, crossing the Khumbu Icefall is extremely dangerous. Even extensive rope and ladder crossings cannot prevent loss of life, many people have died in this area, such as a climber who was crushed by a 12-story block of solid ice. Exposed crevasses may be easy to avoid, but some may be hidden under dangerous snow bridges, around 6,30 am local time, on the morning of 18 April 2014,16 Nepalese climbers were killed by an avalanche in the Khumbu Icefall. As of 22 April,13 bodies had been recovered, the climbers were preparing the route through the dangerous icefall for the spring climbing season when the avalanche engulfed them. Nine others sustained blunt trauma injuries
Continental Divide Trail
The Continental Divide National Scenic Trail is a United States National Scenic Trail running 3,100 miles between Mexico and Canada. It follows the Continental Divide of the Americas along the Rocky Mountains and traverses five U. S. states — Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, in Montana it crosses Triple Divide Peak which separates the Hudson Bay, Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean drainages. The trail is a combination of dedicated trails and small roads, portions designated as uncompleted must be traveled by roadwalking on dirt or paved roads. The Continental Divide Trail along with the Appalachian Trail and the Pacific Crest Trail form what thru-hiker enthusiasts have termed the Triple Crown of long-distance hiking in the United States. Only about two hundred people a year attempt to hike the trail, taking about six months to complete it. Dave Odell thru-hiked in 1977 and in the same year Dan Torpey hiked from the NM/CO border to Mt Robson, german long-distance rider Günter Wamser, and Austrian Sonja Endlweber managed to complete the tour with four Bureau of Land Management mustangs in three summers 2007–09.
This seven-month journey spanned over 5,600 miles, tapon took the most circuitous, high, difficult route north and while returning south, took the more expedient route. Andrew Skurka completed the trail as part of the 6, 875-mile Great Western Loop in 2007. The youngest person to hike the trail is Reed Gjonnes, who hiked the trail with her father Eric Gjonnes from April 15 to September 6,2013, the CDT in New Mexico is about 700 miles long and some portions have very limited water. Local volunteer groups place water caches at strategic points along the trail, all three are located within New Mexicos boot heel. The terminus near Columbus is not on the Continental Divide but rather in the vicinity of Columbus, Columbus is listed as a National Historic Landmark due to the invasion in 1916 by Pancho Villa and his Villistas. From the Crazy Cook Monument, the trail begins as a desire path. From Columbus, the route is a roadwalk to Lordsburg, in most areas the trail is well marked. It is concurrent with the Colorado Trail for approximately 200 miles, the CDT itself meanders in Colorado some 650 miles at higher altitudes.
Depending on any given year’s snow-pack and an individual schedule. The Creede Cut-off in the San Juan Mountains to avoid persistent snow or unfavorable weather is such an example and this should be balanced with Colorados monsoon season with afternoon thunderstorms that usually occur in late July and August. The routes location makes short trips to many of Colorados 14. A few stretches of the CDT in Colorado have no marked or named trail
Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked central Himalayan country in South Asia. Nepal is divided into 7 provinces and 75 districts and 744 local units including 4 metropolises,13 sub-metropolises,246 municipal councils and 481 village and it has a population of 26.4 million and is the 93rd largest country by area. Bordering China in the north and India in the south, Nepal does not border Bangladesh, which is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip. It neither borders Bhutan due to the Indian state of Sikkim being located in between, Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and eight of the worlds ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is the capital and largest city. It is a nation with Nepali as the official language. The territory of Nepal has a history since the Neolithic age. The name Nepal is first recorded in texts from the Vedic Age, the era which founded Hinduism, in the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet, the Kathmandu Valley in central Nepal became known as Nepal proper because of its complex urban civilization. It was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala, the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valleys traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional art and architecture, by the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal. The Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, the country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and Colonial India. In the 20th century, Nepal ended its isolation and forged ties with regional powers. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was suspended by Nepalese monarchs in 1960 and 2005. The Nepalese Civil War resulted in the proclamation of a republic in 2008, modern Nepal is a federal secular parliamentary republic.
