Heart of Wales line
The Heart of Wales line is a railway line running from Craven Arms in Shropshire to Llanelli in southwest Wales. It runs, it serves a number of rural centres en route, including several once-fashionable spa towns, including Llandrindod Wells. At Builth Road, two miles from the town of Builth Wells, the line crosses the former route of the earlier Mid Wales Railway, which closed in the 1960s; the line was known as the Central Wales line and included routes through Gowerton, where the railway crossed the West Wales lines and ran through Dunvant and Killay down through the Clyne Valley to Blackpill, along the sea wall to Swansea Bay station, before reaching Swansea Victoria railway station. This section built by the Llanelly Railway and Dock Company to compete with the Great Western Railway and break the monopoly they held on Swansea Dock, closed in 1964. Nationalisation of the railways had removed the need for competing routes, the running down and closure of Swansea North Dock ended the need for freight services on this section.
Trains now use the original LR main line to reach the West Wales lines at Llandeilo Junction and thence Llanelli and Swansea. North of Llandovery, the route was opened in stages between 1861 and 1868 by a number of different companies – the Knighton Railway, the Central Wales Railway and Central Wales Extension Railway; the 1963 Beeching Report proposed the remainder of the Heart of Wales line for closure. As a rural branch line, it survived the Beeching Axe since it carried freight traffic, serving the steelworks at Bynea and industrial areas such as Ammanford and Pontarddulais, linking them with the docks at Llanelli, it passed through six marginal constituencies. During engineering work, the line is still used as a diversionary freight route; the basic service over the line since the seventies has remained more or less constant, with four or five trains per day in each direction on weekdays and two or three on Sundays. The line is single track throughout and has been operated under a Light Railway Order since 1972.
There are five passing loops, at Llandeilo, Llanwrtyd and Knighton. Unless "Out of Course" working occurs the Llanwrtyd passing loop is used on two of the Monday – Saturday services and the Llandrindod passing loop is in use on the other two and on the Sunday services; the signalling was modernised in 1986, when a system known as No Signalman Token Remote working was introduced. This is overseen by the signaller at Pantyffynnon, with the token instruments at the aforementioned five passing loops being operated by the train crew by British Rail. For more than two years only two of the loops were operational as Network Rail were unable to source spare parts for the points mechanisms used at all five: the design used is now obsolete. Parts had to be taken from the three decommissioned loops to keep the other two operational. In 2009 NR stated their intention to install new conventional electric point machines at all five loops and restore the three out-of-service ones to full working order but were unable to give a timescale for this to be carried out as design work on the new equipment was still ongoing.
NR began the replacement works for the points after first installing the system on the line to Pembroke Dock, at the Tenby loop, on 7 December 2009 and making minor alterations in Feb 2010. Llandeilo was the first on the line to be modernised, the rest followed; the £5 million project was completed in October 2010. In 2014 Network Rail added exit indicators at the trailing end of each loop to aid in the reversing of services: a decision taken so that all moves have an active indication of the status of the motor points. In 1987 tragedy struck the line near Llandeilo when the Glanrhyd Bridge collapsed following heavy flooding, an early morning northbound train plunged into the swollen River Towy, killing four people. For a while the future of the line was in doubt but political forces of all sides rallied to ensure the line's survival. After leaving the West Wales Line at Llandeilo Junction, the route is shared with the Swansea District line as far as Morlais Junction before passing beneath the M4 Motorway & turning northwards towards Pontarddulais and Pantyfynnon.
The short tunnel before the former station is the oldest surviving example still in use in Wales, whilst the freight-only branch along the Amman valley to Gwaun-Cae-Gurwen diverges at the latter. North of Ammanford, it follows the valley of the River Tywi north to Llandeilo and Llandovery, crossing the river at Glanrhyd by a replacement single-span bridge built & commissioned in 1988. North of Llandovery the character of the route changes, as it ascends into the Carmarthenshire hills towards the first of the line's two major summits at Sugar Loaf on gradients as steep as 1 in 60. En route, it passes over the 283-yard long Cynghordy viaduct acro
A roads in Zone 4 of the Great Britain numbering scheme
List of A roads in zone 4 in Great Britain starting north of the A4 and south/west of the A5
The A44 is a major road in the United Kingdom that runs from Oxford in southern England to Aberystwyth in west Wales. The original route of the A44 was Chipping Norton to Aberystwyth. No changes were made to the route of the A44 in the early years. After the Second World War, the section between Rhayader and Llangurig was renumbered A470, as part of the creation of a through route between South and North Wales; the A44 was extended to Oxford in the 1990s, replacing part of the A34 when the M40 motorway was completed. The road begins at a roundabout junction with the A40 road on the northern outskirts of Oxford in Oxfordshire, it has a grade separated junction with the A34 road. From here, the road runs northwest, has a 2-mile section of dual-carriageway through the villages of Yarnton and Begbroke before reaching the town of Woodstock, home to Blenheim Palace; the road reaches the main market street in Chipping Norton before entering the Cotswolds. The road here has many hills and turns, is single-carriageway with some tight bends, with not much opportunity for overtaking.
