National Museum of Iran
The National Museum of Iran is located in Tehran, Iran. It is an institution formed of two complexes; the institution hosts historical monuments dating back through preserved ancient and medieval Iranian antiquities, including pottery vessels, metal objects, textile remains, some rare books and coins. It includes a number of research departments, categorized by different historical periods and archaeological topics; the brick building of the Museum of Ancient Iran was designed by French architects André Godard and Maxime Siroux in the early 20th century, was influenced by Sassanian vaults the Taq Kasra at Ctesiphon. Its construction, with an area of about 11,000 square metres, began in 1935 and was completed within two years by Abbas Ali Memar and Morad Tabrizi, it was officially inaugurated in 1937. The Museum of Islamic Era was built with white travertine on the grassy grounds of the Museum of Ancient Iran, it has gone through quite a few hasty interior changes, was still being remodeled when the 1979 Revolution swept the country.
While the Museum of Ancient Iran always had a clear mandate to show archaeological relics, as well as some rare medieval textiles and rug pieces, the newer complex began to feature the exquisite Amlash pottery from prehistoric Caspian Sea regions of Iran. This followed some modern works, the repeated gutting and remodeling of the interior; the Museum of Ancient Iran consists of two floors. Its halls contain artifacts and fossils from the Lower and Upper Paleolithic, as well as the Neolithic, Chalcolithic and late Bronze Age, Iron Ages I-III, through the Median, Seleucid and Sassanian eras; the newer complex consists of three floors. It contains various pieces of pottery, texts, artworks and adobe calligraphy, from Iran's post-classical era; the oldest artifacts kept at the museum are from Kashafrud and Shiwatoo, which date back to the Lower Paleolithic period. Mousterian stone tools made by Neanderthals are on display at the first hall of the Museum of Ancient Iran; the most important Upper Paleolithic tools are from Yafteh, dating back about 30,000 to 35,000 years.
There are 9,000-year-old human and animal figurines from Sarab mound in Kermanshah, among many other ancient artifacts. The ground floor of the newer complex has been dedicated to contemporary exhibitions. Temporary exhibition galleries are featured two or three times annually, run for about one to two months. One of the most successful exhibitions, entitled Evidence for Two Hundred Thousand Years of Human-Animal Bonds in Iran, ran from August to October 2014; the exhibition was about the relation and coexistence of past human societies and various animal species in Iran, since the late Lower Paleolithic to modern decades. Reza Abbasi Museum Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art List of museums in Iran Photo Gallery of the National Museum of Iran
The Majorelle Garden is a two and half acre botanical garden and artist's landscape garden in Marrakech, Morocco. It was created by the French Orientalist artist, Jacques Majorelle over forty years, starting in 1923, features a Cubist villa designed by the French architect, Paul Sinoir in the 1930s; the property was the residence of the artist and his wife from 1923 until their divorce in the 1950s. In the 1980s, the property was purchased by the fashion designers, Yves Saint-Laurent and Pierre Bergé who worked to restore it. Today, the villa complex is open to the public; the villa houses the Islamic Art Museum of Marrakech, the Berber Museum and has opened the Musee Yves Saint Laurent. The Majorelle Garden was designed by the French artist, Jacques Majorelle, son of the Art Nouveau ébéniste of Nancy, Louis Majorelle; as a young aspiring painter, Jacques Majorelle was sent to Morocco in around 1917 to convalesce from a serious medical condition. After spending a short time in Casablanca, he travelled to Marrakech and like many of his contemporaries, fell in love with the vibrant colours and street life he found there.
After travelling around North Africa and the Mediterranean, he decided to settle permanently in Marrakech. In 1923, just four years after his marriage to Andrée Longueville, Majorelle purchased a four-acre plot, situated on the border of a palm grove in Marrakech and built a house in the Mooroccan style. In 1931, he commissioned Paul Sinoir, to design a Cubist villa for the property, he purchased additional land, extending his holding by some 10 acres. In the grounds around the residence, Majorelle began planting a luxuriant garden which would become known as the Jardins Majorelle; the garden became his life's work and he devoted himself to developing it for forty years. The garden proved costly to run and in 1947, Majorelle opened the garden to the public with an admission fee designed to defray the cost of maintenance. At times, he sold off parcels of land to fund the growing garden. Following his divorce in the 1950s, Majorelle was forced to sell the land. After this, the garden fell into disrepair.
