Generalitat de Catalunya
The Government of Catalonia or the Generalitat de Catalunya is the institution under which the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia is politically organised. It consists of the Parliament of Catalonia, the President of the Generalitat de Catalunya, the Executive Council of Catalonia; the Generalitat has a budget of €34 billion euros. The Parliament of Catalonia unilaterally declared independence from Spain on 27 October 2017 as the'Catalan Republic'. In response Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy decided to dissolve the Parliament of Catalonia and to call a snap regional election for 21 December 2017, after which a new Parliament and a new Catalan government was elected; the independence declaration was turned down by the central Spanish government, members of the Catalan government, including Carles Puigdemont, fled to Belgium claiming to be the legitimate government of the Generalitat of Catalonia. Catalonia’s political past as a territorially differentiated community having its own representative and separated institutions, with respect to the sovereign power of the combined Catalan counties, the Crown of Aragon, the Monarchy of Spain and of the Spanish constitutional state, can be divided into four stages, separated by three great ruptures in the legal/public order.
Pau i Treva de Déu was a social movement promoted in the eleventh century as the response of the Church and the peasants to the violences perpetrated by feudal nobles. The hometowns delimited a protected space of feudal violence. However, to ensure a coexistence climate, it was necessary to go further, establishing an authority that prohibited the practice of any type of violent act anywhere in the territory; this was the objective of the assemblies of Peace and Truce of God, the first of which, in the Catalan counties, took place in Toluges, in 1027, under the presidency of Abbot Oliba, on behalf of Bishop Berenguer d'Elna, absent from the diocese because he was on a pilgrimage. The origin of the Catalan Courts can be considered from the Peace of Truce of God; the Generalitat of Catalonia stems from the medieval institution which ruled, in the name of the King of the Crown of Aragon, some aspects of the administration of the Principality of Catalonia. The Catalan Courts were the main institution of the Principality during its existence as a political entity, approved the Catalan constitutions.
The first constitutions were that of the Courts of 1283. The medieval precedent of the Generalitat, the Diputació del General de Catalunya was a permanent council of deputies established by the Courts in order to recapt the new "tax of the General" in 1359, gained an important political power during the next centuries, assuming tasks of prosecutor, it was chosen by the legislators in 1931 because they felt it was appropriate for invoking as a legitimising base for contemporary self-government. Catalan institutions which depended on the Generalitat were abolished in what is known in Catalonia as Northern Catalonia, one year after the signature of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in the 17th century, which transferred the territory from Spanish to French sovereignty. By the early 18th century, as the Nueva Planta decrees were passed in Spain after the Catalan defeat in the War of the Spanish Succession, the institution was abolished in the Spanish territory as well; the Generalitat was restored in the Catalonia under Spanish administration in 1931 during the events of the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic when Francesc Macià, leader of the Republican Left of Catalonia, declared the Catalan Republic on 14 April but reached an agreement with the Spanish ministers, in which the Catalan Republic was renamed Generalitat of Catalonia and given its modern political and representative function as the autonomous government of Catalonia within the Spanish Republic.
The restored Generalitat was ruled by a statute of autonomy approved by the Spanish Cortes and included a parliament, a presidency, a government and a court of appeal. It was presided by Lluís Companys. After the right wing coalition won the Spanish elections in 1934, the leftist leaders of the Generalitat of Catalonia rebelled in October of that year against the Spanish authorities, it was temporarily suspended from 1934 to 1936. In 1939, as the Spanish Civil War finished with the defeat of the Republican side, the Generalitat of Catalonia as an institution was abolished and remained so during all the Francoist dictatorship until 1975; the president of the Generalitat at the time, Lluís Companys, was tortured and executed in October 1940 for the crime of'military rebellion'. Nonetheless, the Generalitat remained its official existence in exile, leaded by presidents Josep Irla and Josep Tarradellas; the succession of presidents of the Generalitat was maintained in exile from 1939 to 1977, when Josep Tarradellas returned to Catalonia and was recognized as the legitimate president by the Spanish government.
Tarradellas, when he returned to Catalonia, made his quoted remark "Ciutadans de Catalunya: ja sóc aquí", reassuming the autonomous powers of Catalonia, one of the historic nationalities of present-day Spain. After this, the powers given to the autonomous Catalan government according to the Spanish Constitution of 1978 were transferred and the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia was passed after being approved both by referendum in Catalonia and by the Sp
A natural region is a basic geographic unit. It is a region, distinguished by its common natural features of geography and climate. From the ecological point of view, the occurring flora and fauna of the region are to be influenced by its geographical and geological factors, such as soil and water availability, in a significant manner, thus most natural regions are homogeneous ecosystems. Human impact can be an important factor in the destiny of a particular natural region; the concept "natural region" may refer to a small, well defined area, or to a large basic geographical unit, like the vast boreal forest region. The term may be used generically, like in alpine tundra, or to refer to a particular place; the term is useful where there is no corresponding or coterminous official region. The Fens of eastern England, the Thai highlands, the Pays de Bray in Normandy, are examples of this. Others might include regions with particular geological characteristics, like badlands, such as the Bardenas Reales, an upland massif of acidic rock, or The Burren, in Ireland.
