The word pendant derives from the Latin word pendere and Old French word pendr, both of which translate to "to hang down". It comes in the form of a loose-hanging piece of jewellery attached by a small loop to a necklace, which may be known as a "pendant necklace". A pendant earring is an earring with a piece hanging down. In modern French, pendant is the gerund form of pendre and means "during"; the extent to which the design of a pendant can be incorporated into an overall necklace makes it not always accurate to treat them as separate items. In some cases, the separation between necklace and pendant is far clearer. Pendants are among the oldest recorded types of bodily adornment. Stone, shell and more perishable materials were used. Ancient Egyptians wore pendants, some shaped like hieroglyphs. Pendants can have several functions, which may be combined: Award Identification Ornamentation Ostentation. Protection Self-affirmation The many specialized types of pendants include lockets which open to reveal an image, pendilia, which hang from larger objects of metalwork.
Throughout the ages, pendants have come in a variety of forms to serve a variety of purposes. Though amulets come in many forms, a wearable amulet worn around the neck or on the arm or leg in the form of a pendant is the most common; these are objects believed to possess magical or spiritual power to protect the wearer from danger or dispel evil influences. Similar to an amulet, a talisman is an object believed to possess supernatural traits. However, while an amulet is a defensive object, a talisman is meant to confer special benefits or powers upon the wearer. A locket is a small object that opens to reveal a space which serves to hold a small object a photograph or a curl of hair, they come in the form of a pendant hanging from a necklace, though they will be hung from a charm bracelet. A medallion is most a coin-shaped piece of metal worn as a pendant around the neck or pinned onto clothing; these are granted as awards, recognitions, or religious blessings. Pendant is the name given to one of two paintings conceived as a pair.
Tools worn as pendants include. Shepherd's whistles, bosun's whistles, ocarinas can be made as pendants. Portable astronomical and navigational instruments were made as pendants. In the first decade of the 21st century, jewellers started to incorporate USB flash drives into pendants. Harness pendant
A crux gemmata is a form of cross typical of Early Christian and Early Medieval art, where the cross, or at least its front side, is principally decorated with jewels. In an actual cross, rather than a painted image of one, the reverse side has engraved images of the Crucifixion of Jesus or other subjects. Examples in metalwork are the Cross of Justin II, the'crumpled cross' in the Staffordshire Hoard, the Cross of Lothair, the Iberian Cross of the Angels and Victory Cross, the Cross of Cong. In the Late Antique and Early Medieval periods, many objects of great significance, such as reliquaries, were studded with jewels in a style that in recent centuries has been restricted to crowns and other coronation regalia and small pieces of jewellery. In the case of the cross, such decorative embellishment was common, the jewelled cross is a specific type, represented in paint, carved ivory and other media; the cross often has splayed ends to its arms, but the proportions of the vertical axis to the horizontal one depends on the needs of the composition, varies greatly.
Pendilia, or hanging jewels or ornaments, may hang from the arms the letters alpha and omega shaped in gold. The motif is first seen in a sarcophagus fragment from the late 4th century. In depictions of the cross, such as that in the mosaic in Santa Pudenziana, the jewelled cross stands on a hill or mound with a backdrop of a panoramic view representing Jerusalem, with the cross itself representing the New Jerusalem or "heavenly city"; the jewelled cross served as a symbol of the Christian version of the Tree of Life when the arms are shown putting out shoots from their corners. The Staffordshire Hoard'crumpled cross' has vine leaves showing at the corners and represents Jesus the vine, it is sometimes shown on a mound representing paradise, with four rivers flowing down it. The link of the cross with the Tree of Life appears in the hymns of Venantius Fortunatus. Sharp has shown the interlace on the front of the Staffordshire Hoard cross corresponds with the river or tree of life described in Revelation 22.
1-2. The use of large jewelled crosses as processional and military crosses stems from the victory of Constantine over his rival Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge outside Rome in 312 AD; the vision of Constantine led to his having a large golden gem-studded processional cross made and the adoption of the cross as a standard by Christian armies. For much of the period, a large jewelled cross is recorded as decorating the presumed site of the Crucifixion, around which the Church of the Holy Sepulchre had been built, it was presented by the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. The Empress Helena, mother of Constantine in the early 4th century discovered part of the True Cross, at a time when interest in the cross was increasing, in part due to its use as a standard by the Roman Army under Constantine her son; the paradox whereby the instrument of execution is rendered the vehicle of Christ's triumph in the Resurrection remains to the present day a central theme in Christian devotion, the jewelled cross was one of its first visual manifestations.