The garden and villa were rediscovered in the 1980s, by fashion designers, Yves Saint-Laurent and Pierre Bergé who set about restoring it and saving it. During his lifetime, Majorelle earned a reputation as a celebrated Orientalist painter. Though Majorelle's watercolors are forgotten today, the gardens remain as his creative masterpiece; the special shade of bold cobalt blue, inspired by the coloured tiles he had seen around Marrakech and in Berber burn-houses, was used extensively in the garden and its buildings and is named after him, bleu Majorelle—Majorelle Blue. Prior to his death, Majorelle patented the colour; the gardens and buildings form a complex, where specific buildings are dedicated to various museums and exhibits of interest to visitors. The gardens, which cover two and half acres, are open to the public daily and house an important collection of cacti and sculpture; the villa is home to the Berber Museum and features a collection of Majorelle's paintings. Majorelle's former studio workshop has become the location of the Islamic Art Museum of Marrakech which features a collection of North African textiles from Saint-Laurent's personal collection as well as ceramics and jewelry.
Development of the garden complex is ongoing. Profits from the gardens are used to fund new projects. In October 2017, the Musee Yves Saint Laurent was opened to the public as a tribute to the designer's legacy and his links with Marrakech; the gardens are a major tourist drawcard in Marrakech, attracting more than 700,000 visitors annually. Since 2010, the property has been owned by the Foundation Pierre Bergé – Yves Saint Laurent, a French not-for-profit organisation and since 2011 has been managed by the Foundation Jardin Majorelle, a recognized non-profit organization in Marrakech. Pierre Bergé was the director of the Garden's Foundation until his death in September, 2017; the garden hosts more than 15 bird species. It has many fountains, a notable collection of cacti; the garden was owned by Yves Saint-Laurent and Pierre Bergé between 1980 and 2008. After Yves Saint Laurent died in 2008 his ashes were scattered in the Majorelle Garden. Cubism Orientalism Jardin Majorelle website
Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences
Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences is a trust registered under the Indian Trusts Act, 1882. Mohammad Hamid Ansari, former vice-chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University, formally inaugurated it on 21 April 2001. Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India gave accreditation to the academy in 2004 and promoted it as'centre of excellence' in 2008. Membership of the academy is open to anyone who has an interest in the academy's activities on history of medicine and history of science. Being a charitable organization, donations to the Academy are exempted from Income Tax under section 80G of the Income Tax Act 1961; the founder president is Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman. Ibn Sina Academy is a part of signatories related to various health issues in the world. Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences is an extension of Majlis Ibn Sina, formed in 1965 under the aegis of Tibbi Academy. Majlis Ibn Sina was a sort of monthly discussion group. For instance, the first meeting of that Majlis was held to discuss typhoid.
Tibbi Academy was itself formed in 1963 at Bhopal. In a note on page 4, of the first book of Tibbi Academy, on Modern Times and Unani Medicine the author Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman announced the establishment of Tibbi Academy with its clear objective: "to publicise the theoretical principles and practical ideas of Unani medicine, to publish the text of standard works of Unani medicine and their translations… further, a learned and research oriented monthly journal". From 1965 to 1970, a monthly journal with the title Al-Hikmat from Delhi was published under the auspices of Tibbi Academy under the editorship of Syed Zillur Rahman Nadvi; the editor stated in the introduction of the first issue. Further, besides the above-mentioned objectives, the editor listed a couple of additional objectives, e.g. "the search of manuscripts of the Unani medicine, their edition and publication, … to excite the feeling of the pressing need of Unani medicine literature, to publish a standard book every year". He lamented that despite the publication of 30-40 Tibbi magazines in India, no learned journal of Unani medicine is being published.
