Daniel O'Connell referred to as The Liberator or The Emancipator, was an Irish political leader in the first half of the 19th century. He campaigned for Catholic emancipation—including the right for Catholics to sit in the Westminster Parliament, denied for over 100 years—and repeal of the Acts of Union which combined Great Britain and Ireland. Throughout his career in Irish politics, O'Connell was able to gain a large following among the Irish masses in support of him and his Catholic Association. O'Connell's main strategy was one of political reformism, working within the parliamentary structures of the British state in Ireland and forming an alliance of convenience with the Whigs. More radical elements broke with O'Connell to found the Young Ireland movement. O'Connell was born at Carhan near Cahersiveen, County Kerry, to the O'Connells of Derrynane, a once-wealthy Roman Catholic family, dispossessed of its lands, his parents were Catherine O'Mullane. Among his uncles was Daniel Charles, Count O'Connell, an officer in the Irish Brigades of the French Army.
A famous aunt was Eibhlín Dubh Ní Chonaill, while Sir James O'Connell, 1st Baronet, was his younger brother. Under the patronage of his wealthy bachelor uncle Maurice "Hunting Cap" O'Connell. O'Connell was first sent with his brother Maurice to Reddington Academy at Long Island, near Queenstown They both studied at Douai in France from 1790 and O'Connell was admitted as a barrister to Lincoln's Inn in 1794, transferring to Dublin's King's Inns two years later. In his early years, he became acquainted with the pro-democracy radicals of the time and committed himself to bringing equal rights and religious tolerance to his own country. While in Dublin studying for the law, O'Connell was under his Uncle Maurice's instructions not to become involved in any militia activity; when Wolfe Tone's French invasion fleet entered Bantry Bay in December 1796, O'Connell found himself in a quandary. Politics was the cause of his unsettlement. Dennis Gwynn in his Daniel O'Connell: The Irish Liberator suggests that the unsettlement was because he was enrolled as a volunteer in defence of Government, yet the Government was intensifying its persecution of the Catholic people—of which he was one.
He desired to enter Parliament, yet every allowance that the Catholics had been led to anticipate, two years was now flatly vetoed. As a law student, O'Connell was aware of his own talents, but the higher ranks of the Bar were closed to him, he read the Jockey Club as a picture of the governing class in England and was persuaded by it that, "vice reigns triumphant in the English court at this day. The spirit of liberty shrinks to protect property from the attacks of French innovators; the corrupt higher orders tremble for their vicious enjoyments."O'Connell's studies at the time had concentrated upon the legal and political history of Ireland, the debates of the Historical Society concerned the records of governments, from this he was to conclude, according to one of his biographers, "in Ireland the whole policy of the Government was to repress the people and to maintain the ascendancy of a privileged and corrupt minority". On 3 January 1797, in an atmosphere of alarm over the French invasion fleet in Bantry Bay, he wrote to his uncle saying that he was the last of his colleagues to join a volunteer corps and "being young, active and single" he could offer no plausible excuse.
That month, for the sake of expediency, he joined the Lawyers' Artillery Corps. On 19 May 1798, O'Connell became a barrister. Four days the United Irishmen staged their rebellion, put down by the British with great bloodshed. O'Connell did not support the rebellion, he went on the Munster circuit, for over a decade, he went into a quiet period of private law practice in the south of Ireland. He was reputed to have the largest income of any Irish barrister but, due to natural extravagance and a growing family, was in debt. Although he was to inherit Derrynane from his uncle Maurice, the old man lived to be 100 and in the event Daniel's inheritance did not cover his debts, he condemned Robert Emmet's Rebellion of 1803. Of Emmet, a Protestant, he wrote: "A man who could coolly prepare so much bloodshed, so many murders—and such horrors of every kind has ceased to be an object of compassion."Despite his opposition to the use of violence, he was willing to defend those accused of political crimes if he suspected that they had been falsely accused, as in the Doneraile conspiracy trials of 1829, his last notable court appearance.