Although it is clear that the cross was associated with Christians from a early period, the sign of the cross was made by Christians, it is seen in the earliest Christian art, such as that in the Catacombs of Rome, where there are only about 20 crosses, though the anchor, which appears more was a disguised cross symbol. There was resistance to representations of the cross with the body of Christ on it, a practice that did not begin until the 5th century, becoming more common in the 6th. One of the earliest representations of a Crucifixion scene rather oddly shows the three crosses of the gospel accounts, with the two thieves hanging in place on theirs, but with Christ standing at the foot of his; the fierce Christological disputes of the period saw the Monophysites, who rejected the human nature of Christ, objecting to the depiction of his body on the cross, this influenced the use of the empty cross in Byzantine-controlled areas such as Ravenna, where several of the Emperors had Monophysite sympathies.
It was the Nestorians, another heretical force of the opposite persuasion, who helped to popularize images of Christ on the cross. In so-called "mystical" images, such as the apse mosaic at the Basilica of Sant' Apollinare in Classe, the jewelled cross stands as a symbol for Christ. A poem by St Paulinus of Nola allows a reconstruction of a mosaic apse he had commissioned in the basilica of St Felix of Nola at Cimitile in the early 5th century; the whole Trinity was shown, represented by a Hand of God for God the Father at the top, above a large crux gemmata with stars in a circular frame, so similar to Sant' Apollinare in Classe, below that a dove for the Holy Spirit. At the bottom of the semi-dome were twelve lambs, six on each side, with a haloed Lamb of God on a raised hillock in the centre, looking up; the bottom of the mosaic at Santa Pudenziana in Rome also had a bottom level with this. The crux gemmata is seen on coins held by a figure of Victory in the Eastern Empire. Another common Byzantine coin type shows a cross with a stepped base, which should be understood as a crux gemmata though scale does not all
Alpha and Omega
Alpha and omega are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, a title of Christ and God in the Book of Revelation. This pair of letters are used as Christian symbols, are combined with the Cross, Chi-rho, or other Christian symbols; the term Alpha and Omega comes from the phrase "I am Alpha and Omega", an appellation of Jesus in the Book of Revelation. The first part of this phrase is first found in Chapter 1 verse 8, is found in every manuscript of Revelation that has 1v8. Several manuscripts repeat "I am the Alpha and Omega" in 1v11 too, but do not receive support here from most of the oldest manuscripts, including the Alexandrine and Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, it is, omitted in some modern translations. Scholar Robert Young stated, with regard to "I am the Alpha and Omega" in 1v11, the "oldest omit" it. A similar reference is in Isaiah 44, where the Lord says to be the first and the one, after all. Alpha and omega are the first and last letters of the classical Greek alphabet. Thus, twice when the phrase "I am the alpha and the omega" appears it is further clarified with the additional phrase, "the beginning and the end".
The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet were used because the book of Revelation is in the New Testament, written in Greek. This phrase is interpreted by many Christians to mean that Jesus has existed for all eternity or that God is eternal. Though many commentators and dictionaries ascribe the title "the alpha and the omega" to both God and to Christ, some secular sources argue otherwise. Barnes' Notes on the New Testament claims: "It cannot be certain that the writer meant to refer to the Lord Jesus here... There is no real incongruity in supposing that the writer here meant to refer to God as such." Most Christian denominations teach that the title applies to both Jesus and his Father. The letters Alpha and Omega in juxtaposition are used as a Christian visual symbol; the symbols appear in the Roman catacombs. The letters were shown hanging from the arms of the cross in Early Christian art, some crux gemmata, jeweled crosses in precious metal, have formed letters hanging in this way, called pendilia.