Nepal is a nation, ranking 144th on the Human Development Index in 2016. The country struggles with the transition from a monarchy to a republic and it suffers from high levels of hunger and poverty. Despite these challenges, Nepal is making progress, with the government declaring its commitment to elevate the nation from least developed country status by 2022
It is a non-political and non-sectarian organization open to all people regardless of race, creed, gender, or political preference. There are 34,282 member clubs worldwide,1.2 million individuals called Rotarians have joined these clubs. Rotarians usually gather weekly for breakfast, lunch, or dinner to fulfill their first guiding principle to develop friendships as an opportunity for service, the Rotarians primary motto is Service Above Self, its secondary motto is One profits most who serves best. This objective is set against the Rotary 4-Way Test, used to see if an action is compatible with the Rotarian spirit. It is still seen as a standard for ethics in business management, the 4-Way Test considers the following questions in respect to thinking, saying or doing, Is it the truth. Is it fair to all concerned, will it build goodwill and better friendships. Will it be beneficial to all concerned, the first Rotary Club was formed when attorney Paul P. In addition to Harris and Loehr, Silvester Schiele, and Hiram E.
Shorey were the two who attended this first meeting. The next four Rotary Clubs were organized in cities in the western United States, beginning with San Francisco, Los Angeles, the National Association of Rotary Clubs in America was formed in 1910. On November 3,1910, a Rotary club began meeting in Winnipeg, Canada, on 22 February 1911, the first meeting of the Rotary Club Dublin was held in Dublin, Ireland. This was the first club established outside of North America, in April 1912, Rotary chartered the Winnipeg club marking the first establishment of an American-style service club outside the United States. To reflect the addition of a club outside of the United States, in August 1912, the Rotary Club of London received its charter from the Association, marking the first acknowledged Rotary club outside North America. It became known that the Dublin club in Ireland was organized before the London club, but the Dublin club did not receive its charter until after the London club was chartered.
During World War I, Rotary in Britain increased from 9 to 22 clubs, in 1922, the name was changed to Rotary International. By 1925, Rotary had grown to 200 clubs with more than 20,000 members, Rotary Clubs in Spain ceased to operate shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. At the UN Charter Conference in San Francisco, nearly fifty Rotarians served as delegates, Rotarys work in promoting peace through education began as early as 1943 with a London conference on international and educational exchanges. Rotary International established consultative status with the UN and UNESCO beginning in 1946-47, in one of the first cooperative activities with UNESCO, the Rotary Foundation awarded a $5,000 ‘grant-in-aid’ for fellowships to social service and educational leaders in war-devastated countries. The funds were designed to provide training to those who trained others, in 1985, Rotary launched its PolioPlus program to immunize all of the worlds children against polio
Khumbu is a region of northeastern Nepal on the Nepalese side of Mount Everest. It is part of the Solukhumbu District, which in turn is part of the Sagarmatha Zone, Khumbu is one of three subregions of the main Khambu and Sherpa settlement of the Himalaya, the other two being Solu and Pharak. It includes the town of Namche Bazaar as well as the villages of Thame, Pangboche, the famous Buddhist monastery at Tengboche is located in the Khumbu. The Khumbus elevation ranges from 3,300 metres to the 8,848 m summit of Mount Everest, the Khumbu region includes both Sagarmatha National Park and the Sagarmatha National Park Buffer Zone, between Lukla and Monju. The Khumbu is a glacier believed to be the result of the last great Ice Age, lonely Planet has ranked Khumbu region in sixth best region in the world to travel. Dingboche Kunde Khumjung Lobuche Lukla Namche Bazaar Tengboche Phortse Thame Thamo Pangboche Phakding Monjo Khumbu travel guide from Wikivoyage
Sherpa are an ethnic group from the most mountainous region of Nepal, the Himalayas. Sherpa as a surname is the result of census takers of the Nepalese government. Not recognizing that some only have one name, census takers wrote Sherpa in the place of a last name. The surname Sherpa has thus been adopted and involuntarily used as last names even though last names are not part of Sherpa culture, most Sherpa people live in Nepals eastern regions, some live farther west in the Rolwaling valley and in the Helambu region north of Kathmandu. Tengboche is the oldest Sherpa village in Nepal, Sherpa people live in Tibet, Bhutan, as well as in the Indian states of Sikkim and the northern portion of West Bengal, specifically the district of Darjeeling. The Sherpa language belongs to the branch of the Tibeto-Burman languages. However, this language is separate from Lhasa Tibetan and unintelligible to Lhasa speakers, the number of Sherpas migrating to the West has significantly increased in recent years, especially to the United States.