He stressed that Al-Hikmat would be a purely scholarly journal not confined to Unani medicine: It would include some articles on basic sciences, that is, botany, physics and philosophy. In 1970, Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman renamed the Tibbi Academy as Shifaul Mulk Memorial Committee after his teacher, Shifaul Mulk Hakim Abdul Latif, former professor and principal of Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University; the purpose of this memorial committee was the same as Tibbi Academy formed in 1963, except the widened scope of publications. All these past establishments — Tibbi Academy, Majlis Ibn Sina and Shifaul Mulk Memorial Committee — merged and came under one trustee organisation, i.e. Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences in 2000, it was formally inaugurated on 21 April 2001. The library houses one of the most precious and valuable collection of 20,000 printed books, 500 manuscripts, some rare books, compact discs and a large number of periodicals. Books in many languages like Arabic, Urdu and English on subjects like History of Medicine and Sciences, Medieval medicine, Ilmul Advia, Urdu Literature with special reference to Ghalib, Iqbal and Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, besides thousands of bound volumes of magazines are extant in this library.
The library is listed in the Directory of History of Medicine Collections, United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Library of Medicine, NIH. Karam Husain Museum on History of Medicine and Sciences is an academic unit with collections and exhibitions; the main theme is the history of health and disease in a cultural perspective, with focus on the material and iconographic culture of medieval medicine and sciences. The museum has categorically the illustrations and busts of physicians belonging to Mesopotamia, Egyptians, Greeks and Indian civilizations. In addition, medical manuscripts, medical philately, medical souvenirs, memoirs of physicians including Nobel laureates, etc. are preserved and exhibited. The museum is listed in the'World's 10 weirdest medical museums', as per CNN Travel; this museum has 4 main galleries. The Crockery Gallery has a large collection of oriental and British India utensils, bowls, tea-set belonged to many prominent personalities like Hakim Ajmal Khan, Nawab Yusef Ali Khan, Kaikhusrau Jahan, Begum of Bhopal, Sultan Shah Jahan, Begum of Bhopal, etc.
The Textile Gallery consists of attires, calico of gold and silver studded stones and many other oriental clothes. The Picture Gallery has pictures, watercolors, photographic print and paintings of people belonged to Aligarh and Aligarh Muslim University. Miscellaneous Gallery has many objects of coins, postage stamps, engravings including vintage cameras, busts, pens and relics of some prominent personalities. In the same gallery, there are separate family collections that belong to Prof. Syed Mahmood Husain, Roohi Mabud Hasan, Hakim Syed Fazlur Rahman, etc. In addition, there is a separate "Skins and Taxidermy Collection" displayed on the ground floor. Periodicals1. Newsletter of Ibn Sina Academy, a quarterly newsletter since 2001. 2. International Journal of Medical Research Professionals. 3. International Archives of BioMedical and Clinical Research. BooksThe academy has pub
National Museum (Maldives)
Established on the National Day of the Maldives, the first national museum of the country was opened on November 11, 1952, by the Prime Minister at the time, Mohamed Amin Didi. With the purpose of preserving history and instilling patriotism among the people of the Maldives, the museum has a large collection of historical artifacts, ranging from stone objects to fragments of royal antiquities from the Buddhist era to the rule of Islamic monarchs; the museum was administered by the Maldivian Centre for Linguistic and Historical Research. However, on 28 April 2010, this institution was abolished by President Mohamed Nasheed and its charge of the Museum's responsibilities given to the Ministry of Tourism and Culture while the linguistic and historical research responsibilities were handed over to the Maldives College of Higher Education; the three-storied museum is located in the Sultan Park in Malé, part of the site of the Maldivian Royal Palace compound dating back to the 17th century. The two-storey Us-gēkolhu is the only remaining structure of the palace demolished by fire in 1968.
The new building of the museum is located in Sultan Park. The building was designed and financed by the Chinese government; the building was presented to the Maldives by the Chinese government on 10 July 2010, but was opened and declared as the national museum two weeks on Maldives' Independence Day, 26 July 2010. The interior of the museum has been retained from the days of the Sultanate, including the handwritten Qur'an engraved on the walls of the building. A diverse collection of artifacts are displayed in the museum, including relics from the foregone pre-Islamic period era, royal sunshades and furniture and shoes, ornaments and armor. Others examples include textiles such as ceremonial dresses, fancy slippers and belts used on special occasions, mats,Lacquer work and other creative embroidery. Highlights of the collections include: A coral stone head of Lord Buddha, an 11th-century piece from Alifu Thoddoo A 13th-century engraved wooden plank from Hukuru Miskiiy The Feyli Kolhu worn by the Sultan Ghaazee Mohammed Thakurufaanu-al-A"z"am is a fine example of the intricate craftsmanship of the Maldivian weavers in the 16th century.