In fact, despite always being in Greek, the letters became more common in Western than Eastern Orthodox Christian art. They are shown to the left and right of Christ's head, sometimes within his halo, where they take the place of the Christogram used in Orthodox art. In Rabbinic literature, the word emet, one of the names of God in Judaism, has been interpreted as consisting of the first and final letters of the Hebrew alphabet; the Qur'an gives al'Awwal, meaning "The First" and al'Akhir, meaning "The Last" as two of the names of God: 57:3. Alpha and Omega Attributes of God in Christianity Chi Rho Christian symbolism Everything Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament Names of God in Islam Names of God in Judaism Hassett, Maurice M.. "A and Ω". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company. "Alpha and Omega" in the Catholic Encyclopedia at newadvent.org "Alpha and Omega" at the Jewish Encyclopedia
Coin collecting is the collecting of coins or other forms of minted legal tender. Coins of interest to collectors include those that circulated for only a brief time, coins with mint errors and beautiful or significant pieces. Coin collecting can be differentiated from numismatics, in that the latter is the systematic study of currency. A coin's grade is a main determinant of its value. For a tiered fee, a third party certification service like PCGS or NGC will grade, authenticate and encapsulate most U. S. and foreign coins. Over 80 million coins have been certified by the four largest services. People have hoarded coins for their bullion value for as long. However, the collection of coins for their artistic value was a development. Evidence from the archaeological and historical record of Ancient Rome and medieval Mesopotamia indicates that coins were collected and catalogued by scholars and state treasuries, it seems probable that individual citizens collected old, exotic or commemorative coins as an affordable, portable form of art.
According to Suetonius in his De vita Caesarum, written in the first century CE, the emperor Augustus sometimes presented old and exotic coins to friends and courtiers during festivals and other special occasions. Contemporary coin collecting and appreciation began around the fourteenth century. During the Renaissance, it became a fad among some members of the privileged classes kings and queens; the Italian scholar and poet Petrarch is credited with being the pursuit's first and most famous aficionado. Following his lead, many European kings and other nobility kept collections of ancient coins; some notable collectors were Pope Boniface VIII, Emperor Maximilian I of the Holy Roman Empire, Louis XIV of France, Ferdinand I, Henry IV of France and Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg, who started the Berlin Coin Cabinet. Because only the wealthy could afford the pursuit, in Renaissance times coin collecting became known as the "Hobby of Kings."During the 17th and 18th centuries coin collecting remained a pursuit of the well-to-do.
But rational, Enlightenment thinking led to a more systematic approach to study. Numismatics as an academic discipline emerged in these centuries at the same time as coin collecting became a leisure pursuit of a growing middle class, eager to prove their wealth and sophistication. During the 19th and 20th centuries, coin collecting increased further in popularity; the market for coins expanded to include not only antique coins, but foreign or otherwise exotic currency. Coin shows, trade associations, regulatory bodies emerged during these decades; the first international convention for coin collectors was held 15–18 August 1962, in Detroit and was sponsored by the American Numismatic Association and the Royal Canadian Numismatic Association. Attendance was estimated at 40,000; as one of the oldest and most popular world pastimes, coin collecting is now referred to as the "King of Hobbies". The motivations for collecting vary from one person to another; the most common type of collectors are the hobbyists, who amass a collection purely for the pleasure of it with no real expectation of profit.
Another frequent reason for purchasing coins is as an investment. As with stamps, precious metals or other commodities, coin prices are periodical based on supply and demand. Prices drop for coins that are not in long-term demand, increase along with a coin's perceived or intrinsic value. Investors buy with the expectation that the value of their purchase will increase over the long term; as with all types of investment, the principle of caveat emptor applies and study is recommended before buying. As with most collectibles, a coin collection does not produce income until it is sold, may incur costs in the interim. Coin hoarders may be similar to investors in the sense that they accumulate coins for potential long-term profit. However, unlike investors, they do not take into account aesthetic considerations; this is most common with coins. Speculators, be they amateurs or commercial buyers purchase coins in bulk and act with the expectation of short-term profit, they may wish to take advantage of a spike in demand for a particular coin.
The speculator might hope to sell at profit within weeks or months. Speculators may buy common circulation coins for their intrinsic metal value. Coins without collectible value may be melted down or distributed as bullion for commercial purposes, they purchase coins that are composed of rare or precious metals, or coins that have a high purity of a specific metal. A final type of collector is the inheritor, an accidental collector who acquires coins from another person as part of an inheritance; the inheritor type may not have an interest in or know anything about numismatics at the time of the acquisition. Casual coin collectors begin the hobby by saving notable coins found by chance; these coins may be pocket change left from an international trip or an old coin found in circulation. If the enthusiasm of the novice increases over time, random coins found in circulation are not enough to satisfy their interest; the hobbyist may trade coins in a coin club or buy coins from dealers or mints. Their collection takes on a more specific focus.