He was noted for his fearlessness in court: if he thought poorly of a judge he had no hesitation in making this clear. Most famous was his retort to Baron McClelland, who had said that as a barrister he would never have taken the course O'Connell had adopted: O'Connell said that McClelland had never been his model as a barrister, neither would he take directions from him as a judge, he did not lack the ambition to become a judge himself: in particular he was attracted by the position of Master of the Rolls in Ireland, yet although he was offered it more than once refused. O'Connell returned to politics in the 1810s. In 1811, he established the Catholic Board, which campaigned for Catholic emancipation, that is, the opportunity for Irish Catholics to become members of parliament. In 1823, he set up the Catholic Association which embraced other aims to better Irish Catholics, such as: electoral reform
The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and nonconformists. The principle was that none but people taking communion in the established Church of England were eligible for public employment, the severe penalties pronounced against recusants, whether Catholic or nonconformist, were affirmations of this principle. In practice nonconformists were exempted from some of these laws through the regular passage of Acts of Indemnity. After 1800 they were enforced, except at Oxbridge, where nonconformists and Catholics could not matriculate or graduate; the Conservative government repealed them in 1828 with little controversy. The Corporation Act of James I provided that all such as were naturalized or restored in blood should receive the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, it was not, until the reign of Charles II that receiving communion in the Church of England was made a precondition for holding public office.
The earliest imposition of this test was by the Corporation Act of 1661 requiring that, besides taking the Oath of Supremacy, all members of corporations were, within one year after election, to receive the sacrament of the Lord's Supper according to the rites of the Church of England. This act was followed by the Test Act of 1673; this act enforced upon all persons filling any office, civil or military, the obligation of taking the oaths of supremacy and allegiance and subscribing to a declaration against transubstantiation and of receiving the sacrament within three months after admittance to office. The oath for the Test Act of 1673 was: I, N, do declare that I do believe that there is not any transubstantiation in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, or in the elements of the bread and wine, at or after the consecration thereof by any person whatsoever; the act was passed in the parliamentary session that began on 4 February 1673. The correct date using the modern Gregorian calendar is 1673.
The Act did not extend to peers. The effect of this was to exclude Catholics from both houses, in particular the "Five Popish Lords" from the House of Lords, a change motivated by the alleged Popish Plot; the Lords resented this interference with their membership. The necessity of receiving the sacrament as a qualification for office was repealed in 1828 and all acts requiring the taking of oaths and declarations against transubstantiation were repealed by the Catholic Relief Act 1829. Sir Robert Peel took the lead for the government in the repeal and collaborated with Anglican Church leaders. Ditchfield, Grayson M. "The parliamentary struggle over the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, 1787-1790." English Historical Review 89.352: 551-577. Online Loades, David, ed. Reader's Guide to British History 2:1262-63. T. "Resistance to Repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, 1828." Historical Journal 22.1: 115-139. Committees for the Repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts: the minutes of two committees for the repeal of the Act.
First published by the London Record Society, available as part of British History Online
Religion in the United Kingdom
Religion in the United Kingdom, in the countries that preceded it, has been dominated for over 1,000 years by various forms of Christianity. Religious affiliations of United Kingdom citizens are recorded by regular surveys, the four major ones being the national decennial census, the Labour Force Survey, the British Social Attitudes survey and the European Social Survey. According to the 2011 Census, Christianity is the majority religion, followed by Islam, Sikhism and Buddhism in terms of number of adherents. Among Christians, Anglicans are the most common denomination, followed by the Catholics, Presbyterians and Baptists. This, the large number of individuals with nominal or no religious affiliations, has led commentators to variously describe the United Kingdom as a multi-faith and secularised society; the United Kingdom was formed by the union of independent countries in 1707, most of the largest religious groups do not have UK-wide organisational structures. While some groups have separate structures for the individual countries of the United Kingdom, others have a single structure covering England and Wales or Great Britain.
Due to the recent creation of Northern Ireland in 1921, most major religious groups in Northern Ireland are organised on an all-Ireland basis. While the United Kingdom as a whole has no official religion, the Church of England remains the state church of its largest constituent country, England; the Monarch of the United Kingdom is the Supreme Governor of the Church, accordingly, only a Protestant may inherit the British throne. This was enshrined into law by 1701 Act of Settlement. According to the 1701 Act, succession to the throne went to Princess Sophia, Electress of Hanover and her Protestant heirs. However, Sophia died before Queen Anne, therefore the succession passed to her son, Elector of Hanover, who in 1714 became King George I; the act was extended to Scotland as a result of the Treaty of Union enacted in the Acts of Union of 1707. Pre-Roman forms of religion in Britain included various forms of ancestor paganism. Little is known about the details of such religions. Forms of Christianity have dominated religious life in what is now the United Kingdom for over 1,400 years.