The Buddhist statues were destroyed during an attack in February 2012. Museum director Ali Waheed said that all the museum's pre-Islamic artifacts, dating back to before the 12th century, had been destroyed: "Some of the pieces can be put together but they are made of sandstone and limestone, they are reduced to powder." He said. Among the damaged objects were a six-faced coral statue, an 18 in high bust of Buddha, as well as assorted limestone and coral statues. 10am–4pm, Sunday–Saturday History of the Maldives Islam in the Maldives Gemmiskiy Buddhism in the Maldives Fua Mulaku Havitta Kuruhinna Tharaagandu Maldives National Museum collection National Museum in Male', Lonely Planet4°10′30″N 73°30′32″E
The Sulaymaniayh Museum is an archeological museum, located within heart of the city of Sulaymaniyah, Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. It is known as Slemani Museum or Sulaimaniya Museum, it is the second largest museum in Iraq, after the National Museum of Iraq in Baghdad in terms of contents. It houses artifacts which date back to the pre-historic period to the late Islamic and Ottoman periods; the museum closed for refurbishment on October 1, 2018 and is expected to be opened to the public by the end of 2019. The Museum was opened on July 14, 1961, it was composed of a small building in the Shorsh District. After several years, the Museum acquired a new and large building in the heart of Salim Street in the year 1980 CE; the current building is a one-story building. The artifacts are displayed in one small hall and two large and long halls which are connected by a square-shaped and open lecture hall. During the Iraq-Iran era, the Museum was closed to the public, it was reopened for a short period in 1990 CE.
After the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August 1990 CE, the Museum had closed once again. It was re-opened by Mr. Jalal Talabani in August 20, 2000 CE. After the US-lead invasion of Iraq and subsequent looting of the Iraqi Museum in Baghdad, The Sulaymaniyah Museum helped to recover and return stolen artifacts through the controversial practice of buying looted artifacts. Since 2011 CE, the Museum has been collaborating with the UNESCO to develop and renovate the Museum and expand its building. Http://www.unesco.org/new/en/iraq-office/culture/museum-sector/sulaymaniyah-museum/ http://www.unesco.org/new/en/iraq-office/about-this-office/single-view/news/sulaymaniyah_museum_opens_its_first_renovated_halls_to_public/#. VLlfLicVlRk http://www.iraq-businessnews.com/?s=sulaymaniyah
George Town, Penang
George Town, the capital city of the Malaysian state of Penang, is located at the north-eastern tip of Penang Island. It is Malaysia's second largest city, with 708,127 inhabitants as of 2010, while Greater Penang is the nation's second biggest conurbation with a population of 2,412,616; the historical core of George Town has been inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008. Established as an entrepôt by Francis Light of the British East India Company in 1786, George Town was the first British settlement in Southeast Asia. Together with Singapore and Malacca, George Town formed part of the Straits Settlements, which became a British crown colony in 1867, it was subjugated by Japan before being recaptured by the British at war's end. Shortly before Malaya attained independence from the British in 1957, George Town was declared a city by Queen Elizabeth II, making it the first city in the country's modern history. Due to the intermingling of the various ethnicities and religions that arrived on its shores, George Town acquired a large eclectic assortment of colonial and Asian architectural styles.