Some enthusiasts become generalists and accumulate
A votive crown is a votive offering in the form of a crown in precious metals and adorned with jewels. In the Early Middle Ages, they are of a special form, designed to be suspended by chains at an altar, shrine or image. Examples are more typical crowns in the style of the period, either designed to be placed on the head of a statue, or re-used in this way after donation. There were pagan votive crowns in the ancient world, although these are known only from literary references. Vitruvius records that when Hiero II of Syracuse suspected his goldsmith of cheating him over the making of a votive crown for a statue in a temple, for which he had supplied the gold to be used, he asked Archimedes to devise a test; this led Archimedes to his famous eureka moment, after he realized he could test the crown by comparing its displacement of water to that of the same weight of pure gold. From other references, it seems that in classical times not just statues of the gods, but living rulers were presented with crowns in the hope of a favourable response to a request.
The largest number of surviving examples of the Christian Early Medieval suspended type come from 7th century Visigothic Hispania the Treasure of Guarrazar, from near Toledo, which includes no fewer than twenty-six examples in gold hidden as the Muslim invasion drew near. These were excavated in 1859, are now divided between the National Archaeological Museum of Spain in Madrid and the Musée de Cluny in Paris; however the type was Roman or Byzantine, adopted across Europe. These could not be worn, as they were too small and very had pendilia, or dangling ornaments on chains hanging from the main crown with jewels and formed into letters which spelled a word or phrase. In the example above, the letters on the pendilia spell "RECCESVINTHVS REX OFFERET", or "King Recceswinth offered this"; these royal donations signified the submission of the monarchy to God. Such objects were influenced by the thirty suspended gold crowns placed round the main altar of Hagia Sophia by Justinian, now lost, although the Christian practice is at least as old as the 4th century.
The main body of suspended crowns is flat around the top as well as the bottom rim. Such crowns were found across Christian Europe in this period; the Iron Crown of Lombardy was originally made as a votive crown, although it was used for the coronation of monarchs including Napoleon I. Another gold crown was a source of contention in Constantinople. Instead, he had it suspended by chains over the main altar of Hagia Sophia, upsetting the two ladies, it hung there until Emperor Leo IV coveted it and took it for his own use. In a suspiciously neat story, the crown was richly decorated with carbuncles, Leo, an iconoclast, soon after died of an outbreak of carbuncles, allowing the church to draw the obvious conclusion. Another Byzantine votive crown, given by Leo VI is now in the Treasury of San Marco, is decorated with cloisonné enamels. In England, a medieval source says that King Canute gave a, or "his", crown to be placed on or over the head of the rood, or large crucifix, in Winchester Cathedral.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Hereward the Wake's men looted a solid gold crown from the head of the rood on the main altar of Peterborough Cathedral in 1070. The Romanesque period saw the height of crowned images of Christ, shown wearing a crown on the cross in wood and metal figures, manuscript illuminations, the introduction of crowned images of the Virgin Mary in the West, as the concept of Mary as Queen of Heaven became prominent. A small late medieval crown now in the Treasury of Aachen Cathedral was made for the famously lavish wedding celebrations in 1468 of Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy, sister of Edward IV of England, placed on a statue of the Virgin Mary as a votive offering, it was designed to be worn on top of an elaborate headress and hairstyle, or on a hennin, is much smaller than a conventional crown for wearing directly on the head. This is now a rare example of a medieval votive crown. A few years in 1487, the crown, used by the pretender Lambert Simnel was given to a statue of the Virgin in Dublin.
Crowns designed for statues became elaborate in the Baroque period, in the Spanish world. Statues of the Virgin Mary and the Infant Jesus, of the Infant Jesus of Prague type, are among those most crowned; the Crown of the Andes is a votive crown from Colombia in gold with 450 emeralds made between the late 16th and 18th centuries originally as an offering in thanks for the city of Popayán being spared from a plague. It is now in private hands in the US. Votive crowns have continued to be produced in Catholic countries
Marcian was the Eastern Roman Emperor from 450 to 457. Little of his life before becoming emperor is known, other than that he was a domesticus who served under Ardabur and his son Aspar for fifteen years. After the death of Emperor Theodosius II on 28 July 450, Marcian was made a candidate to the throne by Aspar, who held much influence due to his military power. After a month of negotiations Pulcheria, the sister of Theodosius, agreed to marry Marcian, Flavius Zeno, a military leader of similar influence to Aspar, agreed to help Marcian to become emperor in exchange for the rank of patrician. Marcian was elected and inaugurated on 25 August 450. Marcian reversed many of the actions of his predecessor, Emperor Theodosius II, in religious matters and the Eastern Roman Empire's relationship with the Huns under Attila. Marcian immediately revoked all treaties with Attila, ending all subsidy payments to him. In 452, while Attila was raiding Italy a part of the Western Roman Empire, Marcian launched expeditions across the Danube into the Hungarian plain, defeating the Huns in their own heartland.