It was introduced by the Romans to what is now England and Southern Scotland. The doctrine of Pelagianism, declared heretical in the Council of Carthage, originated with a British-born ascetic, Pelagius; the Anglo-Saxon invasions re-introduced paganism in the 5th and 6th centuries. Insular Christianity as it stood between the 6th and 8th centuries retained some idiosyncrasies in terms of liturgy and calendar, but it had been nominally united with Roman Christianity since at least the Synod of Whitby of 664. Still in the Anglo-Saxon period, the archbishops of Canterbury established a tradition of receiving their pallium from Rome to symbolize the authority of the Pope; the Catholic Church remained the dominant form of Western Christianity in Britain throughout the Middle Ages, but the Church of England became the independent established church in England and Wales in 1534 as a result of the English Reformation. It retains a representation in the UK Parliament and the British monarch is its Supreme Governor.
In Scotland, the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, established in a separate Scottish Reformation in the sixteenth century, is recognized as the national church. It is not subject to state control and the British monarch is an ordinary member, required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government" upon his or her accession; the adherence to the Catholic Church continued at various levels in different parts of Britain among recusants and in the north of England, but most in Ireland. This would expand in Great Britain due to Irish immigration in the nineteenth century, the Catholic emancipation and the Restoration of the English hierarchy. From the mid-seventeenth century, forms of Protestant nonconformity, including Congregationalists, Baptists and Methodists, grew outside of the established church; the Church in Wales was disestablished in 1920 and, as the Church of Ireland was disestablished in 1870 before the partition of Ireland, there is no established church in Northern Ireland.
The Jews in England were only emancipated in the 19th century. British Jews had numbered fewer than 10,000 in 1800 but around 120,000 after 1881 when Russian Jews settled permanently in Britain; the substantial immigration to the United Kingdom since the 1920s has contributed to the growth of foreign faiths of Islam and Sikhism,Buddhism in the United Kingdom experienced growth due to immigration and due to conversion. As elsewhere in the western world, religious demographics have become part of the discourse on multiculturalism, with Britain variously described as a post-Christian society, as "multi-faith", or as secularised. Scholars have suggested multiple possible reasons for the decline, but have not agreed on their relative importance. Martin Wellings lays out the "classical model" of secularisation, while noting that it has been challenged by some scholars; the familiar starting-point, a classical model of secularisation, argues that religious faith becomes less plausible and religious practice more difficult in advanced industrial and urbanized societies.
The breakdown or disruption of traditio
Anne, Queen of Great Britain
Anne was the Queen of England and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain, she continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1714. Anne was born in the reign of her uncle Charles II, her father, Charles's younger brother James, was thus heir presumptive to the throne. His suspected Roman Catholicism was unpopular in England, on Charles's instructions Anne and her elder sister, were raised as Anglicans. On Charles's death in 1685, James succeeded to the throne, but just three years he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Mary and her husband, the Dutch Protestant William III of Orange, became joint monarchs. Although the sisters had been close, disagreements over Anne's finances and choice of acquaintances arose shortly after Mary's accession and they became estranged. William and Mary had no children.
After Mary's death in 1694, William reigned alone until his own death in 1702, when Anne succeeded him. During her reign, Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more to share her Anglican religious views than their opponents, the Whigs; the Whigs grew more powerful during the course of the War of the Spanish Succession, until 1710 when Anne dismissed many of them from office. Her close friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, turned sour as the result of political differences; the Duchess took revenge in an unflattering description of the Queen in her memoirs, accepted by historians until Anne was re-assessed in the late 20th century. Anne was plagued by ill health throughout her life, from her thirties, she grew ill and obese. Despite seventeen pregnancies by her husband, Prince George of Denmark, she died without surviving issue and was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. Under the Act of Settlement 1701, which excluded all Catholics, she was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover.
Anne was born at 11:39 p.m. on 6 February 1665 at St James's Palace, the fourth child and second daughter of the Duke of York, his first wife, Anne Hyde. Her father was the younger brother of King Charles II, who ruled the three kingdoms of England and Ireland, her mother was the daughter of Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. At her Anglican baptism in the Chapel Royal at St James's, her older sister, was one of her godparents, along with the Duchess of Monmouth and the Archbishop of Canterbury, Gilbert Sheldon; the Duke and Duchess of York had eight children, but Anne and Mary were the only ones to survive into adulthood. As a child, Anne suffered from an eye condition, which manifested as excessive watering known as "defluxion". For medical treatment, she was sent to France, where she lived with her paternal grandmother, Henrietta Maria of France, at the Château de Colombes near Paris. Following her grandmother's death in 1669, Anne lived with an aunt, Henrietta Anne, Duchess of Orléans.