The road enters Gloucestershire, the town of Moreton in Marsh, before sweeping up through woodland until it reaches Fish Hill near Broadway in Worcestershire. At this point, it descends steeply through some sharp bends, it bypasses Broadway before meeting up with the A46/A435 Evesham bypass. On reaching the northern end of the Evesham bypass the A44 heads northwest, passing Wyre Piddle and the town of Pershore before reaching the crossroads near Spetchley; the road crosses the M5 motorway and onto Worcester's eastern bypass. It turns south along the bypass before rejoining its original line west into the city itself; the road passes the Cathedral, crosses the River Severn and meets the western end of the bypass. After leaving Worcester, the A44 continues west past the village of Broadwas, following the River Teme until Knightwick where enters Herefordshire as it climbs over Bringsty Common before descending towards Bromyard; the A44 heads west over the downs to Bredenbury. It crosses the River Lugg before meeting the A49 Leominster bypass, where it turns left and heads through the town centre.
After leaving Leominster, the A44 crosses the River Arrow to bypass Monkland. The road heads towards the black and white villages of Eardisland and Pembridge. After Pembridge the A44 meanders west, passing numerous orchards en route, before reaching Lyonshall, where the road meets the A480 and passes Offa's Dyke. A couple of miles and the A44 meets Kington; the road follows the River Arrow before reaching the Welsh border. Leaving Herefordshire and entering Powys, the road continues through Walton and passes the village of New Radnor, before turning south to Llanfihangel Nant Melan; the road turns northwest to do some serious hill-climbing before winding its way downhill to a plateau. A few miles it reaches Penybont and Crossgates, where it meets the A483 road. Eight miles further the A44 reaches Rhayader. On reaching the centre of Rhayader, traffic heads to the left of the clock tower before turning right, where the road passes through the town and joins the A470 for 9 miles to Llangurig, following the course of the River Wye.
From on it is known as the Llangurig to Aberystwyth Trunk Road. Leaving Llangurig, the road starts clinging to hillsides as it winds its way through the Cambrian Mountains. A few miles the River Wye crosses under the road and up the hill to the north; the road enters Ceredigion where the next hamlet is Eisteddfa Gurig, which at 1339 feet above sea level is the highest point en route and the location of the iconic Elvis Rock. The A44 descends into the remote settlement of Ponterwyd; the road passes several abandoned mines en route to the villages of Goginan and Capel Bangor, where it meets the River Rheidol. The road passes the village of Llanbadarn Fawr, continuing for its last mile through the outskirts of Aberystwyth before terminating on the A487 at Penglais Hill. Evesham: the route now runs to the north. Evesham–Worcester: the route used to run on a road to the south. Leominster–Kington: for 4.8 miles west of Barons' Cross the road followed a more northerly route, crossing the River Arrow at Eardisland Wyre Piddle.
In 2004 the A44 was rerouted down the A4538 between Evesham and Worcester and therefore no longer goes down Pershore High Street. The old route is now known as the B4084. Trunk roads in Wales Media related to A44 road at Wikimedia Commons SABRE page on the A44
Rhayader is a market town and electoral ward in Radnorshire, central Wales. The town is one of the principal centres of population in the Anglicised historic county of Radnorshire and has a population of 2,088. 55% of the community have some form of Welsh identity according to the 2011 census. It is the first town on the banks of the River Wye, 20 miles from its source on the Plynlimon range of the Cambrian Mountains, it is situated midway between North and south Wales on the A470, 13 miles north of Builth Wells and 30 miles east of Aberystwyth on the A44 - two of Wales' most important trunk roads. The name "Rhayader" is a partly-Anglicised form of its Welsh name "Y Rhaeadr", or more "Rhaeadr Gwy". Speaking, according to place-name spelling conventions in Welsh, the name of the town would be'Rhaeadr-gwy', the waterfall itself'Rhaeadr Gwy', but it seems that this distinction is ignored. In the Welsh of the area the name is, as one would expect on the pattern of similar words, Rheiad pronounced.