This action, accompanied by the famine and plague that broke out in northern Italy, allowed Marcian to bribe Attila into retreating from the Italian peninsula. After the death of Attila in 453, Marcian took advantage of the resulting fragmentation of the Hunnic confederation, settling numerous tribes within Eastern Roman lands as foederati. Marcian convened the Council of Chalcedon, which reversed the outcome of the previous Second Council of Ephesus, declared that Jesus had two natures and human. Marcian died on 26 January 457, leaving the Eastern Roman Empire with a treasury surplus of seven million solidi. After his death, Aspar had Leo I elected as Eastern Roman Emperor. Marcian was born in c. 392, in either Thrace or Illyria. He is described by the ancient historian John Malalas as being tall and having some sort of foot impediment. Little of Marcian's early life is known. Marcian's father had served in the military and at a young age, Marcian enlisted at Philippopolis in Thrace. By the time of the Roman–Sasanian War of 421–422, Marcian had reached the rank of tribune but did not see action in the war itself due to becoming ill in Lycia, where he was cared for by Tatianus, who became praefectus urbi, his brother Iulius.
Marcian rose to become the domesticus of Aspar, the magister militum of the Eastern Roman Empire. In the early 430s, Marcian served under Aspar in Roman Africa; some sources give a false account of Marcian, while in captivity, meeting the Vandal King Genseric who predicted he would become emperor. After his capture, he is not mentioned again until the death of Eastern Emperor Theodosius II; the Eastern Roman Empire had been plagued by external threats during the reign of Theodosius II. In 429 the Vandals, led by Genseric, began to conquer Roman Africa. Theodosius organised a response, sending Aspar and three other commanders to attempt to repel them in the summer of 431. To the north, the Huns, who had customarily attacked the Eastern Empire whenever its armies were preoccupied and receded whenever those forces returned, send ambassadors to Theodosius in 431, demanding tribute. Theodosius agreed to their demand to pay 350 pounds of gold every year. In 434, the Eastern Roman armies were still campaigning against the Vandals in Africa, having faced initial defeats and the withdrawal of a large number of Western Roman soldiers.
In the face of Eastern Roman weakness, the Huns doubled their demand, asking for 700 pounds of gold per year, which Theodosius agreed to. With large amounts of the Eastern Roman armies home, Attila, who had just taken power in the Hunnic Confederation, busy campaigning to the north, Theodosius refused to pay the tribute and continued to refuse to pay tribute until 439. On 19 October 439, the Vandals captured Carthage. Both the Western and Eastern Roman Empires began preparing a massive counter-offensive, stripping the Balkan provinces of protection. In the spring of 440, 1,100 ships set sail from Constantinople for Africa, twice the size of the fleet that would be sent by Emperor Justinian a century later. Sending away such a large number of the Eastern Roman forces was a huge gamble on Theodosius' part, betting that the fortified cities along the Danube could delay the Huns for long enough that the invasion force could gain a secure foothold in Africa, allowing troops to be withdrawn back to the northern frontier.
This gamble worked until 442 when the bishop of Margus led a raiding party into the Huns territory and desecrated the royal tombs of the Huns. In response to this desecration, Attila demanded. With control of Margus, Attila had a foothold across the Danube, which he aggressively exploited and destroying the cities of Viminacium and Sirmium. Theodosius launched a counterattack. After his force was decisively defeated, Theodosius undertook to pay tribute to the Huns every year, which he did each year until his death in 4
Manuel II Palaiologos
Manuel II Palaiologos or Palaeologus was Byzantine Emperor from 1391 to 1425. Shortly before his death he was tonsured a monk and received the name Matthew, his wife Helena Dragaš saw to it that their sons, John VIII Palaiologos and Constantine XI Palaiologos, become emperors. Manuel is commemorated on July 21. Manuel II Palaiologos was the second son of Emperor John V Palaiologos and his wife Helena Kantakouzene. Granted the title of despotēs by his father, the future Manuel II traveled west to seek support for the Byzantine Empire in 1365 and in 1370, serving as governor in Thessalonica from 1369; the failed attempt at usurpation by his older brother Andronikos IV Palaiologos in 1373 led to Manuel's being proclaimed heir and co-emperor of his father. In 1376–1379 and again in 1390 they were supplanted by Andronikos IV and his son John VII, but Manuel defeated his nephew with help from the Republic of Venice in 1390. Although John V had been restored, Manuel was forced to go as an honorary hostage to the court of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I at Prousa.