Ecoregion Natural regions of Chile Natural regions of Colombia Natural regions of Germany Natural regions of Venezuela Physiographic regions of the world Natural regions of Texas Alberta's Natural Regions Natural regions in Valencia
Denominación de origen
The denominación de origen is part of a regulatory classification system used for Spanish wines but for other foodstuffs such as cheeses, condiments and meats, among others. In wines, it parallels the hierarchical systems of France and Italy, although Rioja and Jerez preceded the full system. In foods, it performs a similar role, namely regulation of quality and geographical origin among Spain's finest producers. There are five other designated categories for wine and a further three covering food and condiments, all recognised by the European Union. In Catalonia, two further categories – labelled A and Q – cover traditional Catalan artisan food products, but were not recognised by the EU as of 2007. In recent decades, the concept of the denominación de origen has been adopted by other countries in Latin America; the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture and Food regulates the quality of Spanish foodstuffs via a labelling system which establishes, among other things, a denominación de origen for the country's highest quality produce.
A semi-autonomous governing body exists for each region and for each food type, comprising skilled, impartial members who investigate the quality and production process of each product, ensuring they attain specific quality levels. They report to a central council at national government level but are based in the largest population centre of a given region and are responsible for enforcing its geographical limits. Products labelled denominación de origen, apart from being of superior quality, are expected to carry specific characteristics of geographical region or individual producer and be derived from raw materials originating within the region. Like most of these designations, a fundamental tenet of a DO label is that no product outside of that region is permitted to bear the name. Food and wine are inseparable from Spanish culture bound to the social, economic and mystical fabric of society over thousands of years, so it is not surprising that attempts to regulate and normalise activities related to them have proven elusive.
It was not until the seventeenth century, when legislative authorities became sufficiently interested in issues such as public health, public order and economic regulation, that laws begin to be formulated with regard to wine prohibiting encouraging and regulating its production, commercialisation and consumption. Food regulation waited longer, until Spain's entry into the EU and signing up to the Common Agricultural Policy during the latter part of the twentieth century. A series of Royal Decrees on wine were issued during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, focussing on ad hoc issues which arose due to new tendencies at home and abroad and dealing more with maverick suppliers than any concern with comprehensive regulation. Though, concern shifted from issues related to supply towards the need to regulate quality for foreign markets. During the 1920s serious attempts were made to formulate some kind of classification along the lines of the French appellation system. Following the establishment of the Rioja as the first Spanish denominación in 1925, the Estatuto de vino of 1932 coincided with national and international recognition of the sherry-producing region of Jerez.
Despite being thorough and wide-ranging, the Estatuto was overwhelmed by technological advances in agriculture. By the time the EEC became influential in this area, it was clear. A new Estatuto, the Ley del Vino y de los Alcoholes came into place in December 1970 but was again undermined, this time by two important events: the new Spanish Constitution that restated geographical considerations with the Estado de las Autonomías, Spain's pending membership of the European Community that brought about a rapid classification of all Spanish produce in line with other member states. In March 1996, the Spanish government unveiled its own multi-tier sub-classifications, consistent with EU regulation but more pertinent to Spanish agriculture. Hence, for example, the EU's Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions covers all Spanish wines graded above the basic vino de mesa; the Spanish denominación de origen forms a subset of the QWPSR. This has coincided with a rise in the perceived quality of Spanish produce and has been acclaimed, although some areas, like the super-strict denominación de pago, remain controversial and liable to future amendment.
Denominaciones de origen status can be applied to a wide range of foods and condiments, specifically: Quality foods may be designated a range of classifications, of which denominación de origen is the recognition of superior quality, with identifiable characteristics and specific ingredients, derived from an identifiable and verifiable source. Other classifications, not mutually exclusive, are as follows, under the general heading of alimentos de calidad diferenciada: Denominación de origen protegida – an EU designation of protected geographical status, referring to food products specific to a particular region or town and conveying a particular quality or characteristic of the designated area. Indicación geográfica protegida' – similar to DOP, but relating to a wider and less specific geographical region. Especialidade
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Province of Barcelona
Barcelona is a province of eastern Spain, in the center of the autonomous community of Catalonia. The province is bordered by the provinces of Tarragona and Girona, by the Mediterranean Sea, its area is 7,726 km2. 5,609,350 people live in the province, of whom about 30% live within the administrative limits of the city of Barcelona, which itself is contained in the Barcelona metropolitan area. The capital of the province is the city of Barcelona, the provincial council is based in the Casa Serra on the Rambla de Catalunya in that city; some other cities and towns in Barcelona province include L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Mataró, Sabadell, Sitges, Vic, Berga. See List of municipalities in Barcelona. Since the division by provinces in Spain and the division by comarques in Catalonia do not agree, the term comarques of the province of Barcelona would not be correct. However, a list of the comarques that are included—totally or partially—in the province of Barcelona can be made: Fully included: Alt Penedès Anoia Bages Baix Llobregat Barcelonès Garraf Maresme Vallès Occidental Vallès Oriental Partially included: Berguedà Osona Selva The Catalan Pre-Coastal Range and Catalan Coastal Range mountains run through the Province of Barcelona.