Little remains of the waterfall itself, it having been destroyed in 1780 to make way for the bridge linking the town to Cwmdauddwr and the Elan Valley - the Lakeland of Wales. The abundance of cairns and standing stones bears witness that man inhabited the area several thousand years BCE. An important hoard of gold jewellery dating from 1st-2nd centuries AD was found in 1899 in the vicinity of the town. Known as the Rhayader Hoard, it is now in the Roman-British collection of the British Museum. Rhayader has always been a natural stopping point for travellers - the Romans had a stop-over camp in the Elan Valley, Monks travelled between the Abbeys of Strata Florida and Abbeycwmhir and drovers headed to the lucrative markets with their livestock, it wasn't until the 12th Century that a documented history of the town began with the building of Rhayader Castle in 1177. Little remains today, with the exception of a dry moat. One of the oldest buildings in Rhayader is the Old Swan, which stands on the corner of West and South Streets Rhayader.
The original building was mentioned in 1676 as being one of the two inns in Rhayader at that date. Some changes were made in 1683, including the rebuilding of the three chimney stacks, this date is carved into the old timbers inside the building. In the 19th Century, turnpike roads were only passable on payment of extortionate tolls, imposing additional burdens on poor communities; this led to the Rebecca Riots across South and Mid Wales from 1839–1842, with no less than six of Rhayader's tollgates being demolished with impunity by local farmers dressed as women. The actions of these'Rebeccaites' led to a Commission of Inquiry being set up, most of Rebecca's grievances were righted two years later. In the 1890s the expanding city of Birmingham, 70 miles east, viewed the nearby Elan Valley as the ideal source of clean, safe water; this was to change the face of Rhayader forever, bringing thousands of workers involved in building this massive complex of dams and reservoirs to the area. A new railway was built connecting this huge area with the main network in Rhayader, the construction of a new village to house the workers was built on the banks of the River Elan.
Work started in 1894 and the scheme was opened in 1904 by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra. Rhayader is an electoral ward to Powys County Council. Rhayader Town Council represents the town at the local level, with fourteen town councillors elected from the Rhayader and Cwmdauddwr community wards; the station on the Mid Wales Railway line that served the town was closed on 31 December 1962. The nearest station is now at Crossgates on the Heart of Wales Line, though connections are made at the more accessible Llandrindod railway station a similar distance away. An extensive bus service connects with outlying villages and neighbouring towns, with two-hourly daytime departures to Builth Wells, Llandrindod Wells and Newtown, with connections to Hereford, Shrewsbury and further afield. Due to the volume of traffic generated by the convergence of two of Wales's most important trunk roads, the construction of a bypass to relieve congestion at the town centre crossroads has been an ongoing debate for many years.
The town is a popular cycling centre and is on Route 8 of the United Kingdom National Cycle Network - Lôn Las Cymru. Tourism and agriculture are the most important industries locally. Walkers and cyclists are drawn to Rhayader for the abundance of trails and bridleways surrounding the town, the gateway to a massive complex of reservoirs and dams; this vast area is home to some of Britain's rarest wildlife and plants, including red kites, along with magnificent feats of engineering. There are a number of hotels and breakfasts and campsites to accommodate the large number of visitors that travel to the area all year round. Rhayader is home to a community founded art and heritage complex which includes a museum and gallery, a leisure centre, numerous parks and all the amenities expected of a larger town. Potter Phil Rogers has his studio in Rhayader. There are an abundance of shops,cash facilities, restaurants and supermarkets catering to both the local population and visitors to the area. Rhayader is renowned for being the town with the highest concentration of pubs and drinking establishments, per capita, in the UK, with one to each 173 people.
In nearby Nant-glas, across the river Wye from the village of Llanwrthwl, the Living Willow Theatre, an open-air theatre constructed of living willow trees, was opened in 2007. Rhayader Town F. C. despit
In public transport, a request stop, flag stop, or whistle stop is a stop or station or airport at which trains, buses or airline flights stop only on request. In this way, stops with low passenger counts can be incorporated into a route without introducing unnecessary delay. Vehicles may save fuel by continuing through a station when there is no need to stop. There may not always be a significant savings on time if there is no one to pick up because vehicles going past a request stop may need to slow down enough to be able to stop if there are passengers waiting. Request stops may introduce extra travel time variability and increase the need for schedule padding; the methods by which transit vehicles are notified that there are passengers waiting to be picked up at a request stop vary by transit system and by route. Most local, inner-city bus operations operate all of their stops as request stops if there is always a passenger boarding or alighting. To distinguish stops that are served on every trip, these are called stations and they are most at the terminus of a route.