New York City has the largest Sherpa community in the United States, the 2001 Nepal census recorded 154,622 Sherpas within its borders. Some members of the Sherpa population are known for their skills in mountaineering, the Sherpa were nomadic people who first settled in the Solukhumbu District, gradually moved westward along salt trade routes. According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated out of Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four fundamental Sherpa clans, Minyagpa and these four groups have since split into the more than 20 different clans that exist today. About 1840, Sherpa ancestors migrated from Kham, mahayana Buddhism religious conflict may have contributed to the migration in the 15th and 16th centuries. Sherpa migrants traveled through Ü and Tsang, before crossing the Himalaya, by the 1400s, Khumbu Sherpa people attained autonomy within the newly formed Nepali state. In the 1960s, as tension with China increased, Nepali government influence on the Sherpa people grew, in 1976, Khumbu became a national park, and tourism became a major economic force.
According to Oppitz, Sherpas migrated from the Kham region in eastern Tibet to Nepal within the last 300–400 years, on the other hand, Gautam concluded that the Sherpa migrated from Tibet approximately 600 years ago, through the Nangpa La pass. It is presumed that the group of people from the Kham region, east of Tibet, was called Shyar Khamba, as the time passed, the Shyar Khamba, inhabitants of Shyar Khumbu, were called Sherpa. A recent Nepal Ethnographic Museum study postulated that present-day Nepal became a part of the kingdom of Nepal. Since ancient times, like other indigenous Kirat Nepalese tribes, would move one place to another place within the Himalayan region surviving as Alpine pastoralists. Genetic evidence shows that the majority of Sherpa have a Tibeto-Burman origin, the Sherpa cluster closest with Tibetans and Han Chinese
There are travel agencies that serve as general sales agents for foreign travel companies, allowing them to have offices in countries other than where their headquarters are located. The modern travel agency first appeared in the half of the 19th century with its root in 1758 as establishment of Cox & Kings Ltd. In the year 1970, Cox & Kings the longest established travel company centered its focus on its business of travel, lately Thomas Cook established a chain of agencies in the last quarter of the 19th century, in association with the Midland Railway. They not only sold their own tours to the public, but in addition, other British pioneer travel agencies were Dean & Dawson, the Polytechnic Touring Association, and the Co-operative Wholesale Society. The oldest travel agency in the United States is Brownell Travel, on 4 July 1887, Walter T. Brownell led ten travelers on a European tour, Travel agencies became more commonplace with the development of commercial aviation, starting in the 1920s. A travel agencys main function is to act as an agent, selling travel products, a package holiday or a ticket is not purchased from a supplier unless a customer requests that purchase.
The holiday or ticket is supplied to the agency at a discount, the profit is therefore the difference between the advertised price which the customer pays and the discounted price at which it is supplied to the agent. This is known as the commission, in many countries, all individuals or companies that sell tickets are required to be licensed as a travel agent. In some countries, airlines have stopped giving commissions to travel agencies, travel agencies are now forced to charge a percentage premium or a standard flat fee, per sale. However, some companies pay travel agencies a set percentage for selling their product. Major tour companies can afford to do this, because if they were to sell a thousand trips at a cheaper rate and it is cheaper to offer commissions to travel agents rather than engage in advertising and distribution campaigns without using agents. Other commercial operations are undertaken, especially by the larger chains, a travel agent is supposed to offer impartial travel advice to the customer, as well as coordinating travel details and assisting the customer in booking travel.
Again, a variety of social and economic changes have now contrived to bring this aspect to the once more, particularly with the advent of multiple, no-frills. A fixed percentage of the element of the price is paid to the agent as a commission. Commissions may vary depending on the type of product and the supplier, commissions are not paid on the tax component of the price. Travel agencies receive a variety of bonuses, benefits. The customer is not made aware of how much the travel agent is earning in commissions. Other sources of income may include the sale of insurance, travel books, public transport timetables