During his stay, Manuel was forced to participate in the Ottoman campaign that reduced Philadelpheia, the last Byzantine enclave in Anatolia. Hearing of his father's death in February 1391, Manuel II Palaiologos fled the Ottoman court and secured the capital against any potential claim by his nephew John VII. Although relations with John VII improved, Sultan Bayezid I besieged Constantinople from 1394 to 1402. After some five years of siege, Manuel II entrusted the city to his nephew and embarked on a long trip abroad to seek assistance against the Ottoman Empire from the courts of western Europe, including those of Henry IV of England, Charles VI of France, Sigismund the Holy Roman Emperor, Queen Margaret I of Denmark and king Martin of Aragon. In 1399, the French King Charles VI sent Marshal Jean Le Maingre with six ships carrying 1,200 men from Aigues-Mortes to Constantinople. Meanwhile, an anti-Ottoman crusade led by the Hungarian King Sigismund of Luxemburg failed at the Battle of Nicopolis on 25 September 1396, but the Ottomans were themselves crushingly defeated by Timur at the Battle of Ankara in 1402.
Manuel II had sent 10 ships to help in the Crusade of Nicopolis. As the sons of Bayezid I struggled with each other over the succession in the Ottoman Interregnum, John VII was able to secure the return of the European coast of the Sea of Marmara and of Thessalonica to the Byzantine Empire in the Treaty of Gallipoli; when Manuel II returned home in 1403, his nephew duly surrendered control of Constantinople and received as a reward the governorship of newly recovered Thessalonica. The treaty regained from the Ottomans Nesebar and the Marmara coast from Scutari to Nicomedia. On 25 July 1414, with a fleet consisting of four galleys and two other vessels carrying contingents of infantry and cavalry, departed Constantinople for Thessalonica; the purpose of this force soon became clear when he made an unannounced stop at Thasos, a unimportant island, under threat from a son of the lord of Lesbos, Francesco Gattilusio. It took Manuel three months to reassert imperial authority on the island. Only did he continue on to Thessalonica, where he was warmly met by his son Andronicus, who governed the city.
In the spring of 1415, he and his soldiers left for the Peloponnese, arriving at the little port of Kenchreai on Good Friday, 29 March. Manuel II Palaiologos used his time there to bolster the defences of the Despotate of Morea, where the Byzantine Empire was expanding at the expense of the remnants of the Latin Empire. Here Manuel supervised the building of the Hexamilion across the Isthmus of Corinth, intended to defend the Peloponnese from the Ottomans. Manuel II stood on friendly terms with the victor in the Ottoman civil war, Mehmed I, but his attempts to meddle in the next contested succession led to a new assault on Constantinople by Murad II in 1422. During the last years of his life, Manuel II relinquished most official duties to his son and heir John VIII Palaiologos, went back to Europe searching for assistance against the Ottomans, this time to the King Sigismund of Hungary, staying for two months in his court of Buda. Sigismund never rejected the possibility of fighting against the Ottoman Empire.
However, with the Hussite wars in Bohemia, it was impossible to count on the Czech or German armies, the Hungarian ones were needed to protect the Kingdom and control the religious conflicts. Unhappily Manuel returned home with empty hands from the Hungarian Kingdom, in 1424 he and his son were forced to sign an unfavourable peace treaty with the Ottoman Turks, whereby the Byzantine Empire had to pay tribute to the sultan. Manuel II died on 21 July 1425. Manuel II was the author of numerous works of varied character, including letters, poems, a Saint's Life, treatises on theology and rhetoric, an epitaph for his brother Theodore I Palaiologos and a mirror of prince for his son and heir Ioannes; this mirror of prince has special value, because it is the last sample of this literary genre bequeathed to us by Byzantines. By his wife Helena Dragas, the daughter of the Serbian prince Constantine Dragas, Manuel II Palaiologos had several children, including: A daughter. Mentioned as the eldest daughter b