Such stops are also used as timing points. In bus transport the term "request stop" may be used to refer to a stop on a hail and ride section of a route. In hail and ride operations, there are few or no marked stops and passengers can request the bus be stopped at any point where the driver can safely and reasonably do so. For example, in London, Transport for London operates request stops at a number of locations such as Blackheath park Micheldever road. Buses do not stop at these stops, unless a passenger waiting at the bus shelter signals the bus to stop or if a passenger wishes to disembark and rings the bell. In some cities, flag stops may refer to any stop that has regular service, but is not signed by the authorities serving it; this is common in some cities, such as Tulsa, where bus stops are infrequently signed. In long distance transport, transit vehicles, such as passenger trains or buses operating on motorways operate at higher speeds than local transport; this means that stopping is more troublesome and that it may be difficult to see a passenger in time to stop for them.
This difference results in more complicated ways of signalling a stop to the vehicle. Some services, like Amtrak, require that a ticket be purchased in advance, specifying a specific origin and destination. Since the train's crew know what tickets were sold, they know where people are coming from and going to, they stop only at those stations required by the tickets. Services that lack advanced ticketing, or which sell tickets for a range of destinations or travel times, require ways of knowing whether or not someone is waiting at a station or platform; these may range from a passenger speaking to a dispatcher on a phone located at a station to pressing a button to activate a signal such as a flashing light somewhere before the station that the driver can see in time to slow down safely. Along some ferry routes in the fjords in Norway, some stops are equipped with a light that embarking passengers must switch on in order for the ferry to include the stop and pick them up; the system is known under the name'signalanløp'.
Similar to Norway, in Sweden commuter ferries are requested to stop by a semaphore signal. The many islands of the Stockholm archipelago are an example of this; the appearance of request stops varies wildly. Many are signed, but many others rely on local knowledge. Halt Hail and ride
The A470 referred to as the Cardiff to Glan Conwy Trunk Road, is a 186 miles long road in Wales that connects Cardiff on the south coast to Llandudno on the north coast. It has undergone considerable road improvement in the last two decades. While one had to navigate the narrow roads of Llanidloes and Dolgellau, both these market towns are now bypassed due to extensive road modernisation; the 26 miles from Cardiff Bay to Merthyr Tydfil are direct and good quality dual carriageway, but most of the route from north of Merthyr to Llandudno is single carriageway which has seen considerable improvement in the last 20–30 years. The road travels through two of Wales's national parks; the southernmost point of the route is outside the Wales Millennium Centre. It runs up Lloyd George Avenue, continues along St. Mary Street in central Cardiff; the road becomes North Road, after a tidal flow system running to Maindy and goes over the flyover at the Gabalfa interchange of the A48 and the A469. It becomes an urban dual-carriageway along Manor Way, with a 40 mph speed limit and with many traffic-signalled crossings.
It passes without interruption under the M4 at the giant Coryton roundabout. For the next 15 miles it is a modern high-speed dual carriageway by-passing Tongwynlais and Castell Coch, Taff's Well, to Pontypridd. Heading north to Abercynon, the road now follows the route of the Taff Vale Railways Llancaiach Branch to Quakers Yard roundabout, where it is joined by the A4059 from Abercynon and Hirwaun. From Quakers Yard roundabout, 5.5 miles of dual carriageway takes the road to the Pentrebach roundabout where the A4060 links, to the Merthyr Tydfil roundabout where the road meets the A465 and the dual carriageway ends. A twisting section alongside the Taf Fawr reservoirs of Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons takes the road to its highest point at Storey Arms on the pass over the Brecon Beacons before a long descent to Brecon; the remainder of the route north of Brecon consists of older routes now renamed "A470". This artificiality is apparent as a driver following the entire route north to south must diverge from the main line of respective stretches of road no fewer than five times.
A short three lane stretch heads north east before a sharp left turn is required to stay on the road. From this point on the road becomes narrow and twisting and overtaking is problematic except at a few straight sections. Another sharp left turn at a stop sign in Llyswen takes the road alongside the River Wye into Builth Wells; the road continues to follow the Wye to the busy crossroads where it meets the A44 in the centre of Rhayader. On reaching Llangurig, a right turn outside the village takes the road past Llanidloes and through Llandinam, the birthplace of David Davies and now the headquarters of Girl Guides Wales. Another anomalous left turn at a level crossing sets the path for Caersws and Llanbrynmair. Just beyond the village of Talerddig the road descends and crosses under the Shrewsbury–Aberystwyth railway line; the long descent towards Commins Coch is a new stretch of road that replaced a set of road-works that had traffic light controlled single lane working for over 10 years because of unstable ground conditions.