It gained a reputation as Malaysia's gastronomic capital for its distinct and ubiquitous street food. Moreover, the city hosts unique cultural heritage, such as the Peranakans whose legacies are still visible on Penang's architecture and cuisine; the city of George Town includes the Bayan Lepas Free Industrial Zone, a high-tech manufacturing hub regarded as the Silicon Valley of the East. The city serves as the financial centre of northern Malaysia and the nation's most vital medical tourism hub. Logistically, the Penang International Airport links George Town with several major regional cities, while a ferry service, the Penang Bridge and the Second Penang Bridge connect the city with the rest of Peninsular Malaysia. Meanwhile, George Town's Swettenham Pier has emerged as the busiest port-of-call in Malaysia for cruise shipping. In the 1770s, the British East India Company instructed Francis Light to form trade relations in the Malay Peninsula. Light subsequently landed in Kedah, a Siamese vassal state threatened by both Siam and Burma, as well as an internal Bugis revolt.
Aware of this situation, Light formed friendly relations with the Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin II, promised British military protection, while the Sultan reciprocally offered Penang Island part of Kedah. Although Light subsequently reported on this offer to his superiors, it was only in 1786 when he was ordered to obtain Penang Island from Kedah; the British East India Company sought control of the island as a Royal Navy base, as a trading post between China and India. To that end, Light negotiated with the new Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Abdullah Mukarram Shah, regarding the cession of the island to the British East India Company in exchange for British military aid. After an agreement was signed between Light and the Sultan and his entourage sailed on to Penang Island, where they arrived on 17 July 1786; the area where Light first landed, now the Esplanade, was a swamp covered in thick jungle. Once the area was cleared, a simple ceremony was held on 11 August, during which the Union Jack was raised.
Penang Island was renamed the Prince of Wales Island after the heir to the British throne, while the new settlement of George Town was created in honour of King George III. Light developed George Town as a free port, thus allowing merchants to trade without having to pay any form of tax or duties; the policy's intent was to entice traders from the Dutch ports in the region. The number of incoming vessels rose from 85 in 1786 to 3,569 in 1802. A committee of assessors was established in 1800, making it the first local council to be established in British Malaya. Meanwhile, a Supreme Court was established at Fort Cornwallis in 1808. In the early 19th century, Penang Island became a centre of spice production within Southeast Asia. Spices such as nutmeg and pepper, produced from the spice farms throughout the island, were exported via the Port of Penang in George Town; the spice trade allowed the British East India Company to cover the administrative costs of Penang. In 1826, George Town was made the capital of the Straits Settlements, an administrative polity, composed of Singapore and Malacca.
However, the capital was shifted to Singapore in 1832, as the latter had usurped George Town's position as the region's preeminent harbour. Nonetheless, George Town retained its importance as a vital British entrepôt. Due to the opening of the Suez Canal, the advent of steam ships and a tin mining boom in the Malay Peninsula, the Port of Penang became a major tin-exporting harbour. By the end of the 19th century, as mercantile firms and banks, including Standard Chartered and HSBC, flocked into George Town, the city evolved into a leading financial centre in Malaya. Throughout the century, George Town's population grew in tandem with the city's economic prosperity. A cosmopolitan, multi-cultural population emerged, comprising Chinese, Indian, Eurasian and other ethnicities. However, the population growth created social problems, such as inadequate sanitation and public health facilities, as well as rampant crime; the latter culminated in the Penang Riots of 1867, during which rival Chinese triads clashed in the streets of George Town.
In the same year, the Straits Settlements was made a British crown colony, to be governed directly by the Colonial Office in London. For George Town, direct British rule meant better law enforcement, as the police force was vastly improved and the secret societies that had plagued the city were outlawed. More investments were made on the city's h
The Mahdia Museum is a museum in Tunisia specialising in Tunisian archaeology and heritage. It is located in the city of Mahdia; the museum collections includes Punic, Roman and Islamic elements and concentrates on popular traditions of central Tunisia. The museum has extensive collections Punic and Byzantine culture of North Africa; the Mahdia Museum has a section dedicated to underwater archaeology including the Mahdia shipwreck. The wreck is a Hellenistic period Greek merchant vessel sunk during a storm in the 1st century BC, it contained a rich cargo of works of art and architectural elements including many columns, as well as many sculptures of marble and bronze. The museum maintains strong ties to the national Bardo Museum; the Islamic collections include works back to the 10th century, when the area was ruled by the Fatimids. The artifacts include, mosaics, stucco work, pottery and traditional costumes. Mahdia shipwreck