On the sudden death of her aunt in 1670, Anne returned to England. Her mother died the following year; as was traditional in the royal family and her sister were brought up separated from their father in their own establishment at Richmond, London. On the instructions of Charles II, they were raised as Protestants. Placed in the care of Colonel Edward and Lady Frances Villiers, their education was focused on the teachings of the Anglican church. Henry Compton, Bishop of London, was appointed as Anne's preceptor. Around 1671, Anne first made the acquaintance of Sarah Jennings, who became her close friend and one of her most influential advisors. Jennings married John Churchill in about 1678, his sister, Arabella Churchill, was the Duke of York's mistress, he was to be Anne's most important general. In 1673, the Duke of York's conversion to Catholicism became public, he married a Catholic princess, Mary of Modena, only six and a half years older than Anne. Charles II had no legitimate children, so the Duke of York was next in the line of succession, followed by his two surviving daughters from his first marriage and Anne—as long as he had no son.
Over the next ten years, the new Duchess of York had ten children, but all were either stillborn or died in infancy, leaving Mary and Anne second and third in the line of succession after their father. There is every indication that, throughout Anne's early life and her stepmother got on well together, the Duke of York was a conscientious and loving father. In November 1677, Anne's elder sister, married their Dutch first cousin, William III of Orange, at St James's Palace, but Anne could not attend the wedding because she was confined to her room with smallpox. By the time she recovered, Mary had left for her new life in the Netherlands. Lady Frances Villiers contracted the disease, died. Anne's aunt Lady Henrietta Hyde was appointed as her new governess. A year Anne and her stepmother visited Mary in Holland for two weeks. Anne's father and stepmother retired to Brussels in March 1679 in the wake of anti-Catholic hysteria fed by the Popish Plot, Anne visited them from the end of August. In October, they returned to the Duke and Duchess to Scotland and Anne to England.
She joined her father and stepmother at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh from July 1681 until May 1682. It was her last journey outside England. Anne's second cousin George of Hanover visited London for three months from December 1680, sparking rumours of a potential marriage between them. H
Oath of Supremacy
The Oath of Supremacy required any person taking public or church office in England to swear allegiance to the monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Failure to do so was to be treated as treasonable; the Oath of Supremacy was imposed by King Henry VIII of England through the Act of Supremacy 1534, but repealed by his daughter, Queen Mary I of England and reinstated under Henry's other daughter and Mary's half-sister, Queen Elizabeth I of England under the Act of Supremacy 1559. The Oath was extended to include Members of Parliament and people studying at universities. Catholics were first allowed to become members of parliament in 1829, the requirement to take the oath for Oxford university students was lifted by the Oxford University Act 1854. I do utterly testifie and declare in my Conscience, that the Kings Highnesse is the onely Supreame Governour of this Realme, all other his Highnesse Dominions and Countries, as well in all Spirituall or Ecclesiasticall things or causes, as Temporall: And that no forraine Prince, Prelate, State or Potentate, hath or ought to have any Jurisdiction, Superiorities, Preeminence or Authority Ecclesiasticall or Spirituall within this Realme.