The river bridge at Commins Coch is so narrow and set at such an angle that only one vehicle at a time can pass. At Cemmaes Road the road joins the A487 at a roundabout. A right turn at the roundabout takes the road on to Mallwyd where the A458 joins at yet another roundabout; the country becomes more forested and the road climbs up through Dinas Mawddwy and steeply up the eastern foot-hills of Cadair Idris before dropping down to the Dolgellau by-pass. More sharp twists and turns in the forestry and through the village of Ganllwyd brings the road up onto the high plateau of the Cambrian dome where the road follows the ancient track of Sarn Helen Roman road passing the redundant nuclear power station at Trawsfynydd. A right turn beyond the power station takes the road on to Ffestiniog and Blaenau Ffestiniog before heading over the Crimea Pass to Dolwyddelan. A sharp left turn interrupts the A470 as it becomes the A5 for a short distance towards Betws-y-Coed before turning right again back onto the A470 just before Waterloo Bridge.
Passing down the valley of the River Conwy the road passes through Llanrwst, Tal-y-Cafn and Glan Conwy, at which point there is a dual roundabout that intersects with the A55 North Wales Expressway before descending into Llandudno. The northernmost point of the route is in Llandudno itself at the sea front, where it meets the North Shore Parade, the A547; the route from Cardiff to Brecon was the original A470. It ran into Brecon town centre and joined the A40 road; the old A470 between the by-pass and the town, along Newgate Street, is now the B4601. A4062 was the number for the section from the junction of the A40 and the B4601 – the Brecon bypass to B4602 section; the B4601 was the A40 which ran through the town of Brecon. The B4602 was the westernmost part of the A438; the A438 was the original number for the road from the junction with B4602 to the sharp left turn where A470 turns north in the vicinity of Llanfilo. The A438 continues on from there to Tewkesbury. From north of Llanfilo to Llyswen was the A4073.
A479 linked the A40 west of Crickhowell to the A44 road at Rhayader. The A479 now runs only from Crickhowell to Llyswe
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility or area where trains stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It consists of at least one track-side platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales and waiting rooms. If a station is on a single-track line, it has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements; the smallest stations are most referred to as "stops" or, in some parts of the world, as "halts". Stations elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other transport modes such as buses, trams or other rapid transit systems. In British English, traditional usage favours railway station or station though train station, perceived as an Americanism, is now about as common as railway station in writing. In British usage, the word station is understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In American English, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station. In North America, the term depot is sometimes used as an alternative name for station, along with the compound forms train depot, railway depot, railroad depot, but applicable for goods, the term depot is not used in reference to vehicle maintenance facilities in American English.
The world's first recorded railway station was The Mount on the Oystermouth Railway in Swansea, which began passenger service in 1807, although the trains were horsedrawn rather than by locomotives. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw passenger service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on 22 May 1830; the oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, on the locomotive hauled Liverpool to Manchester line. As the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road; the station was the first to incorporate a train shed. The station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal; the first stations had little in the way of amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened in 1830.
Manchester's Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses. Early stations were sometimes built with both passenger and goods facilities, though some railway lines were goods-only or passenger-only, if a line was dual-purpose there would be a goods depot apart from the passenger station. Dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, passengers wanting to board the train had to flag the train down in order for it to stop; such stations were known as "flag stops" or "flag stations". Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the grandiose architecture of the time, lending prestige to the city as well as to railway operations. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations imitated 19th-century styles.
Various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles. Stations in Europe tended to follow British designs and were in some countries, like Italy, financed by British railway companies. Stations built more often have a similar feel to airports, with a simple, abstract style. Examples of modern stations include those on newer high-speed rail networks, such as the Shinkansen in Japan, THSR in Taiwan, TGV lines in France and ICE lines in Germany. Stations have staffed ticket sales offices, automated ticket machines, or both, although on some lines tickets are sold on board the trains. Many stations include a convenience store. Larger stations have fast-food or restaurant facilities. In some countries, stations may have a bar or pub. Other station facilities may include: toilets, left-luggage, lost-and-found and arrivals boards, luggage carts, waiting rooms, taxi ranks, bus bays and car parks.
Larger or manned stations tend to have a greater range of facilities including a station security office. These are open for travellers when there is sufficient traffic over a long enough period of time to warrant the cost. In large cities this may mean facilities available around the clock. A basic station might only have platforms, though it may still be distinguished from a halt, a stopping or halting place that may not have platforms. Many stations, either larger or smaller, offer interchange with local transportation. In many African, South American countries, Asian countries, stations are used as a place for public markets and other informal businesses; this is true on tourist routes or stations near tourist destinations. As well as providing services for passengers and loading facilities for goods, stations can sometimes have locomotive and rolling stock depots (usually with facilities for storing and refuelling rolling stock an