There are several notable smaller mountain ranges that are located in the province, including Montseny Massif, Serra de Collserola, Tibidabo. Pedraforca is the tallest mountain in the province, located on the north side as part of the Pre-Pyrenees. Tibidabo is the mountain; the majority of the Province of Barcelona has a Mediterranean climate on the coast and an oceanic climate inland. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Barcelona". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Vilafranca del Penedès
Vilafranca del Penedès, or Vilafranca, is the capital of the comarca of the Alt Penedès in Catalonia, Spain. The Spanish spelling of the name, Villafranca del Panadés, is no longer in official use since 1982, it is situated in the Penedès Depression on the left bank of the Foix River, on the main axis of communication from Barcelona to Tarragona and Valencia, served by a Rodalies Barcelona line 4 and by the AP-7 autopista as well as by the C-243 towards Sant Sadurní d'Anoia, C-15 roads to Vilanova i la Geltrú and Igualada respectively. The town was founded in the middle of the 12th century as a result of the decline of Olèrdola, until the main local centre, it was established as the seat of a vegueria in 1304. The Corts were held in the town in 1218 under King James I of Aragon, again in 1358–59 and in 1367. King Peter III of Aragon died while staying at the royal palace in Vilafranca in 1285. Vilafranca is the birth place of Raymond of Penyafort, O. P. a Catalonian Dominican friar born around 1175.
St. Raymond compiled the Decretals of Gregory IX, a collection of canon law that remained the major corpus of canon law in the Roman Catholic Church until the 1917 and 1983 Code of Canon Law revisions, he was instrumental in the founding of the Mercedarian Friars. The gothic church of Santa Maria, the royal palace and the Palau Balta, are situated in the historic town centre; the Palau Reial, from the thirteenth century houses the town museum, with collections of archeology, ornithology and sacred art, a Museum dedicated to Wine. Other notable monuments include the church of Sant Joan, the convent of Sant Francesc and a number of old merchants' houses such as the Palau del Fraret, Palau Macià, the Casal dels Gomà and the Casal del Marquès d'Alfarràs. Vilafranca is a centre for the local wine industry, along with neighbouring Sant Sadurní d'Anoia. Other local industries include textiles, food processing and construction materials, it is an important commercial centre. Vilafranca is the birthplace of the Penedesenca fowl, famous for their chocolate-coloured eggs.
Vilafranca del Penedès has grown at the expense of the more rural areas of Alt Penedès, aided by its excellent transport links and by the strength of the local economy. Four outlying villages are included within the municipality of Vilafranca del Penedès: El Bordellet El Molí d'en Rovira Perepau Les Salines Vilafranca del Penedès is part of the long history of motor racing in Catalonia, from 1908-1920 events were staged over public roads from Sitges to Canyelles and Vilanova i la Geltrú, from Mataró to Vilassar de Mar and Argentona. Between 1921 and 1923 the RMCC ran the Penya Rhin Grand Prix over a 9-mile circuit around the town of Vilafranca del Penedès until it was replaced by a short lived purpose built circuit, the Sitges Terramar. Panareda Clopés, Josep Maria. Guia de Catalunya, Barcelona: Caixa de Catalunya. ISBN 84-87135-01-3. ISBN 84-87135-02-1. Enciclopèdia catalana bàsica, Barcelona, 1996. Official website Government data pages
El Vendrell is a Spanish town located in Tarragona, Catalonia, in the wine-growing region of Penedès. It is wedged between the coastal range. El Vendrell is the capital of the Baix Penedès comarca and a tourist spot, with the beaches of Comarruga, Sant Salvador and El Vendrell, it gives name to the Catalan family name "Vendrell". Pablo Casals Àngel Guimerà Andreu Nin Josep Nin i Tudó Manuel Nin The city has a roller hockey team, Club d'Esports Vendrell, one of the most important in Spain, dispute the main League OK Liga. Panareda Clopés, Josep Maria. Guia de Catalunya, Barcelona:Caixa de Catalunya. ISBN 84-87135-01-3. ISBN 84-87135-02-1. Government data pages