And therefore, I do utterly renounce and forsake all Jurisdictions, Superiorities, or Authorities. I, A. B. do utterly testify and declare in my conscience that the Queen's Highness is the only supreme governor of this realm, of all other her Highness's dominions and countries, as well in all spiritual or ecclesiastical things or causes, as temporal, that no foreign prince, prelate, state or potentate hath or ought to have any jurisdiction, superiority, pre-eminence or authority ecclesiastical or spiritual within this realm. So help me God, by the contents of this Book. Roman Catholics who refused to take the Oath of Supremacy were indicted for treason on charges of praemunire. For example, Sir Thomas More opposed the King's separation from the Roman Catholic Church and refused to accept him as Supreme Head of the Church of England, a title, given by parliament through the Act of Supremacy of 1534, he was imprisoned in 1534 for his refusal to take the oath, because the act discredited Papal Authority and Henry’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
In 1535, he was tried for treason, convicted on perjured testimony, beheaded. Under the reigns of Charles II and James II, the Oath of Supremacy was not so employed by The Crown; this was due to the Catholic sympathies and practices of these monarchs, the resulting high number of Roman Catholics serving in official positions. Examples of officials who never had to take the Oath include the Catholic privy counsellors, Sir Stephen Rice and Justin McCarthy, Viscount Mountcashel; the centrality of the Oath was re-established under the reign of William III and Mary II. Elizabethan Religious Settlement Religion in the United Kingdom Augustine Webster
Presbyterian Church in Ireland
The Presbyterian Church in Ireland is the largest Presbyterian denomination in Ireland, the largest Protestant denomination in Northern Ireland. Like most Christian churches in Ireland, it is organised on an all-island basis, in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland; the church has 225,000 members. The Church has a membership of 225,000 people in 536 congregations in 403 charges across both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. About 96% of the membership is in Northern Ireland, it is the second largest church in the first being the Roman Catholic Church. In the Republic the church is the second largest Protestant denomination, after the Church of Ireland. All the congregations of the church are represented up to the General Assembly. Presbyterianism in Ireland dates from the time of the Plantation of Ulster in 1610. During the reign of James VI of Scotland a large number of Scottish Presbyterians emigrated to Ireland; the first move away from the Church of Scotland, of which the Presbyterians in Ireland were part, saw the creation of the Presbytery of Ulster in 1642 by chaplains of a Scottish Covenanter army which had arrived to protect the Protestant British settlers in Ulster and to crush the Irish Rebellion of 1641 threatening these settlers.
It failed abysmally to crush the rebellion. Under the more secure protection of Cromwell congregations multiplied and new presbyteries were formed. However, after the Restoration, nonconforming ministers were removed from parishes of the Established Church, but no matter the opinions of the king on religion, the Irish administration could not afford to alienate such a substantial Protestant population and Presbyterianism was allowed to continue in the country, with the stipends of ministers paid through the regium donum – literally'the King's gift'. William III rewarded Presbyterian support against James II with an increase in the regium donum. From the 1690s, Presbyterian congregations, now organised in the Synod of Ulster, enjoyed practical freedom of religion, confirmed by the Toleration Act of 1719. However, their members remained conscious both of continuing legal disabilities under the penal laws and of economic hardship as many were tenant farmers and objected to the payment of tithes to support the Church of Ireland.
Throughout the eighteenth century, many Presbyterians were involved in movements for reform, which culminated with their prominent involvement in the United Irishmen. The eighteenth century saw significant tensions within the Synod of Ulster, divided between the Old Lights and the New Lights; the Old Lights were conservative Calvinists who believed that ministers and ordinands should subscribe to the Westminster Confession of Faith. The New Lights were more liberal and were unhappy with the Westminster Confession and did not require ministers to subscribe to it; the New lights dominated the Synod of Ulster during the eighteenth century, allowing the more conservative Scottish Presbyterian dissenters and Covenanters to establish a strong presence in Ulster. In the nineteenth century, a belief that some of those who did not subscribe to the Westminster Confession were in fact Arian provoked a new phase of the conflict; this ended when seventeen ministers opposed to subscription seceded with their congregations to form the Remonstrant Synod.
This led to the restoration of obligatory subscription to the Westminster Confession within the Synod of Ulster and facilitated union with the Seceders in 1840 to create the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, whose first moderator was Dr Samuel Hanna. The united church was active in missionary activity both at home and abroad benefitting from the evangelical Ulster Revival of 1859; the headquarters of the church are at Assembly Buildings, Fisherwick Place, which were extensively renovated as part of a multimillion-pound project in 2010–2012. The Presbyterian Church in Ireland, a founding member of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches, has 540 congregations in 19 presbyteries across Ireland; the church's two nineteenth century theological colleges, Magee College and Assembly's College, merged in 1978 to form Union Theological College in Belfast. Union offers post-graduate education to the denomination's candidates for the full-time ministry; until 2007 the church was connected to a credit union, Presbyterian Mutual, that collapsed with the savings of 10,000 members all of whom were members of the church.
The PCI is involved in education, social service and mission in a number of areas around the world: India China The Middle East Jamaica Africa Indonesia Nepal Brazil Apart from the seats for worshippers, the inside of a Presbyterian church is dominated by four items of furniture. The Pulpit is the place, it occupies the central place in the church, reflecting the central place of the proclamation of the Word of God in the worship of the Church.. The Bible Stand holds the bible in a prominent place in the church; the bible is the source of all authority in the life of the church. The Communion Table placed directly in front of the pulpit; the associated chairs are occupied by the minister and elders during the service of Holy Communion. The Baptismal Font is used during baptisms, regarded as a sign of the covenant between God and the Church, welcoming the child into the community of the Church. Children are regarded as sharing the promise of salvation with adults in the church and have as
Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group. Common examples are denominations of a religion, ethnic identity, class, or region for citizens of a state and factions of a political movement; the ideological underpinnings of attitudes and behaviours labelled as sectarian are extraordinarily varied. Members of a religious, national or political group may believe that their own salvation, or the success of their particular objectives, requires aggressively seeking converts from other groups. Sometimes a group, under economic or political pressure will kill or attack members of another group which it regards as responsible for its own decline, it may more rigidly define the definition of orthodox belief within its particular group or organization, expel or excommunicate those who do not support this new found clarified definition of political or religious orthodoxy.
In other cases, dissenters from this orthodoxy will secede from the orthodox organisation and proclaim themselves as practitioners of a reformed belief system, or holders of a perceived former orthodoxy. At other times, sectarianism may be the expression of a group's nationalistic or cultural ambitions, or exploited by demagogues; the phrase "sectarian conflict" refers to violent conflict along religious or political lines such as the conflicts between Nationalists and Unionists in Northern Ireland. It may refer to general philosophical, political disparity between different schools of thought such as that between Shia and Sunni Muslims. Non-sectarians espouse that free association and tolerance of different beliefs are the cornerstone to successful peaceful human interaction, they espouse religious pluralism. While sectarianism is labelled as'religious' and/ or'political', the reality of a sectarian situation is much more complex. In its most basic form sectarianism has been defined as,'the existence, within a locality, of two or more divided and competing communal identities, resulting in a strong sense of dualism which unremittingly transcends commonality, is both culturally and physically manifest.'
Wherever people of different religions live in close proximity to each other, religious sectarianism can be found in varying forms and degrees. In some areas, religious sectarians now exist peacefully side-by-side for the most part, although these differences have resulted in violence and outright warfare as as the 1990s; the best-known example in recent times were The Troubles. Catholic-Protestant sectarianism has been a factor in U. S. presidential campaigns. Prior to John F. Kennedy, only one Catholic had been a major party presidential nominee, he had been solidly defeated because of claims based on his Catholicism. JFK chose to tackle the sectarian issue head-on during the West Virginia primary, but that only sufficed to win him enough Protestant votes to win the presidency by one of the narrowest margins ever. Within Islam, there has been conflict at various periods between Shias. Many Sunni religious leaders, including those inspired by Wahhabism and other ideologies have declared Shias to be heretics or apostates.
Long before the Reformation, dating back to the 12th century, there has been sectarian conflict of varying intensity in Ireland. This sectarianism is connected to a degree with nationalism; this has been intense in Northern Ireland since the early 17th century plantation of Ulster under James I, with its religious and denominational sectarian tensions lasting to the present day in some forms. This has translated to parts of Great Britain, most notably Liverpool, the West of Scotland, the latter being close geographically to Northern Ireland, where some fans of the two best-known football clubs and Rangers, indulge in provocative and sectarian behaviour; some Catholic countries once persecuted Protestants as heretics. For example, the substantial Protestant population of France was expelled from the kingdom in the 1680s following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. In Spain, the Inquisition sought to root out crypto-Jews but crypto-Muslims. In most places where Protestantism is the majority or "official" religion, there have been examples of Catholics being persecuted.
In countries where the Reformation was successful, this lay in the perception that Catholics retained allegiance to a'foreign' power, causing them to be regarded with suspicion. Sometimes this mistrust manifested itself in Catholics being subjected to restrictions and discrimination, which itself led to further conflict. For example, before Catholic Emancipation was introduced with the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, Catholics were forbidden from voting, becoming MP's or buying land in Ireland. Ireland was scarred by religious sectarianism following the Protestant Reformation as tensions between the native Catholic Irish and Protestant settlers from Britain led to massacres and attempts at ethnic cleaning by both sides during the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Cromwellian conqu